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Cabot Strait

Cabot Strait is a strait in eastern Canada 110 kilometres wide between Cape Ray and Cape North, Cape Breton Island. It is the widest of the three outlets for the Gulf of Saint Lawrence into the Atlantic Ocean, the others being the Strait of Belle Isle and Strait of Canso, it is named for the Genoese explorer Giovanni Caboto. The strait's bathymetry is varied, with the Laurentian Channel creating a deep trench through its centre, comparatively shallow coastal waters closer to Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island; these bathymetric conditions have been known by mariners to cause rogue waves. The steep slope of the Laurentian Channel was the site of a disastrous submarine landslide at the southeastern end of the strait, triggered by the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake and leading to a tsunami that devastated communities along Newfoundland's south coast and parts of Cape Breton Island. A strategically important waterway throughout Canadian and Newfoundland history, the strait is an important international shipping route, being the primary waterway linking the Atlantic with inland ports on the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway.

The strait is crossed daily by the Marine Atlantic ferry service linking Channel-Port aux Basques, North Sydney. Ferries have been operating across the strait since 1898 and a submarine telegraph cable was laid in 1856 as part of the transatlantic telegraph cable project. An infamous location in the strait for shipwrecks during the age of sail, St. Paul's Island, came to be referred to as the "Graveyard of the Gulf". In October 1942, German U-boat U-69 torpedoed and sank the unlit Newfoundland ferry SS Caribou, killing 137 people. On 25 November 1944 HMCS Shawinigan was torpedoed and sunk with all hands on board by U-1228. NotesNautical chart #4022 - Cabot Strait and approaches / Détroit de Cabot et les approches), published by Canadian Hydrographic Service, 17 January 2003

Reginald Heber Weller

Reginald Heber Weller was an Episcopal priest and bishop active in the ecumenical movement, establishing a dialogue among Protestant and Eastern Orthodox Christians. The son of an Episcopal priest, Reginald Heber Weller was born in Jefferson City, Missouri or Jacksonville, Florida on November 6, 1857, he was educated in Florida. After attending the University of the South at Sewanee, Weller received his degree of Bachelor of Divinity at Nashotah House in 1884, he was ordained deacon in 1880. He was ordained a priest in 1884 at All Saints’ Mission, Rhode Island, after serving his diaconate there. Weller was married to Bessie Brown in 1886 in Wisconsin, they had one daughter and five sons, George, Walter and Reginald. Rectorships at Christ Church, Eau Claire, St. Matthias, were served before he became rector at Church of the Intercession, Stevens Point, where he was at the time of his election to be Bishop Coadjutor of the Episcopal Diocese of Fond du Lac in 1900, he was consecrated coadjutor on November 8, 1900, at the Cathedral of St. Paul the Apostle in Fond du Lac.

The Russian Orthodox bishop of Alaska, Saint Tikhon, was present as well as Antoni Kozlowski of the Polish National Catholic Church. Bishops Charles Chapman Grafton and Weller were photographed with these and other bishops wearing copes and mitres, a "Catholic" practice, not accepted in the "Protestant" Episcopal Church at that time; the photo, published back east, became known as the Fond du Lac Circus. During his thirty-three years of active service, a longer episcopate than any other in the state at the time, Weller preached in all parts of the country, he held many positions of importance in the church and became known in England. He became diocesan bishop on August 1912, after the death of Grafton, he held the position of Superior General of the Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament from 1913–35, succeeding Grafton who held the office from 1890-1912. In 1919, Weller was a member of the Commission on Faith and Order, which went abroad for a world conference on the fundamentals of the Christian religion seeking to restore communion among Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Anglican Christians.

Attendants at the Lambeth Conference in 1930 found Weller taking an active part in its deliberations and preaching in several English cathedrals. At home or abroad, Weller was a defender of the faith, a stirring, convincing preacher of great ability, a wise pastor, generous friend, a man of God. Weller held many preaching missions in the eastern United States, he took an influential part in the deliberations of the House of Bishops. On St. Andrew’s Day, November 30, 1929, Weller acted as the chief consecrator at the consecration of Harwood Sturtevant as the Bishop Coadjutor of the diocese. Four years in November 1933, Bishop Sturtevant succeeded Weller as the fourth bishop of the diocese, he died on November 1935, at the home of his son George in Aurora, Illinois. Succession of Bishops of the Episcopal Church in the United States Documents by and about Weller from Project Canterbury The Diocese of Fond du Lac

Becky Priest

Becky Priest is an American country music singer-songwriter and instrumentalist hailing from Hubbard, Texas now based in Nashville, Tennessee. Since moving to Nashville, Tennessee in 1992, Priest has toured over 26 countries as both primary artist and with many artists including Neal McCoy, Trisha Yearwood, Patty Loveless, Pam Tillis, Mel Tillis, Mel Tillis, Jr. Carrie April Tillis, Vince Gill, Garth Brooks, Michael McDonald, Christopher Cross, Liza Minnelli, Engelbert Humperdinck, Huey Lewis and the News, Jim Peterik & The Ides of March, Lou Gramm of Foreigner, Foghat, 38 Special, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Chuck Negron of Three Dog Night and Who's Line Is It Anyway comedian/entertainer, Wayne Brady. Becky Priest will start 2009 as Bandleader, Keyboardist/Background Vocalist for Neal McCoy, former Entertainer of the Year Award Winner, Academy of Country Music's Humanitarian Award recipient. Priest was a founding member of the all-female band Cowboy Crush signed in 2003 to Curb/Asylum Records in Nashville, Tennessee.

While a member of Cowboy Crush Priest performed all high harmonies, the majority of the piano, Hammond B3 and synthesizer tracks on Cowboy Crush's eleven Curb/Asylum recordings. During the five years Cowboy Crush was signed to Curb/Asylum and touring, Becky held the positions of bandleader, main harmony vocalist and acoustic guitarist. Priest's vocal arranging skills are attributed to earning Cowboy Crush their nationally televised appearance on the NASCAR Budweiser Shootout to perform her arrangement of "The Star-Spangled Banner", live in Daytona, Florida in February 2007. Event attendance numbered 100,000 with television viewership estimated at over 8 million; as a member of Cowboy Crush, Priest gave numerous performances overseas for members of the U. S. military. Cowboy Crush's recording of "He's Coming Home" was received by the United States Army which chose to fund and film the accompanying video; the video was released internationally and Priest has stated publicly that it was " of her proudest moments to have participated in a recording and video that helped raise the morale of our wonderful Men and Women of our Armed Forces".

Additionally, Priest with Cowboy Crush opened shows for some of the best known names in country music, including Charlie Daniels, Trace Adkins, Reba McEntire, Rascal Flatts, Big & Rich, Dierks Bentley and others. Prior to co-founding Cowboy Crush Priest worked with numerous well known Country Artists. Eight months after arriving in Nashville her initial engagement was with multiple Grammy award winner, Trisha Yearwood; this engagement was to last three years and led to numerous nationally televised appearances including, Late Night with David Letterman, The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. Priest graced stages of top level productions of not only the Ryman Auditorium, the Grand Ole Opry, Music City Tonight, The Crook & Chase Show, Good Morning America, The Today Show, but New York City's Radio City Music Hall and London's Albert Hall. Along with these appearances Becky performed for a number of Symphony shows with Yearwood, including an exclusive special shot in Daytona, Florida with the London Philharmonic.

One of the special highlights of her period of performing with Yearwood, occurred June 23, 1994, when she and Yearwood's band entertained President Clinton and First Lady, Hillary Clinton, for a Command Performance at The White House. Following her years with Trisha Yearwood, Priest performed nationally with Grammy Award winning, Pam Tillis in the United States and toured in Australia. Television performances with Tillis included Grand Ole Opry Live, The Tonight Show with Jay Leno and additional Symphony dates. Priest rejoined with Pam Tillis for a six-week engagement with Pam Tillis, sister Carrie April Tillis, brother Mel Tillis, Jr. and legendary Country Music Hall of Fame Member, Mel Tillis. Priest will perform with The Tillis Clan in their first Tillis Family Christmas Tour, year end 2008. Priest has appeared in several videos including Patty Loveless' video, Lovin' All Night, Neal McCoy's video, Billy's Got His Beer Goggles On, with actor Rob Schneider and famous'animal guy', Jack Hanna.

Becky appeared in her first video as a'signed Artist' in the summer of 2005, when Cowboy Crush premiered their video, Nobody Ever Died of a Broken Heart. It made it to the number 17 spot on GAC's Top Twenty Countdown. Late Night with David Letterman The Tonight Show with Jay Leno Late Night with Conan O'Brien Good Morning America The Today Show Regis and Kathy Lee Ali and Jack CMT's Most Wanted Live Austin City Limits Prime Time Country Music City Tonight Countryfest 2007 NASCAR's Budweiser Shootout in Daytona numerous CMA Award Shows The Grand Ole Opry Lovin' All Night Music Video on YouTube

Shanmughanathar Temple, Kunnakudi

Kunnakudi Shanmughanathar temple in Kundrakudi, a village in the outskirts of Karaikudi in Sivaganga district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is dedicated to the Hindu god Murugan. Constructed in the Dravidian style of architecture, the temple is located in the Tirupattur - Karaikudi Road, around 14 km from Karaikudi. There are three caves located on the western side of the lower rock, that has rock-cut shrines from the Pandyan Empire from the 8th century; the caves have the earliest sculptural representation of Dvarapalas, the guardian deities, for any South Indian temple. The temple has a five-tiered gateway tower, the gopuram in the hill, leading to a pillared hall and the sanctum; the temple is open from 6:00 am – 11:00 am and 4 - 8:00 pm. Four daily rituals and many yearly festivals are held at the temple, of which Panguni Uthiram festival celebrated during the Tamil month of Panguni and Thaipoosam during Thai being the most prominent; the temple is maintained and administered by the Kunnakudi Thiruvannamalai Mutt Adikam, while the rock-cut caves are maintained as a protected monument by the Archaeological Survey of India.

The place was called Kundrakudi as it was located in a hill, which with the period of time became Kunnakudi. It is called by other names like Mayuragiri, Mayilmalai and Krishanagaram as the hill resembles the shape of a peacock; as per Hindu legend, sage Agasthya is believed to have worshipped Murugan at this place. As per another legend, the demon king infuriated peacock, the sacred vehicle of Murugan, he told the bird that Garuda, the sacred vehicle of Vishnu and Swan, the sacred vehicle of Saraswati could travel faster than it. The peacock swallowed the swan in anger. Vishnu prayed to Muruga to retrieve his vehicle back from the peacock, who acceded to the request; the peacock, realising its mistake, prayed Muruga by doing penance at this place. The temple is located in Kundrakudi, in the outskirts of Karaikudi in Sivaganga district in Tamil Nadu on the road from Tirupattur to Karaikudi; the hill occupies an area of 6.5 acres. The temple has a five tiered rajagopuram, the gateway tower raising to a height of 16.5 m, which pierces the granite wall surrounding the temple.

The sanctum faces East and the image of the presiding deity Murugan is sported with the images of his consort Valli and Deivasana, each of whom are seen sitting on a peacock. There are shrines of other deities around the sanctum in the precinct. There are three caves in the western side of the lower hill, with rock-cut images dedicated to Shiva in each of them; the first two caves have intricate rock-cut sculptures and Dvarapalas on either side of the sanctum, while the third one is plain. There are various sculpted images of Vishnu, Lingodbhava, Harihara; the image of Dvarapalas in the caves, on either sides of the sanctum, with each leaning in the direction facing the sanctum, are found to be the earliest representation of the images. These are not found in Pallava architecture; the caves are considered one of the major specimens of rock-cut architecture of the Pandyas, counted along with Vettuvan Koil and Thiruparankundram. The temple priests perform the pooja on a daily basis; the temple rituals are performed four times a day: Kalasandhi at 6:00 a.m.

Uchikala poojai at 11:00 a.m. Sayarakshai at 6:00 p.m. and Arthajama Pooja at 7:45 p.m. Each ritual has three steps: alangaram and deepa aradanai for the presiding deities. There are weekly and fortnightly rituals performed in the temple; the temple is open from 6:30 am – 12:00 pm and 5 - 8:30 pm on all days except during festive occasions when it has extended timings. The major festivals of the temple include the Panguni Uthiram festival celebrated during the Tamil month of Panguni and Thaipoosam during Thai; the other festivals include Vaikasi Visagam, Aavani Moolam and Paal Perukku Vizha. Like other Murugan temples during the festivals, hundreds of devotees carry pots of milk and Kavadi around the streets of the temple. Devotees offer salt to Saravana Poigai, the temple tank, as a mark of worship; the temple is revered in the verses of Thirupugazh the 15th century anthology on Murugan by Arunagirinathar. The temple finds mentions in a medieval Tamil scripture. Devotees get married in the worship for cure from diseases.

In modern times, the Sivaganga district administration has identified the temple as one of the prominent tourist attractions in the district. The temple is administered by Kunnakudi Thiruvannamalai Mutt Adikam, established during the 16th century. In modern times, the caves are maintained and administered by Archaeological Survey of India as a protected monument

Tipson–Cohen reaction

The Tipson–Cohen reaction is a name reaction first discovered by Stuart Tipson and Alex Cohen at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington D. C; the Tipson–Cohen reaction occurs when two neighboring secondary sulfonyloxy groups in a sugar molecule are treated with zinc dust and sodium iodide in a refluxing solvent such as N,N-dimethylformamide to give an unsaturated carbohydrate. Unsaturated carbohydrates are desired as they are versatile building blocks that can be used in a variety of reactions. For example, they can be used as intermediates in the synthesis of natural products, or as dienophiles in the Diels-Alder reaction, or as precursors in the synthesis of oligosaccharides; the Tipson–Cohen reaction goes through a syn or anti elimination mechanism to produce an alkene in high to moderate yields. The reaction depends on the neighboring substituents. A mechanism for glucopyranosides and mannooyranosides is shown below. Scheme 1: Syn elimination occurs with the glucopyranosides. Galactopyranosides follows a similar syn mechanism.

Whereas, anti elimination occurs with mannopyranosides. Note that R could be a methanesulfonyl CH2O2S, or a toluenesulfonyl CH3C6H4O2S. Scheme 3: The scheme illustrates the first displacement, the rate determining step and slowest step, where the starting material is converted to the iodo-intermediate; the intermediate is not detectable as it is converted to the unsaturated sugar. Experiments with azide instead of the iodide confirmed attack occurs at the C-3 as nitrogen-intermediates were isolated; the order of reactivity from most reactive to least reactive is: β-glucopyranosides > β-mannopyranosides > α-glucopyranosides> α-mannopyranosides. The reaction of β–mannopyranosides gives low yields and required longer reaction times than with β-glucopyranosides due to the presence of a neighboring axial substituent relative to C-3 sulfonyloxy group in the starting material; the axial substituent increases the steric interactions in the transition state, causing unfavorable eclipsing of the two sulfonyloxy groups.

Α-Glucopyranosides possess a β-trans-axial substituent relative to C-3 sulfonyloxy in the starting material. The β-trans-axial substituent influences the transition state by causing an unfavorable steric interaction between the two groups. In the case of α-mannopyranosides, both a neighboring axial substituent and a β-trans-axial substituent are present, therefore increasing the reaction time and decreasing the yield. Table 1: Reaction times and yield vary on the substrate; the β-glucopyranoside was found to be the best substrate for the Tipson–Cohen reaction as the reaction time and yield were much superior that any other substrate proposed in the study. ASubstrates possess benzylidene protecting groups at C-4 and C-6, OMe groups at anomeric position and OTs groups at C-2 and C-3. Reaction temperature 95–100 ˚C The reaction has been attempted in the microwave, improving yields with the α-glucopyranoside to 88% and reducing the reaction time to 14 minutes; the original paper by Tipson and Cohen used acyclic sugars to illustrate the utility of the reaction.

Thus the reaction is not limited to cyclic carbohydrate derivatives. Sulphonoxy groups such as methanesulfonyl and toluenesulfonyl were both used, however it was found that substrates with toluenesulfonyl groups gave higher yields and lower reaction times


Plagiosauridae is a clade of temnospondyl amphibians of the Middle to Late Triassic. Deposits of the group are most found in non-marine aquatic depositional environments from central Europe and Greenland, but other remains have been found in Russia and Thailand; the majority of plagiosaurid remains are of the genus Gerrothorax, which have been recovered from the Fleming Fjord Formation of Jameson Land, East Greenland, from many localities in southern Germany. All of this material is assigned to a single species, pulcherrimus. Plagiosuchus material is very abundant, though poorly preserved and has been found only from Germany. Additional material, including the material of all other plagiosaurids, is more fragmentary and less abundant than that of Gerrothorax; these additional materials are predominantly from Germany and Russia with some potential material reported from Thailand and Brazil. Plagiosaurids are predominantly characterized by the unique structure of their skulls and the armor that lines their trunk.

The heads of these animals are short and wide with an overall semi-circular layout and large orbital fenestrae. The skull and trunk of these organisms are vertically compressed to varying degrees within members of the clade to form an overall flattened body plan; some articulated, three-dimensional preservation of plagiosaurids indicates that this flattening was a feature of the animals in life and is not a preservation artifact. The amount of vertical compression in plagiosaurids varies somewhat with the most basal member, being only somewhat compressed while more derived members such as Gerrothorax and Megalopthalma being much more compressed, their skull vertically compressed, has dorsally oriented large orbital fenestrae and contained a battery of small teeth the curve inward. The trunks of these animals have shortened limbs relative their body size and the backs were covered in bony armor, denser in the more derived members of the clade. Plagiosaurids are believed to have lived an entirely aquatic lifestyle.

Much of this interpretation stems from analysis of the remains of Gerrothorax because specimens of this group are so much more abundant and well preserved than other plagiosaurid remains. Aside from their remains being found dominantly within aquatic settings, evidence for an aquatic lifestyle comes from evidence that the clade possessed internal gills, given by the presence of branchial arches that were lined with arteries. Additionally, the limbs of plagiosaurids are short relative to their body size and the size of their pectoral girdle. Coupled with their vertically compressed body plan, a popular interpretation for these organisms has been that they lived on the floor of freshwater systems and were obligatorily aquatic. To facilitate a bottom dwelling lifestyle these organisms possess a special jaw joint, the atlanto-occipital joint, which facilitates the lifting of the cranium to open the mouth rather than lowering the jaw as would be expected in other organisms, it is presumed that the animal would lay flat on river or lake beds waiting in ambush to catch prey, such as fish.

It has been proposed that they may have captured prey via suction by opening their mouth and clamping down with their curved teeth. This is somewhat supported by the lateral elongation of the skull in plagiosaurids like Gerrothorax and Plagiosternum compared to earlier members such as Plagiosuchus; the elongation of the skull is interpreted to have facilitated muscle attachment to the back of the skull and increasing the ability and force directed toward lifting the head. The large orbits of plagiosaurids have only been extensively analyzed in a single study which put forth two plausible eye structures. According to this study, because of their flat and vertically compressed skulls, it is unlikely that the eyes filled the space of the groups large orbits because the eyes would permanently protrude into at least part of the palate. Thus, it is most plausible that, like many modern amphibians, the eyes of these animals were significantly smaller than the orbit and positioned toward the front of the skull, though there is not enough data to make conclusive judgment about their exact position.

Schoch et al. put forward the hypothesis that the group had large, lensless eyes similar to a family of abyss dwelling teleost fish, the Ipnopidae. These lensless eyes would allow plagiosaurids to detect when something is moving directly above them by causing a shadow in the light detected by the retina. While not observed among modern amphibians today, this hypothesis does align with the interpreted life habit of plagiosaurids and helps to explain the abnormal space afforded to the orbits of these animals. Plagiosaurids represent an interesting case of extreme evolutionary and morphological stasis; the features of these animals change little through their evolutionary history despite changes. Schoch and Witzmann analyzed the collections of Gerrothorax material and noted that, despite being recovered from multiple environments that encompass 40 million years of time, the general body plan of Gerrothorax was static; this was interpreted to support a high degree of biological flexibility in these animals despite their somewhat unique ecology.

Plagiosauridae at Palaeos