Cabinet Office

The Cabinet Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for supporting the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom. It is composed of various units that support Cabinet committees and which co-ordinate the delivery of government objectives via other departments, it has just over 2,000 staff, most of whom work in Whitehall. Staff working in the Prime Minister's Office are part of the Cabinet Office; the Cabinet Office's core functions are: Supporting the Prime Minister to define and deliver the Government's objectives, implement political and constitutional reform, drive forward from the centre particular cross-departmental priority issues such as public service improvement, social exclusion and the third sector. This includes working with the Treasury to drive efficiency and reform across the public sector. Other functions include oversight of the Crown Commercial Service and the accreditation of Social Impact Contractors; the Cabinet Office has responsibility for the following at a UK national level: political and constitutional reform the Home Civil Service the Boundary Commissions the Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority the Government Commercial Function and the Government Commercial Organisation.

Its main counterparts in the devolved nations are as follows: Scotland Office of the First Minister Northern Ireland Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister Department of Enterprise and Investment Department of Finance and Personnel Department for Social Development Wales The department was formed in December 1916 from the secretariat of the Committee of Imperial Defence under Sir Maurice Hankey, the first Cabinet Secretary. Traditionally the most important part of the Cabinet Office's role was facilitating collective decision-making by the Cabinet, through running and supporting Cabinet-level committees; this is still its principal role, but since the absorption of some of the functions of the Civil Service Department in 1981 the Cabinet Office has helped to ensure that a wide range of Ministerial priorities are taken forward across Whitehall. It contains miscellaneous units that do not sit well in other departments. For example: The Historical Section was founded in 1906 as part of the Committee for Imperial Defence and is concerned with Official Histories.

The Joint Intelligence Committee was founded in 1936 and transferred to the department in 1957. It deals with intelligence assessments and directing the national intelligence organisations of the UK; the Ceremonial Branch was founded in 1937 and transferred to the department in 1981. It was concerned with all ceremonial functions of state, but today it handles honours and appointments. In modern times the Cabinet Office takes on responsibility for areas of policy which are the priority of the Government of the time; the units that administer these areas migrate in and out of the Cabinet Office as government priorities change. The Cabinet Office Ministers are as follows: The Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Home Civil Service is Sir Mark Sedwill; the Cabinet Office supports the work of: the Leader of the House of Commons. Cabinet committees have two key purposes: To relieve the burden on the Cabinet by dealing with business that does not need to be discussed at full Cabinet. Appeals to the Cabinet should be infrequent, Ministers chairing Cabinet Committees should exercise discretion in advising the Prime Minister whether to allow them.

To support the principle of collective responsibility by ensuring that though a question may never reach the Cabinet itself, it will be considered. In this way, the final judgement is sufficiently authoritative that Government as a whole can be expected to accept responsibility for it. In this sense, Cabinet Committee decisions have the same authority as Cabinet decisions; the main building of the Cabinet Office is at 70 Whitehall, adjacent to Downing Street. The building connects three distinct properties, as well as the remains of Henry VIII's 1530 tennis courts, part of the Palace of Whitehall, which can be seen within the building; the Whitehall frontage was designed by Sir John Soane and completed by Sir Charles Barry between 1845 and 1847 as the Treasury Buildings. To the west Dorset House connects the front of the building to William Kent's Treasury, which faces out onto Horse Guards Parade; the latter is built over the site of the Cockpit, used for cock fighting in the Tudor period, subsequently as a theatre.

In the early 1960s the buildings were restored and many of the Tudor remains were exposed and repaired. Significant renovations between 2010 and 2016 converted many of the floors to open plan and created new office space; the Cabinet Office Briefing Rooms are located on this site. The department occupies other buildings in Whitehall and the surrounding area, including part of 1 Horse Guards, as well as sites in other parts of the country. British Civil Service United Kingdom budget Prime Minister's Strategy Unit Social Exclu


Apache AxKit was an XML Apache publishing framework run by the Apache foundation written in Perl. It provided conversion from XML to any format, such as HTML, WAP or text using either W3C standard techniques, or flexible custom code. AxKit was a standard tool in early digital humanities presentation work, being used to convert formats such as Text Encoding Initiative XML to HTML, it is still used by some institutions, but software such as eXist and Apache Cocoon is used in modern projects. Apache Axkit was retired in August 2009. "XML Publishing with AxKit: Managing web content with Perl and XML" Kip Hampton "O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 2004, ISBN 0596002165 "Practical mod_perl" Stas Bekman, Eric Cholet "O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 2003 ISBN 0596002270 Official website

Lego in popular culture

The acknowledgement of Lego in popular culture is demonstrated by the toy's wide representation in publication and film, its common usage in artistic and cultural works. In 2001, Brendan Powell Smith started an online web project to create an illustrated version of the Bible using Lego bricks, called The Brick Testament; the project has grown to cover over 400 stories, with over 4000 images, each of, a photograph of a hand-built Lego scene. The web project drew international media attention, has been published as three hardcover books; the search engine Google paid tribute to the 50th anniversary of the Lego patent by replacing its usual logo on the Google homepage with one made from Lego bricks, along with the Lego figure on one of the letters. Some of the hardware Google's founders had used during their early research was housed in custom-made enclosures constructed from Lego bricks. There are several online webcomics that feature art illustrated with Lego, such as the Irregular Webcomic!, Brick House, Legostar Galactica, Tranquility Base, The Adventures of the S-Team, Brickworld Saga, Glomshire Knights, Bricks of the Dead are major hits.

Many of these webcomics make frequent jokes about the strange abbreviations, pet peeves and complaints found in the LEGO community. Several unofficial books have been written about Lego; the Unofficial LEGO Builder's Guide was written by Allan Bedford, targeted at children, with the aim of teaching a variety of building techniques at various scales, as well as including a small encyclopedia of some of the most common different types of Lego brick available. Lego has released some official Lego books, such as the Ultimate LEGO Book, in 1999. There have been many different books published about the Lego Mindstorms robotics product, some of which focus on its use as an educational toy within schools. There are a number of short movies or recreations of feature films that have been made using Lego bricks, either using stop motion animation or computer-generated imagery. Making these is a popular fan-activity, is supported by community websites such as BrickFilms - these films are known as Brickfilms Other examples include Batman: Revenge, a 6-minute-long fan-made stop-motion film, the award-winning music video for the song "Fell in Love with a Girl" by The White Stripes, in which director Michel Gondry filmed a live version of the video, digitized the result and recreated it with Lego bricks.

Lego and Miramax Films partnered to create a trilogy of direct-to-DVD films for Lego's popular Bionicle series. The films Bionicle: Mask of Light, Bionicle 2: Legends of Metru Nui and Bionicle 3: Web of Shadows were released between 2003 and 2005 respectively. A fourth film made in association with Universal was released in 2009 as Bionicle: The Legend Reborn. A feature film based on Lego, The Lego Movie, was released in 2014 and became a critical and commercial success. In 2017, The Lego Batman Movie, was released and featured popular characters from the DC universe and other fictional universes such as Lord of the Rings and Harry Potter. In 1995–96, the Danish composer Frederik Magle composed a symphonic LEGO Fantasia in three movements for piano and symphony orchestra, commissioned by the Lego Group; the LEGO Fantasia was premiered on 24 August 1997 at a concert in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle with the London Philharmonic Orchestra, David Parry and Frederik Magle. In 1998 the work was released on a CD by the Lego group.

In 2002, the American rock band The White Stripes used Lego to produce an animated music video for their single Fell in Love With a Girl. The video won three MTV video music awards. A 2011 pop song "Lego House" by British singer-songwriter Ed Sheeran has a reference to Lego in the name though lego is only mentioned once in beginning of the song. 2014 song by Avicii "Addicted to You" remix video made out of Lego referencing the lobby scene from "The Matrix". Artists have used Lego to create artwork, sometimes referred to as Lego art or brick art. Six people, in North America and Asia, have become Lego Certified Professionals; the Lego Group recognizes their efforts and they have the ability to not only use the Lego name and copyrighted logo, but have earned a special, in-depth relationship with the company. They are Robin Sather, Dan Parker, Sean Kenney, Nathan Sawaya, Rene Hoffmeister and Nicholas Foo. Lego bricks have been employed to replicate famous works of art in a mosaic motif for the promotion of a Lego event or relating to the replicated artwork.

There have been many art-related records set by using Lego bricks. The largest Lego mosaic record was set on May 5-7th in 2012, consisting of over 660,000 pieces and measuring 143.91 sq. meters. It appears another world record attempt it under way to build a Lego mosaic of over 2,000,000 pieces as of January 2014. A 2011 exhibition titled Da Vinci, The Genius at the Frazier History Museum in Louisville, Kentucky attracted attention by having a Brick Art Mona Lisa replica constructed by Lego artist Brian Korte. Lego builders such as Eric Harshbarger have made multiple replicas of Mona Lisa. Matching the approximate 21 by 30 inch size of Leonardo's original requires upwards of 5,000 standard Lego bricks, but replicas measuring 6 by 8 feet have been built, requiring more than 30,000 bricks; the Little Artists have created an entire Modern Art collection in Lego form. Their exhibition'Art Craziest Nation' was shown at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, UK. A giant legofigure called Ego Leonard washed asho