Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
National Register of Historic Places listings in San Diego County, California
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in San Diego County, California. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in San Diego County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 149 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 17 National Historic Landmarks. Another 4 properties have been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. California Historical Landmarks in San Diego County, California List of San Diego Historic Landmarks List of San Diego Historical Landmarks in La Jolla List of San Diego Historic Landmarks in the Point Loma and Ocean Beach areas List of National Historic Landmarks in California Lists of National Register of Historic Places in California by county
Centro Cultural de la Raza
The Centro Cultural de la Raza is a non-profit organization with the specific mission to create, preserve and educate about Chicano, Native American and Latino art and culture. It is located in Balboa Park in California; the cultural center supports and encourages the creative expression “of the indigenous cultures of the Americas.” It is a member of the American Alliance of Museums. The Centro provides classes and presentations on drama, music and arts and crafts, many of which have origins in Mexico and "Aztlán," a term used by Chicanos to indicate a return to a spiritual homeland and indigenous traditions and knowledge systems. Programs include Danza Azteca, Teatro Chicano, film screenings, musical performances, installation art, readings and other events; the Centro's resident Ballet Folklorico company, Ballet Folklorico en Aztlan operates a dance academy at the Center. In addition, the Centro is available as a meeting place for community organizations; the Centro's circular building has offices, studios, a theater.
The performance space has a 2,000 square foot art gallery. The Centro is one of the first community-based Chicano cultural centers and one of the largest in the Southwest, it is identifiable by a number of murals painted near the building's main entrance. The origins of the Centro go back to the mid 1960s. Social protests, such as anti-Vietnam war demonstrations and work of activists like Dolores Huerta and Cesar Chavez leading with the United Farm Workers had given rise to grass-roots community movements in San Diego; those involved with social protest saw that there would be a need for a community center, run by Chicanos and for Chicanos. At the San Diego State University, the Mexican American Youth Association was formed to recruit Chicano students to the university and make sure that they were able to complete their studies; this group, along with the Mexican American Liberation Art Front both recognized the need for a cultural center. In addition, MALAF noticed that there were few places for Chicanos to exhibit their art.
Alurista, a poet, artists Guillermo Aranda and Salvador Roberto Torres, were all involved with MAYA to become M. E. C. H. A. and were active in working towards both a cultural space as well as a space to create and show art. In 1968, the San Diego Parks and Recreation Department gave Torres permission to use the abandoned Ford Building in Balboa Park as a studio space for 6 months. Torres invited other visual artists and the Ballet Foklorico en Aztlán, a folkloric dance group led by the Enrique family to use the space; those involved included Alurista and Torres as well as Guillermo Aranda, Ruben de Anda, Leticia de Baca, the Aguilar sisters, Tomas Castañeda, Mario Acevedo Torero, Luis Espinoza, Ricardo Gonzalez and Antonio Rivas. The Ford Building by 1969 was a "major center of activities for San Diego's Chicano artists." Other artists such as Guillermo Rosette and musicians such as the Trio Moreno became involved at this time. They formally named themselves "Los Toltecas en Aztlán" in order to be able to create a more solid group identity.
Los Toltecas en Aztlán wrote this as their founding principle: "The Tolecas en Aztlán shall be constituted of all those Chicano Artists dedicated to Human Truth and Chicano Beauty, which in our belief can only be lived up to through Mutual Self-Respect, Self-Determination in our endeavors, the Self-Sacrifice of our individual differences for the sake of a Centro Cultural de la Raza where our indigenous ancestral spirit of brotherhood and peace can flourish in contemporary Chicano Art Forms." Los Toltecas en Aztlán had forty members by 1970. Plans were begun to convert the Ford Building into Centro Cultural de la Raza. First, Los Toltecas en Aztlán petitioned the city of San Diego to use the building to create a cultural center; the proposal for the Centro went before city council, to the current mayor, Frank Curran, to other Chicano organizations and interested individuals in order to gain support. The city of San Diego, had begun making plans to turn the Ford Building into an aerospace museum.
According to Ochoa, the city and the "establishment" were uncomfortable with what the Toltecas were doing in Balboa Park. He says, "At one time there was 300 cars outside the Ford Building -- all Mexicans, they never saw so many Mexicans in Balboa Park before."At the same time that Los Toltecas en Aztlán were petitioning the city to create a cultural center, in another part of San Diego where there had once been a vibrant Hispanic barrio, citizens were occupying the former neighborhood and demanding the city turn the space into a park. Torres and other members of Los Toltecas en Aztlán were involved in this protest, calling the area Chicano Park; the Chicano Park protest and other issues became part of a new proposal, citing a great need to create Centro Cultural de la Raza. The new proposal was brought to the city by Alurista and Aranda. Despite this, the city attempted to evict the artists from the Ford Building. Los Toltecas en Aztlán refused to leave. In October, the Chicano Federation of San Diego County became involved and helped Los Toltecas en Aztlán express their concerns to the city manager, Walter Hahn.
Los Toltecas en Aztlán refused to leave the Ford Building until another site was given them for the center. The city offered to give them an abandoned water tank, built in 1914. Alurista was responsible for the final negotiations which included use of the new facility and a city contribution of $22,000 to the new building; the monetary contribution from the city included improvements to the building such as installing li
San Diego International Airport
San Diego International Airport known as Lindbergh Field, is an international airport 3 mi northwest of Downtown San Diego, United States. It is operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority. San Diego International Airport covers 663 acres of land. In 2015, traffic at San Diego International exceeded 20 million passengers, serving more than 500 scheduled operations carrying about 50,000 passengers each day. While serving domestic traffic, San Diego has nonstop international flights to Canada, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom. San Diego is the largest metropolitan area in the United States, not an airline hub or secondary hub; the top five carriers in San Diego during 2015, by seat capacity, were Southwest Airlines, American Airlines, United Airlines, Alaska Airlines, Delta Air Lines. San Diego International is the busiest single runway airport in the United States and third-busiest single runway in the world, behind Mumbai and London Gatwick. Due to the short usable length of the runway, proximity to the skyscrapers of Downtown San Diego, steep landing approach as a result of the nearby Peninsular Ranges, SAN has been called "the busiest, most difficult single runway in the world."
SAN operates in controlled airspace served by the Southern California TRACON, some of the busiest airspace in the world. The airport is near the site of the Ryan Airlines factory, but it is not the same as Dutch Flats, the Ryan airstrip where Charles Lindbergh flight tested the Spirit of St. Louis before his historic 1927 transatlantic flight; the site of Dutch Flats is on the other side of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, in the Midway neighborhood, near the intersection of Midway and Barnett avenues. Inspired by Lindbergh's flight and excited to have made his plane, the city of San Diego passed a bond issue in 1928 for the construction of a two-runway municipal airport. Lindbergh agreed to lend his name to it; the new airport, dedicated on August 16, 1928, was San Diego Municipal Airport – Lindbergh Field. The airport was the first federally certified airfield to serve all aircraft types, including seaplanes; the original terminal was on Pacific Highway. The airport was a testing facility for several early US sailplane designs, notably those by William Hawley Bowlus who operated the Bowlus Glider School at Lindbergh Field from 1929–1930.
The airport was the site of a national and world record for women's altitude established in 1930 by Ruth Alexander. On June 1, 1930, a regular San Diego–Los Angeles airmail route started; the airport gained international airport status in 1934. In April 1937, United States Coast Guard Air Base was commissioned next to the airfield; the Coast Guard's fixed-wing aircraft used Lindbergh Field until the mid-1990s when their fixed-wing aircraft were assigned elsewhere. A major defense contractor and contributor to World War II heavy bomber production, Consolidated Aircraft known as Convair, had their headquarters on the border of Lindbergh Field, built many of their military aircraft there. Convair used the airport for test and delivery flights from 1935 to 1995; the US Army Air Corps took over the field in 1942, improving it to handle the heavy bombers being manufactured in the region. Two camps were established at the airport during World War II and were named Camp Consair and Camp Sahara; this transformation, including an 8,750 ft runway, made the airport "jet-ready" long before jet airliners came into service.
The May 1952 C&GS chart shows an 8,700-ft runway 9 and a 4,500-ft runway 13. Pacific Southwest Airlines established its headquarters in San Diego and started service at Lindbergh Field in 1949; the April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 42 departures per day: 14 American, 13 United, 6 Western, 6 Bonanza, 3 PSA. American had a nonstop flight to one to El Paso. Nonstop flights to Chicago started in 1962 and to New York in 1967; the first scheduled jet flights at Lindbergh Field were in 1960, with American Airlines flying to Phoenix and United Airlines to San Francisco, using the Boeing 720. The original terminal was used until the 1960s. Terminal 2 opened on July 11, 1979; these terminals were designed by Paderewski Associates. A third terminal, dubbed the Commuter Terminal, opened July 23, 1996. Terminal 2 was expanded by 300,000 square feet in 1998, opened on January 7, 1998; the expanded Terminal 2 and the Commuter Terminal were designed by Gensler and SGPA Architecture and Planning. As downtown San Diego developed, the airport's 3,600 ft second runway was closed as its short length provided no operational benefits other than to support the smallest of aircraft.
The airport was built and operated by the City of San Diego through the sale of municipal bonds to be repaid by airport users. In 1962 it was transferred to the San Diego Unified Port District by a state law. In 2001 the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority was created, assumed jurisdiction over the airport in December 2002; the Authority changed the airport's name from Lindbergh Field to San Diego International Airport in 2003 considering the new name "a better fit for a major commercial airport." San Diego International Airport's expansion and enhancemen
San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port located in San Diego County, California near the U. S.–Mexico border. The bay, 12 miles long and 1 to 3 miles wide, is the third largest of the three large, protected natural bays on California's entire 840 miles long coastline after San Francisco Bay and Humboldt Bay; the urbanized land adjacent to the bay includes the city of San Diego and four other cities: National City, Chula Vista, Imperial Beach and Coronado. Considered to be one of the best natural harbors on the west coast of North America, it was colonized by Spain beginning in 1769, it served as base headquarters of major ships of the United States Navy in the Pacific until just before the United States entered World War II, when the newly organized United States Pacific Fleet primary base was transferred to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. However, San Diego Bay remains as a home port of major assets, including several aircraft carriers, of the United States Pacific Fleet, as a result of base closures beginning in the 1980s, facilities in San Diego Bay are the major naval base facilities still in operation in California.
The Port of San Diego has a cruise ship terminal. A second cruise ship terminal opened in December 2010; the port handles more than 3 million metric tons of cargo yearly. The cruise ship terminal hosted more than 250 ship calls a year totaling more than 800,000 passengers at its peak in 2008. General Dynamics' National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, the only shipyard on the west coast capable of building and repairing large ocean-going vessels, is near the San Diego side of the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge. San Diego International Airport is adjacent to the bay, across Harbor Drive from the Coast Guard Station; the bay is spanned by the San Diego–Coronado Bridge, built in 1969. The bridge curves and rises to a height of 200 feet above the water so that Navy ships can pass under it; the bridge was a toll bridge. Known as Commercial Basin and housing much of San Diego's sport and commercial fishing fleet, the small cove in the southern lee of Shelter Island was renamed in 1994 to America's Cup Harbor, in honor of the 1995 America's Cup races held in San Diego.
America's Cup Harbor has several boat yards and marinas for private sailing yachts, as well as a mooring field. Numerous resorts and the San Diego Convention Center are adjacent to the Bay. Several parks and nature preserves are found at various locations along the shoreline. Sightseeing boats depart from the downtown area. Commercial sport fishing and whale watching tours depart from Shelter Island. Ten museum ships call San Diego Bay home, they include the USS Midway, an aircraft carrier museum, the Star of India, the oldest iron-hulled merchant ship afloat and the world's oldest active sailing ship. The Star of India and eight other ships and boats on San Diego Bay are the floating collection of the San Diego Maritime Museum. In the northern part of the bay there are two commercial "islands" called Harbor Island and Shelter Island, they were built up from former sand bars and now hold hotels, restaurants and public parkland. Across from Harbor Island is a bayside park called Spanish Landing, a historic site which commemorates the meeting in 1769 of two expeditions from Spanish Mexico that made possible the European settlement of California.
Spanish Landing park is the site of San Salvador Village, where the San Diego Maritime Museum is constructing a full-sized functional wooden replica of the San Salvador flagship, in which explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovered San Diego Bay in 1542. Small boat sailing is popular, the bay is lined by dozens of marinas and nine yacht clubs, including the San Diego Yacht Club, the home of the America's Cup from 1988 to 1995. An inlet of the bay was renamed America's Cup Harbor to commemorate that occasion. An annual fireworks display called the Big Bay Boom is held on the Fourth of July over the waters of the Bay. Fireworks are launched from four barges in the Bay as well as from a pier in Imperial Beach, it is one of the largest annual fireworks displays in the United States and is viewed by half a million people each year. The Parade of Lights is a parade of more than 80 small boats with holiday decorations and lights on two Sundays in December; the parade has been held annually since 1972.
The parade starts off Shelter Island and proceeds past Harbor Island and Downtown, finishing at the Coronado ferry landing. A one-time special event was the "Parade of Flight" in February 2011, celebrating the 100th anniversary of naval aviation, it featured flights over San Diego Bay by more than 200 historic naval aircraft, concluded with a flyover by the air wing from the U. S. S. John C. Stennis; the western border of the bay is protected from the Pacific Ocean by a long, narrow strip of land called the Silver Strand. The northern end of the Silver Strand expands to become North Island, the location of Naval Air Station North Island and Coronado. Coronado is the site of the famous Hotel del Coronado; the U. S. Na
Spanish Village Art Center
The Spanish Village Art Center is located in San Diego's Balboa Park, in the U. S. state of California. Anni von Westrum Baldaugh was among the artists. Media related to Spanish Village Art Center at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The San Diego Union-Tribune
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune; the name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities; the sale closed on June 18, 2018. The predecessor newspapers of the Union-Tribune were: San Diego Herald, founded 1851 and closed April 7, 1860. Both the Union and the Tribune were acquired by Copley Press in 1928 and were merged on February 2, 1992; the merged newspaper was sold to the private investment group Platinum Equity of Beverly Hills, California, on March 18, 2009. On August 17, 2010, the Union-Tribune changed its design to improve "clarity and ease of use".
Changes included being printed on thinner, 100 percent recycled paper, moving the comics to the back of the business section, abbreviating the title The San Diego Union-Tribune on the front page to U-T San Diego. The U-T nameplate was created by Jim Parkinson, a type designer who created nameplates for The Rolling Stone and Newsweek. In November 2011, Platinum Equity sold the newspaper to MLIM Holdings, a company led by Doug Manchester, a San Diego real estate developer and "an outspoken supporter of conservative causes"; the purchase price was in excess of $110 million. Manchester built two landmark downtown hotels, the Manchester Grand Hyatt Hotel and the San Diego Marriott Hotel and Marina, his group owns the Grand Del Mar luxury resort in San Diego. On January 3, 2012, the newspaper announced that it would use the name U-T San Diego "on all of our media products and communications"; the official announcement explained the change as being intended to "unify our print and digital products under a single brand with a clear and consistent expectation of quality".
U-T San Diego bought the North County Times in 2012. On October 15, 2012, the North County Times ceased publication and became the U-T North County Times, an edition of the U-T with some North County–specific content. Six months the U-T North County Times name was dropped and the newspaper became a North County edition of the U-T. In June 2012, U-T San Diego launched a television news channel; the network featured news and editorial content produced by the newspaper's staff, was created as part of the newspaper's growing emphasis on multi-platform content under Manchester. By October 2013, just over a year after its launch, the network re-formatted with a focus on news, amidst a number of major departures among the channel's staff. On February 19, 2014, U-T TV was discontinued, but the network's remaining staff was retained to produce video content for the newspaper's digital properties. In November 2013, the newspaper bought eight more local weekly newspapers in the San Diego area, which continued publication under their own names.
On May 7, 2015, it was announced that the Tribune Publishing Company, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, other newspapers, had reached a deal to acquire U-T San Diego and its associated properties for $85 million. The sale ended the newspaper's 146 years of private ownership; the transaction was completed on May 21, 2015. On the same date, the newspaper reintroduced its previous branding as The San Diego Union-Tribune; the Union-Tribune and the Los Angeles Times became part of a new operating entity known as the California News Group, with both newspapers led by Times publisher and chief executive officer Austin Beutner. The two newspapers would retain distinct operations, but there would be a larger amount of synergy and content sharing between them; the acquisition did not include the newspaper's headquarters, retained by Manchester and would be leased by the newspaper. On May 26, 2015, the newspaper announced it would lay off 178 employees, representing about thirty percent of the total staff, as it consolidated its printing operations with the Times in Los Angeles.
In 2016, The San Diego Union Tribune acquired the monthly entertainment magazine Pacific San Diego. On June 13, 2015, at 10:02 p.m. PDT the final run of The San Diego Union Tribune was printed at the San Diego headquarters in Mission Valley began, it was to print the Sunday edition newspaper for June 14, 2015. The following Monday's newspaper would be printed at the Los Angeles Times location; the dismantling of the printing presses in Mission Valley began in mid-September 2015. In 2016 rival newspaper publisher Gannett Company offered to buy the Tribune Publishing Company; the offer was rejected by management, spurring some shareholder dissatisfaction and a shareholder lawsuit. Meanwhile, the Tribune Publishing Company renamed itself Tronc Inc. Tronc is an acronym for Tribune online content. Effective June 20, the renamed company will trade on the NASDAQ exchange under the symbol TRNC. In February 2018, a deal was reached to sell the Union-Tribune to Patrick Soon-Shiong, a medical doctor who has made billions as a biotech entrepreneur.
The deal included the Los Angele