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Cabinet of Singapore

The Cabinet of Singapore forms the Government of Singapore together with the President of Singapore. It is led by the Prime Minister of Singapore, the head of government; the Prime Minister is a Member of Parliament appointed by the President who selects a person that in his or her view is to command the confidence of a majority of the Parliament of Singapore. The other members of the Cabinet are Ministers who are Members of Parliament appointed by the President on the Prime Minister's advice. Cabinet members are prohibited from holding any office of profit and from engaging in any commercial enterprise; the Cabinet directs and controls the Government and is collectively responsible to Parliament. It has significant influence over lawmaking. Ministers may be designated by the Prime Minister to be in charge of particular ministries, or as Ministers in the Prime Minister's Office. Singapore's ministers are the best paid in the world. Prior to a salary review in 2011, the Prime Minister's annual salary was S$3.07 million, while the pay of ministerial-grade officers ranged between S$1.58 million and S$2.37 million.

On 21 May 2011, a committee was appointed by the Prime Minister to review the salaries of the Prime Minister as well as the President, political appointment holders, Members of Parliament. Following the recommended wage reductions by the committee which were debated and subsequently accepted in Parliament, the Prime Minister's salary was reduced by 36% to S$2.2 million. Nonetheless, the Prime Minister remains the highest-paid political leader in the world; the earliest predecessor of the Cabinet was the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements, introduced in 1877 to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements. It wielded no executive power. In 1955, a Council of Ministers was created, made up of three ex officio Official Members and six Elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of Singapore, appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House. Following the general elections that year, David Saul Marshall became the first Chief Minister of Singapore. Constitutional talks between Legislative Assembly representatives and the Colonial Office were held from 1956 to 1958, Singapore gained full internal self-government in 1959.

The Governor was replaced by the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, who had power to appoint to the post of Prime Minister the person most to command the authority of the Assembly, other Ministers of the Cabinet on the Prime Minister's advice. In the 1959 general elections, the People's Action Party swept to power with 43 out of the 51 seats in the Assembly, Lee Kuan Yew became the first Prime Minister of Singapore; the executive branch of the Singapore Government remained unchanged following Singapore's merger with Malaysia in 1963, subsequent independence in 1965. Following the 2011 general election, a Cabinet reshuffle took place effective 21 May 2011. Lim Hng Kiang and Lim Swee Say retained their Trade and Industry and Prime Minister's Office portfolios, while other ministers were given new appointments to the remaining 11 ministries. Heng Swee Keat and Chan Chun Sing, both elected to Parliament for the first time, were assigned the posts of Minister for Education, Acting Minister for Community Development and Sports.

A Cabinet Reshuffle took place in May 2018 with the stated purpose was to better prepare for a leadership transition to the "4G" leaders, Minister for Trade and Industry Lim Hng Kiang, Minister for Manpower Lim Swee Say, Minister for Communications and Information Yaacob Ibrahim all retired and were succeeded by Chan Chun Sing, Josephine Teo, S. Iswaran all of whom had held other cabinet appointments. Up to the outbreak of World War II, Singapore was part of the Crown colony known as the Straits Settlements together with Malacca and Penang; the earliest predecessor of the Cabinet was arguably the Executive Council of the Straits Settlements, introduced in 1877 by letters patent issued by the Crown, though its function was different from that of today's Cabinet. The Council, composed of "such persons and constituted in such manner as may be directed" by royal instructions, existed to advise the Governor of the Straits Settlements and wielded no executive power; the Governor was required to consult the Executive Council on all affairs of importance unless they were too urgent to be laid before it, or if reference to it would prejudice the public service.

In such urgent cases, the Governor had to inform the Council of the measures. Following the Second World War, the Straits Settlements were disbanded and Singapore became a Crown colony in its own right; the reconstituted Executive Council consisted of six officials and four nominated "unofficials". In February 1954, the Rendel Constitutional Commission under the chairmanship of Sir George William Rendel, appointed to comprehensively review the constitution of the Colony of Singapore, rendered its report. Among other things, it recommended that a Council of Ministers be created, composed of three ex officio Official Members and six Elected Members of the Legislative Assembly of Singapore appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House, who would be the leader of the largest political party or coalition of parties having majority support in the legislature; the recommendation was implemented in 1955. In the general election held that year, the Labour Front took a majority of the seats in the Assembly, David Saul Marshall became the first Chief Minister of Singapore.

Major problems with the Rendel Constitution were that the Chief Minister and Ministers' powers were ill

Belfry of Bruges

The Belfry of Bruges is a medieval bell tower in the centre of Bruges, Belgium. One of the city's most prominent symbols, the belfry housed a treasury and the municipal archives, served as an observation post for spotting fires and other danger. A narrow, steep staircase of 366 steps, accessible by the public for an entry fee, leads to the top of the 83 m high building, which leans 87 centimeters to the east. To the sides and back of the tower stands the former market hall, a rectangular building only 44 m broad but 84 m deep, with an inner courtyard; the belfry, accordingly, is known as the Halletoren. The belfry is a key component of the UNESCO world heritage site of the historic centre of Bruges; the building is a central feature of the 2008 film In Bruges and is mentioned in the novel Cloud Atlas. The belfry was added to the market square around 1240, when Bruges was an important centre of the Flemish cloth industry. After a devastating fire in 1280, the tower was rebuilt; the city archives, were forever lost to the flames.

The octagonal upper stage of the belfry was added between 1483 and 1487, capped with a wooden spire bearing an image of Saint Michael, banner in hand and dragon underfoot. The spire did not last long: a lightning strike in 1493 reduced it to ashes, destroyed the bells as well. A wooden spire crowned the summit again for some two-and-a-half centuries, before it, fell victim to flames in 1741; the spire was never replaced again, thus making the current height of the building somewhat lower than in the past. A poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, titled "The Belfry of Bruges," refers to the building's checkered history: In the market-place of Bruges stands the belfry old and brown; the bells in the tower regulated the lives of the city dwellers, announcing the time, fire alarms, work hours, a variety of social and religious events. A mechanism ensured the regular sounding of certain bells, for example indicating the hour. In the 16th century the tower received a carillon, allowing the bells to be played by means of a hand keyboard.

Starting from 1604, the annual accounts record the employment of a carilloneur to play songs during Sundays and market days. In 1675 the carillon comprised 35 bells, designed by Melchior de Haze of Antwerp. After the fire of 1741 this was replaced by a set of bells cast by Joris Dumery, 26 of which are still in use. There were 48 bells at the end of the 19th century, but today the bells number 47, together weighing about 27.5 tonnes. The bells range in weight from two pounds to 11,000 pounds. Belfort Picture gallery and description from Bruges: The Belfry and the Cloth Hall from History of the belfry and carillon from the Flemish Carillon Association

Frank Kitchen

Frank Kitchen is an English World Cup winning former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1950s. He played at representative level for Great Britain, at club level for Leigh, as a wing, i.e. number 2 or 5. Frank Kitchen's birth was registered in Prescot district, England. Frank Kitchen won caps for Great Britain while at Leigh in the 1954 Rugby League World Cup against Australia, New Zealand. Frank Kitchen played left wing, i.e. number 5 and scored a try in Great Britain's 28-13 victory over Australia in the 1954 Rugby League World Cup first group match at Stade de Gerland, Lyon on Sunday, 31 October 1954, scored two tries in Great Britain's 26-6 victory over New Zealand in the 1954 Rugby League World Cup third group match at Parc Lescure, Bordeaux on Thursday, 11 November 1954. Mick Sullivan moved from Centre to replace Frank Kitchen on the Wing for Great Britain's 13-13 draw with France in the 1954 Rugby League World Cup second group match at Stade Municipal, Toulouse on Sunday 7 November 1954, Great Britain's 16-12 victory over France in the 1954 Rugby League World Cup Final at Parc des Princes, Paris on Saturday 13 November 1954, with Albert Naughton replacing Mick Sullivan at Centre, i.e. number 4.

Frank Kitchen played left wing, i.e. number 5, in Leigh's 22-5 victory over St. Helens 1952–53 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1952–53 season at Station Road, Swinton on Saturday 29 November 1952. Frank Kitchen's marriage to Florence T. was registered during third ¼ 1954 in St. Helens district, they had children. Kitchen, the twins. Great Britain Statistics at

American Chess Quarterly

The American Chess Quarterly was a chess magazine, published in the United States from Fall 1961 to 1965 by Nature Food Centres. Sixteen issues were published, in four volumes of four issues each, from Fall 1961 through April–May-June 1965; the publication count is sometimes considered to be Seventeen issues because Volume One Number Three was a two-part issue. Its principal editor was American grandmaster Larry Evans. Complete sets of the American Chess Quarterly magazine are becoming more difficult to acquire and command prices at auction in the $1,000-$2,000 range; the most famous article published in its pages was "A Bust to the King's Gambit" by U. S. Champion and future World Champion Bobby Fischer, which appeared as the first article in the first issue. In that article, Fischer advocated what became known as the Fischer Defense to the King's Gambit, brashly claiming, "In my opinion the King's Gambit is busted, it loses by force." Fischer played the King's Gambit himself with great success, winning all three tournament games in which he played it, but choosing the Bishop's Gambit rather than the King's Knight's Gambit treated in his article

Alone in the Dark II (film)

Alone in the Dark II is a 2008 German-American horror film directed by Peter Scheerer and Michael Roesch and starring Rick Yune, Rachel Specter and Lance Henriksen. It is a sequel to Uwe Boll's 2005 film Alone in the Dark, although it features an new cast and a story, unrelated to the original film. Alone in the Dark II was filmed in New York Los Angeles, it is loosely based on the Infogrames' Alone in the Dark video game series. Former witch-hunter Abner Lundberg is forced to come back to fight his old nemesis, a century-old dangerous witch out on the prowl again; this time, Lundberg joins forces with Edward Carnby and they attempt to track down the dangerous witch Elisabeth Dexter. Rick Yune as Edward Carnby Rachel Specter as Natalie Lance Henriksen as Abner Lundberg Bill Moseley as Dexter Ralf Möller as Boyle Danny Trejo as Perry Zack Ward as Xavier Natassia Malthe as Turner Jason Connery as Parker Michael Paré as Willson P. J. Soles as Martha Brooklyn Sudano as Sinclair Allison Lange as Witch/Elizabeth Dexter Peter Looney as Ward Dexter Lisette Bross as Old Witch Louise Griffiths as Witch Voice The film was released in Germany on September 25, 2008, in the United Kingdom on July 27, 2009 and in the United States on January 26, 2010.

An American Blu-ray release is sold by Best Buy. Reviewing the film for IGN, R. L. Shaffer wrote: "Uwe Boll's Alone in the Dark did not require a sequel. Critics hated the film. Fans hated the film.... Thankfully though, Alone in the Dark II is a much better film than the first. It's a touch light on action, the setting is far more limited in terms of production design, but the tone is a little more in keeping with the ideas of the game franchise.... Look at Alone in the Dark II more as a reboot than a sequel and it plays OK."YouTube critic Jim Sterling reviewed the film along with Conrad Zimmerman on his podcast, remarking that the film was terrible enough that it was hard to believe there could be worse films and noting the film was poor enough that his opinion may end up on the article itself, although sarcastically so. Alone in the Dark II on IMDb

Medical Arts Building (Oak Park, Illinois)

The Medical Arts Building is an Art Deco office building at 715 Lake Street, Oak Park, Illinois. It is a contributing property to the Ridgeland–Oak Park Historic District. At 122 feet, it was the tallest building in Oak Park for several decades; the Medical Arts Building was designed by Oak Park architect Roy J. Hotchkiss and was built by Harper & Stelzer at an approximate cost of $250,000. Hotchkiss had worked as head draftsman for Eben Ezra Roberts; the Medical Arts Building was Hotchkiss's principal contribution to Oak Park's architectural landscape. Ground was broken on December 5, 1928, the first tenants moved in November 15, 1929. By January 1930, the building was fully occupied, it was owned by Charles B. Scoville and was owned by the Scoville Trust. Original plans called for four story east and west wings. During World War II, the Oak Park unit of the Association of Army and Navy Wives was located in the Medical Arts Building. In 1976, the building was sold to Company, it was acquired by Jack and Tim Sheehan.

The building's terra cotta facade was restored in 2007. Peterson's Pharmacy was a tenant from 1929, when the building opened, until 2014