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Cabinet of the United States

The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The members of the Cabinet are the vice president and the Secretary of State and other heads of the federal executive departments, all of whom — if eligible — are in the presidential line of succession; the United States Constitution does not explicitly establish a Cabinet. The Cabinet's role, inferred from the language of the Opinion Clause of the Constitution, is to serve as an advisory body to the president of the United States. Additionally, the Twenty-fifth Amendment authorizes the vice president, together with a majority of certain members of the Cabinet, to declare the president "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office". Members of the Cabinet are appointed by the President, subject to confirmation by the Senate. All federal public officials, including Cabinet members, are subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives and trial in the Senate for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors".

The president can unilaterally designate senior advisers from the Executive Office of the President and heads of other federal agencies as members of the Cabinet, although this is a symbolic status marker and does not, apart from attending Cabinet meetings, confer any additional powers. The tradition of the Cabinet arose out of the debates at the 1787 Constitutional Convention regarding whether the president would exercise executive authority or collaboratively with a cabinet of ministers or a privy council; as a result of the debates, the Constitution vests "all executive power" in the president singly, authorizes—but does not compel—the president to "require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices". The Constitution does not specify what the executive departments will be, how many there will be, or what their duties should be on. George Washington, the first U. S. president, organized his principal officers into a Cabinet, it has been part of the executive branch structure since.

Washington's Cabinet consisted of five members: himself, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox and Attorney General Edmund Randolph. Vice President John Adams was not included in Washington's Cabinet because the position was regarded as a legislative officer, it was not until the 20th century that vice presidents were included as members of the Cabinet and came to be regarded as a member of the executive branch. Presidents have used Cabinet meetings of selected principal officers but to differing extents and for different purposes. Secretary of State William H. Seward and then-professor Woodrow Wilson advocated the use of a parliamentary-style Cabinet government, but President Abraham Lincoln rebuffed Seward, Woodrow Wilson would have none of it in his administration. In recent administrations, Cabinets have grown to include key White House staff in addition to department and various agency heads. President Ronald Reagan formed seven subcabinet councils to review many policy issues, subsequent Presidents have followed that practice.

In 3 U. S. C. § 302 with regard to delegation of authority by the president, it is provided that "nothing herein shall be deemed to require express authorization in any case in which such an official would be presumed in law to have acted by authority or direction of the President." This pertains directly to the heads of the executive departments as each of their offices is created and specified by statutory law and thus gives them the authority to act for the president within their areas of responsibility without any specific delegation. Under the 1967 Federal Anti-Nepotism statute, federal officials are prohibited from appointing their immediate family members to certain governmental positions, including those in the Cabinet. Under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, an administration may appoint acting heads of department from employees of the relevant department; these may be existing high-level career employees, from political appointees of the outgoing administration, or sometimes lower-level appointees of the administration.

The heads of the executive departments and all other federal agency heads are nominated by the president and presented to the Senate for confirmation or rejection by a simple majority. If approved, they receive their commission scroll, are sworn in and begin their duties. An elected vice president does not require Senate confirmation, nor does the White House chief of staff, an appointed staff position of the Executive Office of the President; the heads of the executive departments and most other senior federal officers at cabinet or sub-cabinet level receive their salary under a fixed five-level pay plan known as the Executive Schedule, codified in Title 5 of the United States Code. Twenty-one positions, including the heads of the executive departments and others, receiving Level I pay are listed in 5 U. S. C. § 5312, those forty-six positions on Level II pay (including the number two positions of t

Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau

Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau was a French Canadian poet and painter, who "was posthumously hailed as a herald of the Quebec literary renaissance of the 1950s". He has been called Quebec's "first modern poet". Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau was the grandson of the poet Alfred Garneau and great-grandson of the historian Francois-Xavier Garneau, he spent his early years at his family's ancestral manor in Sainte-Catherine-de-Fossambault, where his cousin Anne Hébert was born in 1916. Garneau moved to Montréal with his parents in 1923. There, he studied the classics at three Jesuit colleges: Loyola. In 1925, Garneau studied painting at Montreal's Collège des beaux-arts under Paul-Emile Borduas, Jean Palardy, Marjorie Smith and Jean-Paul Lemieux, he won a bronze medal and second prize for a work of art. In 1934, he exhibited some paintings at the Galerie des Arts in Montréal and, in 1937, he presented his painting "Sky Fall" at the Museum of Fine Arts. Still in his youth, he founded the monthly journal La relève with his friends Paul Beaulieu, Robert Charbonneau, Robert Élie and Jean Le Moyne.

In 1934, Garneau discontinued his studies. He devoted his time to writing poems and music. In 1937, Regards et jeux dans l'espace, his collection of poems, was published. "Disillusioned by the volume's reception, he withdrew to the seclusion of the family manor house... where he died in 1943 of a heart attack, while canoeing alone." Garneau first achieved some notice as a poet as a boy of 13, when his poem "Le dinosaure" took first prize in a province-wide essay competition. Two years he was awarded a prize by the Canadian Authors' Association for his poem "L'automne". Garneau wrote poetry prolifically between 1934 and 1937. In his lifetime, though, he published only one slim volume, the 28-poem Regards et jeux dans l'espace, which "deals with his rural childhood, nostalgically evoking a state of grace beyond recall.... The poet's spiritualized landscapes transpose suffering and intermittent ecstasy into images of overgrown pathways, distant birds in flight, or forest fires, or again a snowbound house with shuttered windows, a key symbol of confinement and flawed security.""Radical in its form, with its unrhymed lines of various lengths, its lack of punctuation and its broken syntax, Saint-Denys Garneau's poetry was original in its themes and in its ironic distance."According to the Quebec poet John Glassco, seeing his work in print left Garneau "stricken with horror: he felt he had exposed himself in a manner so much at variance with his natural reserve, his shrinking from all display, that he suffered a nervous breakdown.

He had... the sensation of having violated and soiled himself." One story is that he went back to the shops carrying his book, bought up all 1,000 copies himself. In any case, Garneau "never published again". After Garneau's death, his unpublished poems were collected by Élie under the title Les Solitudes, published in 1949 together with Regards... as Poésies complètes: Regards et jeux dans l'espace, Les solitudes. Garneau's "influence only became apparent after the publication of his Poésies complètes in 1949," says the Dictionary of Literary Biography. "Since that time the number of studies on his life and work has multiplied considerably.... Only Emile Nelligan has been the object of so much critical attention" in Quebec. By 1960, Garneau was "considered the major precursor of contemporary French-Canadian poetry."Garneau's 1935-39 diary was published in Montréal in 1954 under the title Journal, edited by Élie and Le Moyne and with a preface by Gilles Marcotte. Glassco published his translation, The Journal of Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau, in 1962.

In 1962, the Canadian poet F. R. Scott translated ten of Garneau's poems into English for his book, Saint-Denys Garneau and Anne Hebert. Glassco published his translated Complete Poems of Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau in 1975. Glassco's book won the Canada Council Award for translation that year. Garneau's poetry has been translated into Spanish by Luis Vicente de Aguinaga, was published in 2007 as Todos y cada uno; some of Garneau's poems have been set to music by the Canadian contemporary classical composer Bruce Mather, by the Quebec folk group Villeray. Maison Henry Morgan Association des auteurs Canadiens / Canadian Authors Association Canada Council Award On September 8, 2003, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the National Library of Canada, Canada Post released a special commemorative series, "The Writers of Canada", with a design by Katalina Kovats, featuring two English-Canadian and two French-Canadian stamps. Three million stamps were issued; the two French-Canadian authors chosen were his cousin, Anne Hébert.

Saint-Denys Garneau, along with Octave Crémazie and Émile Nelligan, is commemorated by a large ceramic mural by Georges Lauda, Paul Pannier and Gérald Cordeau at Crémazie metro station in Montréal. Entitled Le Poète dans l'univers, the work features an excerpt from his poem "Faction". SaintDenysGarneau.com - official web site. Archived biography of Garneau at Library and Archives Canada Garneau, Hector de Saint-Denys at the Canadian Encyclopedia

George Dews

George Dews was an English first-class cricketer and footballer. As a cricketer, he was a right-handed batsman who played for Worcestershire between 1946 and 1961, he was an excellent fielder: his 353 catches for the county were a record at the time. As a footballer, he made nearly 300 Football League appearances for Middlesbrough and Walsall, scoring 85 goals. Born in Ossett, Dews was unable to play for his native county and so travelled south, he made his Worcestershire debut on 29 May 1946 against Lancashire, but was out for a king pair, being dismissed in each innings by slow left-armer Eric Price. He was out for a duck in his third innings, against Warwickshire, despite a long run in the team in 1948, it was not until 1950 that he came good; that year he broke the 1,000-run barrier for the first time, a feat he would repeat in all but one year for the rest of his first-class career. His 1,170 runs came at 29.25, included his maiden century: 101 not out against Hampshire. 1950 saw Dews receive his county cap.

The following summer, he was part of an astonishing run-chase against Nottinghamshire, when Worcestershire chased a target of 131 in forty minutes. Dews maintained his consistent form into his late thirties: indeed, his most successful year was 1959, when he managed 1,752 runs at 41.71 in all first-class cricket, was second only to Martin Horton in the Worcestershire batting averages. He was never picked for England, but did appear for Marylebone Cricket Club in 1954, for North of England four years later, he was granted a benefit season in 1960, his final first-class game in September 1961 was for Worcestershire against Sussex. His bowling was of the occasional variety, but he did claim two first-class wickets, both in 1954, including that of Derbyshire captain Guy Willatt. After retirement Dews played golf to a good standard, he died at the age of 81 in West Midlands. George Dews at ESPNcricinfo Statistical summary from CricketArchive