Ashtown is a small suburb of Dublin, Ireland. It is a townland in the civil parish of Castleknock and falls into the postal districts of Dublin 15, with some addresses falling into the Dublin 7 postal district. Ashtown is bounded by the townlands of Castleknock to the west, it is situated by the Royal Canal, near the Navan Road, which some addresses being named off Navan Road. The Phoenix Park is nearby, its Ashtown Gate entrance about 500 metres south of the railway station; the townland's 278 acres are within Dublin City. The suburb had a population of 13,209 inhabitants as reported in the 2016 census. Teagasc has a food research centre at Ashtown; the Dublin-Sligo railway passes through the area and it is served by Ashtown railway station, which opened on 1 August 1902. Stopping at Ashtown is the Western Commuter service, which runs between Maynooth and Pearse Station in the city centre; the area is served by the 120 Dublin Bus route, which terminates at the railway station, by the 37, 38, 39 and 70 routes, which pass nearby on the Navan Road.
The Broombridge LUAS Green Line station opened in December 2017. The grounds of St Oliver Plunketts/Eoghan Ruadh GAA are located in Martin Savage Park, just to the south of the railway line and runs along it. Phoenix FC known as Kinvara Ards use this park for their youth teams, but have used a football complex in Scribblestown for their senior team since their merger with Ashtown Villa in 2006. Ashtown is in the Dublin West and the Cabra-Glasnevin Local Electoral Area of Dublin City Council
Drimnagh is a suburb of Dublin, situated on the Southside of the city between Walkinstown and Inchicore, bordering the Grand Canal to the north and east. Drimnagh is in postal district Dublin 12. Drimnagh derives country with ridges. A Neolithic settlement discovered, a funerary bowl found in a burial site; the site was demolished. The lands of Drimnagh were taken from their Irish owners by Strongbow, who gave them to the Barnwell family, who had arrived in Ireland with Strongbow in 1167 and had settled in Berehaven in Munster; the people of Munster killed the family except for Hugh de Barnwell, it was this youth, given Drimnagh as compensation. The lands and castle were considered safe, for they were far enough away from the Dublin mountains which held Irish strongholds. Drimnagh was farmland until the mid-1930s, when some of the first tenement clearances brought city centre residents from one-room hovels to terraced and semi-detached houses in a series of roads named after the mountain ranges of Ireland.
The suburb consists of one area close to Drimnagh Castle/Lansdowne Valley, with three-bedroom private housing built by Associated Properties, another area built by Dublin Corporation consisting of three bedroom'Kitchen Houses' and two bedroom'Parlour Houses' bordering on the Grand Canal and Crumlin. The two areas meet at the parish church, the Church of Our Lady of Good Counsel in the centre of Drimnagh, built in 1943; the Dublin Corporation housing area was considered part of an area known as North Crumlin from its construction in the mid-1930s until the introduction of the postal code system during the mid-1970s. Drimnagh Castle is the only castle in Ireland which still has a moat encircling it, is one of Dublin's few remaining medieval castle, it was built by the Barnwell family. Mourne Road Church is at the centre of Drimnagh. Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin is located within Drimnagh. Guinness Rugby Football Club – based at the Iveagh Grounds. Good Counsel GAA – have operated in the Drimnagh area since 1954.
St James Gaels GAA – based at the Iveagh Grounds. Football Clubs include Drimnagh Celtic and St. John Bosco. Drimnagh Boxíng Club on Keeper road Parkrun every Saturday morning at Brickfield Park. Drimnagh Castle CBS is a primary and secondary school for boys, built in 1954 right next to the site of the castle. Over the past 50 years notable students included the politician Charlie O'Connor. Our Lady of Good Counsel School on Mourne Road St John Bosco Youth Centre Drimnagh is served by the Luas Red Line; the area is served by Dublin Bus. List of towns and villages in Ireland Drimnagh Residents Associations Drimnagh is Good
Ashington is a town and civil parish in Northumberland, with a population of 27,864 at the 2011 Census. It was once a centre of the coal mining industry; the town is 15 miles north of Newcastle upon Tyne, west of the A189 and bordered to the south by the River Wansbeck. The North Sea coast at Newbiggin-by-the-Sea is 3 miles away. Many inhabitants have a distinctive dialect known as Pitmatic; this varies from the regional dialect known as Geordie. The name Ashington originates from Essendene, referenced since 1170, but may instead have originated from Æsc, a Saxon invader who sailed from Northern Germany to the River Wansbeck and settled in the deep wooded valley near Sheepwash, but it could have come from "Valley of Ash Trees" - these would have lined the valley and the Saxon word Dene means valley giving the name'Ash Dene'. In the 1700s all that existed of Ashington was a small farm with a few dwellings around it; the Anglo Saxon theory is the most likely. The suffix "ington" denotes a settlement belonging to an Anglo Saxon.
There are numerous "ington's" nearby that would seem to discount the "Ash tree" theory as well as "Essendene". Examples are: Bedlington, Cramlington, Whittington, Stannington etc; the first evidence of mining is from bell-shaped pits and monastic mine workings discovered in the 20th Century during tunnelling. Ashington developed from a small hamlet in the 1840s when the Duke of Portland built housing to encourage people escaping the Irish potato famine to come and work at his nearby collieries; as in many other parts of Britain, "deep pit" coal mining in the area declined during the 1980s and 1990s leaving just one colliery, Ellington which closed in January 2005. In 2006 plans for an opencast mine on the outskirts of the town were put forward, although many people objected to it. During the heyday of coal-mining, Ashington was considered to be the "world's largest coal-mining village". There is now a debate about whether Ashington should be referred to a village; as coal mining expanded, more people settled in Ashington.
This led the Ashington Coal Company to build parallel rows of colliery houses. Some newcomers came from as far as Cornwall to make use of their tin-mining skills. With the growing coal industry came the need for a railway link. Ashington was linked to the Blyth and Tyne Railway in the 1850s, to the East Coast Main Line near Ulgham; the railway was used by passenger trains until the Beeching Axe in 1964 closed the railway station, called Hirst railway station, which had opened in the 1870s. The railway line runs south towards the steep-sided River Wansbeck valley crossed by a wooden viaduct, replaced by today's steel-built Black Bridge. In 1913 the original Ashington Hospital was built, it was about 1/4 mile from the town centre. The hospital was expanded in the'60s with large new wings; this hospital was closed in the mid 1990s and replaced by the new Wansbeck General Hospital which opened on a green-field site on the eastern edge of the town with better links to the A189 Spine Road. The last of the old buildings were demolished in 2004.
Traditionally the area to the east of the railway was called Hirst and that to the west was Ashington proper. Although collectively called Ashington, both halves had their own park: Hirst Park in the east and the People's Park in the west; the colliery-built houses followed a grid plan. The streets in the Hirst End running north to south were named after British trees, such as Hawthorn Road, Beech Terrace, Chestnut Street; the east-west running streets were numbered avenues, starting with First Avenue near the town centre, finishing at Seventh Avenue towards the southern end. After the 1920s houses in Ashington were built by the council and were most semi-detached houses, such as Garden City Villas; these occupied much of the fields in the Hirst area. New estates were built in different areas; the biggest building programme was in the late 1960s and saw Ashington extend south from Seventh Avenue opposite the Technical College towards North Seaton and south eastwards towards the A189. Some of the houses at the north end of Alexandra Road were private homes.
During this building programme several new schools were built, for example Coulson Park, Seaton Hirst Middle. Community shops and a social club were built off Fairfield Drive; the late 1970s and early 1980s saw construction of Nursery Park opposite the North Seaton Hotel. The late 1980s and 1990s saw the building of the Wansbeck Estate between the River Wansbeck and Green Lane as well as the large Fallowfield Estate. In the late 1960s the area by the railway station was developed into Wansbeck Square, housing a supermarket, council offices and a public library, built over the railway line. In 1981 the Woodhorn Pit closed and its chimney was demolished. In the late 1980s this became a museum. In 1988 Ashington Pit is now occupied by a business park. In the early 2000s maisonette flats in various parts of Hirst were demolished and parts of the Moorhouse and Woodbridge estate opposite Woodhorn Pit were demolished; the railway was used until by the Alcan Aluminium plant, to transport coal to its adjacent power station in the nearby town of Lynemouth.
The plant closed in late 2015. The line was put in use again from mid-2017 to transport materials to Lynemouth, for the conversion of the coal-fired power station to produce power from biomass. There have been calls to restore the railway station for passenger use with services to Newcastle. Plans are underway, but may be subject to alteration due to B
Finglas is a northwestern outer suburb of Dublin, close to Junction 5 of the M50 motorway and the N2 road. Nearby suburbs include Ballymun, it lies in the postal district of Dublin 11. Finglas is the core of a civil parish in the barony of Castleknock; the name Finglas, meaning a clear streamlet, is derived from the Finglas River, a stream which flows through the village and joins the Tolka at Finglas Bridge. Finglas was the site of an Early Christian abbey, the origin of, associated, from early times, with the name of St. Cainnech, or Canice, the patron of Kilkenny, said to have founded it in 560 A. D; the Nethercross from the first abbey can be seen today in the old graveyard. Several primary schools and churches in the area have been named after Canice. According to an ancient legend, the ground on which Finglas stands had been sanctified by St. Patrick, said to have uttered a prophecy that a great town would arise at the ford of hurdles in the vale beneath. St. Canice is said to have been born at Glengiven near Derry.
The Finglas or Finglass family, prominent in law and politics in the sixteenth century, took their name from the district. Finglas is a civil parish in the barony of Castleknock. In 1649 the Duke of Ormonde used Finglas as a staging post for his army before launching an unsuccessful Siege of Dublin. Following the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, Finglas was used as a camp for four days by William of Orange en route to Dublin city. While there he issued the Declaration of Finglas, offering a pardon for many of James II's defeated supporters. In 1932, Ireland's first commercial airport was set up at Kildonan in Finglas, it was the site for the first Irish commercial aircraft, a Desoutter Mark II aircraft "EI-AAD", the first commercial air taxi service, the Iona National Air Taxis and Flying School. In the 1950s Finglas was developed with extensive housing estates, to re-house many north inner-city Dublin residents. Many of these housing estates in Finglas West were named after prominent Irish republicans from early 20th century Irish history including Barry, Plunkett, Mellows, McKee and Clancy.
In the village centre are a range of shops, including one of the first-established Superquinn stores, banking facilities and restaurants. To the north are several light industrial estates. Finglas is home to one of Dublin's four Road Safety Authority Driving Testing Centres, located in Jamestown Business Park. Charlestown Shopping Centre and Clearwater Shopping Centre, are located outside the village, to the north and south of Finglas respectively; the Rugby Union club Unidare RFC and the GAA club Erins Isle are based in the area. Soccer clubs include Tolka Rovers F. C. Valley Park United, WFTA Football Club, Willows FC and Finglas Celtic FC and Beneavin F. C. Finglas is part of the Dublin North-West constituency for elections to Dáil Éireann. For local elections Finglas is split with the west and south in Cabra-Finglas and the east in Ballymun local electoral areas of Dublin City Council. There are upwards of 15 primary and national schools in the Finglas area, 8 secondary schools; this includes Beneavin De La Salle College.
Coláiste Íde College of Further Education is located in Finglas West and offers third level courses. Finglas is served by a number of bus routes operated by Go-Ahead Ireland; these include the 9, 17A, 40, 40B, 40D, 40E, 83, 83A,140 & 220. The main route serving the area is the number 40 which runs between Charlestown Shopping Centre and Liffey Valley via Dublin city centre. A new route, the 40E, was introduced from Tyrellstown to provide a direct link to the extended Luas Green Line in Broombridge. Other routes serving the area include the 17A which runs between Kilbarrack to Blanchardstown, the 140 which runs to Rathmines via the city centre and the 83 which runs to Kimmage via Glasnevin and the city centre, it is served by the 88N Nitelink service. Two Bus Éireann routes serve Finglas, passing along the main Finglas Road, including the 103 from Duleek/Kilmoon Cross/Ashbourne to the city centre. Finglas has been the home of a number of public figures including: Gerard Byrne, Irish artist Patrick Finglas, Lord Chief Justice of Ireland Dick McKee, volunteer for the Irish Republican Army Martin Doherty, volunteer for the Provisional Irish Republican Army Dessie Ellis, Sinn Féin TD Irish international footballers: Ronnie Whelan, Frank Stapleton, David O'Leary, Mark Kinsella, Stephen Kelly, Alan Moore, footballers John Keogh, Cliff Byrne, Derek Brazil.
Pat Fenlon, Football manager All Ireland winning Dublin GAA players: Barney Rock, Jason Sherlock, James McCarthy and Charlie Redmond Mairead Farrell and television personality Séamus Ennis, Uilleann piper Paul "Bono" Hewson, lead singer of U2 Christy Dignam, Joe Jewell, Alan Downey, Aslan musicians Niamh Kavanagh, Eurovision Song Contest 1993 winner, Irish representative for the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 Brendan O'Carroll and actor Colm Meaney, actor Dermot Bolger and poet, whose novels "The Woman's Daughter" and "Night Shift" are set in Finglas. Spiral, a former Big Brother contestant, who wrote and released a song about Finglas Tony Fenton, Today FM DJ Patrick Clarke The opening scene from Beyond the Pale was shot in Erin's Isle GAA Club John Fogarty CSSp, Superior General of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit Stephen O'Rahilly, Chair of Clinical Biochemistry and Medicine at the University of Cambridge. Endocrinologist and scientist researching obesity and diabetes. Regina Doherty, Fine Gael TD & Minister for Employment Affairs
Connolly station or Dublin Connolly is the busiest railway station in Dublin and Ireland, is a focal point in the Irish route network. On the North side of the River Liffey, it provides InterCity and commuter services to the north, north-west, south-east and south-west; the North-South Dublin Area Rapid Transit and Luas light rail services pass through the station. The station offices are the headquarters of Iarnród Éireann. Opened in 1844 as Dublin Station, the ornate facade has a distinctive Italianate tower at its centre. Connolly has seven platforms; the ticket office is open from Monday to Sunday. The station features a depot for the Commuter, the InterCity and the Enterprise. There are three InterCity routes served: The Enterprise service to Belfast Central Sligo Mac Diarmada non-stop to Maynooth and calling at all stations to Sligo. Peak services call at Drumcondra. Rosslare Europort, calling at Tara Street, Dublin Pearse, Dun Laoghaire, Bray and all stations to Rosslare Europort. Not all services call at Kilcoole.
Peak services call at Lansdowne Road and Grand Canal Dock. The 16:33 departure from Connolly to Rosslare Europort offers a connection to ferries for Wales and France. DART use platforms equipped with overhead wires. Terminal platform 4 is electrified; as of January 2019 there are 6 DARTs per hour in each direction on weekdays. These are: Northbound: 3 per hour to Howth and 3 per hour to MalahideSouthbound: 4 per hour to Bray and 2 per hour to GreystonesAfter years of delays, Irish Rail increased the DART frequency to every ten minutes in September 2018 which increased the number of trains per hour in Howth and Malahide to 3 and those terminating at Bray to 4 per hour but kept Greystones at 2 per hour, with some peak services terminating at Dún Laoghaire, it is planned to expand the DART lines to Maynooth and Balbriggan or Drogheda. Some Commuter services run along the DART line as far as Malahide. There are 2 Commuter services per hour in each direction off peak; these are: Maynooth from platforms 6 or 7: Calling at all stations to Maynooth.
Drogheda/Dundalk from platform 6 or 7: Calling at Malahide and all stations to Drogheda/Dundalk, with some services calling at Howth Junction and Portmarnock.2 trains per hour to Dublin Pearse from platform 5 or 6. Peak time services run to Longford, Newbridge, Dundalk, Grand Canal Dock and Bray. There are 3 trains per day from M3 Parkway to Connolly but do not run the return journey; the station opened on 29 November 1844 by the Dublin and Drogheda Railway Company as Dublin Station, but was renamed Amiens Street Station ten years after the street on which it is located. The station served only a single mainline to Drogheda, in 1853 through services to Belfast commenced. In 1891, the City of Dublin Junction Railway connected the station with Westland Row Station on the city's South side; the City of Dublin Junction had a separate station known as Amiens Street Junction consisting of the present platforms 5, 6, 7 with a separate street entrance. After the amalgamation of the GNR at the end of the 1950s, this station became part of Amiens Street and the separate entrance fell into disuse.
The City of Dublin Junction Railway allowed services to run from Amiens Street through to Westland Row to Rosslare and the South East. Services to Sligo were transferred to Westland Row running non-stop through the station in 1937, with the closure of Broadstone Station by CIÉ. Services to Galway and Mayo terminated at Westland Row, operating through Connolly Station after 1937, running via Mullingar and Athlone; this was discontinued in the 1970s in favour of running services from Heuston Station. Sunday trains to Cork and Waterford during the 1960s operated from Connolly platforms 5, 6 and 7 through the Phoenix Park Tunnel, so as to avoid the cost of opening Heuston for the limited Sunday traffic demand at that time. In 1966, the 50th anniversary of the Easter Rising, the station's name was changed to Connolly Station after Irish revolutionary and socialist James Connolly. At the same time, other main stations were renamed after patriots executed for their roles in the Rising. At the commencement of DART services in 1984, the City of Dublin Junction Railway entrance was refurbished and reopened for commuters.
During the late 1990s, Connolly Station was renovated and rebuilt. An new station hall was built, the roof over platforms 1 to 4 was replaced, a new bar/café and shops were installed; the former DART/Suburban station entrance and the secondary station hall built with the DART were again closed, but a new entrance on the International Financial Services Centre side was opened. The Luas Red Line began serving the station in 2004; as part of the preparation for this, the ramp, a bus terminus was demolished and replaced with a two-platform tram station connected to the main concourse by escalators and lift. The opening of Docklands Station in March 2007 has provided an extra terminus station to take pressure from Connolly. During Monday to Friday peak times, trains from M3 Parkway and Dunboyne arrive at Docklands, it provides an alternative terminus for the Western Commuter line to Mullingar if needed. Docklands is the planned terminus for services to Navan; as part of the DART U
Phibsborough spelled Phibsboro, is a mixed commercial and residential neighbourhood on the Northside of Dublin, Ireland. The Bradogue River crosses the area in culvert, the Royal Canal passes through its northern reaches, notably at Cross Guns Bridge. A branch of the canal ran to the Broadstone basin the site of the Midland Great Western Railway Terminus and the headquarters of Bus Éireann. Mountjoy Prison is located in the district; the name "Phibsborough" comes from "Phipps" or "Phibbs." This is believed to relate to an English settler in Kilmainham, from the mid-17th century, the spelling being cited as Phippsborough in 1792. Phibsborough is located about 2 km north of the old city centre, in Dublin 7, it is bordered by Glasnevin to the north, Drumcondra to the east, Grangegorman to the west, the King's Inns on Constitution Hill, to the south. The busy commercial centre of Phibsborough is located around the crossroads of the Phibsborough and North Circular Road known as Doyle's Corner. Phibsborough is served by many Dublin Bus routes passing outbound to the north city suburbs: numbers 4, 9, 38, 38a, 38b, 38d, 39n, 46a, 83, 83a, 120, 122, 140 and 155.
Inbound services serve the city centre. Phibsborough and Broadstone both have stops on the Luas Green Line located along the former Midland & Great Western Railway line; the Phibsboro stop is located at the railway cutting between the North Circular Road and the Cabra Road. It has lateral platforms. Access to the platform level is from both the North Circular and Cabra Roads via stairs and lifts from the new deck levels abutting the existing road overbridges; the Broadstone stop is located at the Western Way. The Phibsboro stop serves the residential communities and facilitates interchange with bus services on the North Circular and Cabra Roads; the Broadstone stop serves the Mountjoy area and the newly built Technological University Dublin campus located at Grangegorman. The Luas Cross City project has joined the Luas Red and Green lines with a line from Broombridge in North Dublin and St. Stephen's Green Green Line stop. Services began in December 2017; the Royal Canal passes along the northern boundary.
Below the fifth lock, east of Crossguns Bridge, the Broadstone Harbour city markets-bound main branch of the canal ran south, to the now paved over harbour. The filled-in former main line is now covered by a linear park and the adjacent road is called the Royal Canal Bank, it consists of a variety of homes from some dating from the 1750s. The canal's current main line runs south-east to Spencer Dock at the North Wall; the “parkway” passes Mountjoy Gaol, under Blacqueire Bridge, along the high banked eastern side of the Phibsborough Road. The Foster Aqueduct carried the main line canal over the Phibsborough Road to the harbor terminus which sat directly opposite the Kings Inns at Constitution Hill. Blessington Street Basin used to supply water to the city, to Jameson and Powers distilleries, is located adjacent to the Royal Canal Bank road, it was supplied with water piped along the canal and was within a public park since its opening. Dalymount Park, home of League of Ireland team Bohemian F.
C. was the pre-Aviva Stadium venue for international association football and the renowned'Dalymount Roar' was created here. The National Botanic Gardens are situated in nearby Glasnevin. A major teaching hospital, the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, is both a local and national care centre. Adjacent are the Mater Private Hospital, Temple Street Children's Hospital. Phibsborough is a parish in the Fingal South West deanery of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin, served by the Church of St Peter; the etymology of the name Phibsborough 1792 is from a Lincolnshire family who settled as landowners in the area in the mid-17th century, the first being a Richard Phipps, who d. 1629, was bur. at S. James's; the original Irish language name, Glas Mochonóg, means Monck's Green, which evolved to the variants Manogue and Minogue, anglicised as Monck. This family held the local demesne at Grangegorman following inter-marriage with the Stanley family, becoming Stanley Monck; the Green served as play field and parade ground was bisected by the main north road which ran from the foot of the Old Bridge of Dublin.
Lying low between the stepping stone crossing of the Bradogue river ia a common called the Glasminogue. Between the Broadstone and the village of Baile Phib at Monck Place, it flooded and turned into a quagmire; this area was part of the Grangegorman estate. The Broadstone area underwent significant urban development in the early nineteenth century in order to fulfill the commercial and residential needs of the Royal Canal Company headquarters and Harbour Terminus operation; the onset of John S. Mulvaney's Midland Great Western Railway and the railway engineering works brought further development to North Circular Road intersection and east to Blessington Street; the natural expansion of the city saw the development move north with residential housing reaching Phibsborough, Glasnevin, the Phoenix Park to the northwest. A freestanding Church of Ireland church was built in 1828, comprising a four-bay nave, two-bay chancel to east added 1856, single-bay baptistry to west elevation, porch to south elevation added 1887, four-bay full-height north aisle added 1887, with entrance porch.
St. Peter's Catholic Church and schools date from 1862; the construction of the church was controversial, resulting in a costly lawsuit. This disput
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou