Non-League football describes football leagues played outside the top leagues of a country. It describes leagues which are not professional; the term is used for football in England, where it describes football played at a level below that of the Premier League and the three divisions of the English Football League. The term non-League was used well before 1992 when the top football clubs in England all belonged to The Football League; the term can be confusing as the vast majority of non-league football clubs in England play in a type of league. A non-League team would be any club playing in the National League and below and therefore would not play in the EFL Cup; the "League" of "non-League football" refers to the English Football League, rather than leagues in general — "non-League" clubs play most of their football in league competitions. There are many leagues below the level of the EFL, some, such as the Northern League, are as old as the EFL itself; the most senior of these leagues are loosely organised by The Football Association, the sport's governing body in England, into a National League System.
The NLS has seven levels or steps, includes over 50 separate leagues, many with more than one division. Prior to the 1986–87 season, there was no automatic promotion and relegation between The Football League and the leagues of non-League football; the bottom clubs of The EFL were required to apply for re-election to the League at the end of the season, but this was in most cases a mere formality. The system ensured that Football League membership remained static, with non-League clubs having little chance of joining. However, a major change came in 1986 when automatic promotion and relegation of one club between The Football League and the Football Conference, the top league in non-League football, was introduced, subject to the eligible club meeting the required facility and financial standards. Scarborough became the first non-League club to win automatic promotion to The Football League, Lincoln City became the first League club to be relegated to the ranks of non-League football. Since the 2002–03 season, two clubs from the Conference, now National League have been promoted at the end of each season.
The entire English football league system includes the Premier League, the EFL, the NLS leagues, any local leagues that have feeder relationships with an NLS league. Many non-League clubs enter the FA Cup, where they hope to become "giant-killers" by progressing from the qualifying rounds, first and second rounds proper, to meet and beat opposition from the Premier League or EFL Championship. Since the end of the Second World War, nine non-League clubs have reached the Fifth Round of the FA Cup, only one reached the quarter-final stage; the only non-League team to have won the competition since The Football League started is Tottenham Hotspur in the 1901 FA Cup Final, although at that time The Football League had only two divisions, consisting entirely of Northern and Midland clubs. The leading non-League clubs in the South played in the Southern Football League, which ran parallel to The Football League, were of a comparable standard to the League clubs. From its inaugural match in 1908 until 1912, the FA Charity Shield was contested between the champions of The Football League and the Southern Football League.
The Football Association Challenge Trophy was introduced in 1969 to offer semi-professional non-League clubs a realistic chance of winning an FA competition. Amateur clubs could enter the FA Amateur Cup until 1974 when the Football Association abolished the distinction between professionals and amateurs; the Amateur Cup was replaced by the FA Vase in 1974, contested by clubs at Step 5 of the NLS and below while the Trophy is contested by clubs at Steps 1–4. In women's football, the non-League term is used for those clubs in the divisions below the FA Women's Premier League's two regional second divisions. In Scotland, "non-league football" refers to leagues outside the top four divisions of the national Scottish Professional Football League; these consist of a number of regional senior leagues which are part of the Scottish football pyramid system, as well as the separate regional Junior leagues. It is used throughout Europe, although in Germany non-professional leagues are known as Regionalliga, as the leagues are all regional depending on the location of the town or city the team represents, unlike 1.
Bundesliga, 2. Bundesliga and 3. Liga all being national leagues; until 1974, it was the second tier of the league system before being disbanded. The Regionalliga was re-introduced as the third tier of the system in 1994. Upon introduction of the 3. Liga in 2008, it was demoted to the fourth level of the pyramid, in the same way every league below the 5th step of the English pyramid was moved a step down due to the introduction of the Conference North and South, now National League North and South. In the Republic of Ireland, football outside the top two divisions consists of regional senior leagues based on which province the club comes from. England national football C team Non League UK
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better
Brickearth is a term used to describe superficial windblown deposits found in southern England. The term has been employed in English-speaking regions to describe similar deposits. Brickearths are periglacial loess, a wind-blown dust deposited under cold, peri- or postglacial conditions; the name arises from its early use in making house bricks, its composition being suitable for brick-making without additional material being added and unlike clay its bricks can be hardened at lower temperatures, including in wood-fired kilns. The brickearth is represented on 1:50,000 solid and drift edition geological maps. In the Thames valley, in broad patches brickearth overlies fluvial terrace gravel. Brickearth is a superficial deposit of homogeneous loam or silt deposited during the Pleistocene geological period. Brickearth occurs in discontinuous spreads, across southern England and South Wales, south of a line from Pembroke in the west to Essex in the east in depths of up to a metre. Commercially useful deposits of about 2m to 4m thick are present in Kent and Hampshire, overlying chalk, Thanet Beds or London Clay.
The original deposition of the sediments occurred under cold climates where fluvial out-wash sediments from glaciers were subject to windy dry periods. The exposed finer-grained sediments were picked up and transported by the wind and were deposited wherever the wind strength decreased. There are extensive brickearth deposits in Kent on the North Downs dip slope and on the Hoo peninsula, sections of the Medway and Stour valleys, its mineral content is critical to its applicability in brickmaking and requires precise proportions of chalk and iron. Brickearth requires little or no admixture of other materials to render it suitable for the manufacture of'stock bricks'. In 1986 four active stock brick works were in Kent: at Otterham Quay, Funton and Ospringe; the brickearth gives rise to fertile soils which have been exploited for agriculture. It is prone to rapid ‘collapse’ settlement when saturated with water and does not provide a firm foundation for buildings. In Chichester, the brickearth is a flint-rich brown silty clay up to five metres thick, which occurs on the coastal plain.
The brickearth is unfossiliferous but yields man-made flint implements. When used for brick making, it was dug from small temporary holes and baked into bricks on the spot in brick clamps, used for building nearby; the hole remained and became a pond. The engineering properties and behaviour of the brickearth of south Essex K. J. Northmore, F. G. Bell and M. G. Culshaw,doi: 10.1144/GSL. QJEGH.1996.029. P2.04 May 1996 Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 29, 147-161
Dunstable Grammar School
Dunstable Grammar School was a grammar school in the market town of Dunstable, England. Opened in 1888, it was closed in 1971. Dunstable Grammar School was established by the Trustees of the Almshouse Charity created by the Will of Frances Ashton. Hence the inscription on the building which says: Dunstable Grammar School Founded A. D. 1728 By Mrs. Frances Ashton Built A. D. 1887. New school buildings were constructed in 1887 on the northern side of Dunstable for the Trustees of Frances Ashton's charity, in 1888 the school opened with 49 pupils; the first headmaster was L. C. R. Thring, of the Thring family of Uppingham which included the educationist Edward Thring, headmaster of Uppingham School. By 1917, the school had grown to 100 day boys. A school library was built in memory of the former pupils who died in the Boer War and the Second World War, a memorial in the library commemorated the names of the sixty-two boys who gave their lives, including Ashton Edward Thring, the only son of the school's first headmaster. and the Victoria Cross winner, Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Henderson.
The school remained in its purpose-built home from 1888 until 1971, when it was closed with the coming of the new comprehensive system of education. The remaining schoolteachers and pupils moved to a new school at the opposite end of the town, the Manshead Upper School; the original Grammar School building was modernised and since 1973 has housed the Ashton Middle School, for children aged nine to thirteen. Mike Bannister, commanded the final Concorde commercial flight from New York to London, 24 October 2003 Nigel Benson, Dunstable in Detail is a standard reference for the town and includes details about the Grammar School Gary Cooper and starred in many Hollywood films, e.g. High Noon Graeme Paul Knowles, Dean of St Paul's from 2007 to 2011 Sam Kydd, actor who appeared in many films and on TV Kevin McCloud, TV presenter, Grand Designs Geoffrey Moore CBE, Chairman of Vauxhall Motors from 1979-81 and President of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders from 1981-82 Norman Morris, professor of medicine and humanitarian who revolutionized maternity care in the UK Khawaja Nazimuddin, second Prime Minister of Pakistan, visited his old school dormitory in 1952 Philip Needham, Chief Executive of the ADAS Group from 1995-2000 John Reason, Rugby Union correspondent for the Daily Telegraph from 1964-94 William Willis, Liberal MP for Colchester from 1880-5 Pilot Officer Alec George Wainwright, Royal Air Force, Battle of Britain Pilot, Killed in Action 21 January 1941 Roger Parrott, actor - The King's Speech, as Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.
Dunstable School Old Boys' Association website Dunstable School website
Engineering bricks are a type of brick used where strength, low water porosity or acid resistance are needed. Engineering bricks can be used for damp-proof courses. Clay engineering bricks are defined in § 6.4.51 of British Standard BS ISO 6707-1. Class A bricks have a strength of 125 N/mm2 and water absorption of less than 4.5%. Accrington brick is a type of engineering brick, used in the construction of the foundations in the Empire State Building. Staffordshire blue brick
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only, doing so by complete immersion. Baptist churches generally subscribe to the tenets of soul competency/liberty, salvation through faith alone, scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ordinances: baptism and the Lord's supper. Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest "Baptist" church to 1609 in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect.
Thomas Helwys formulated a distinctively Baptist request that the church and the state be kept separate in matters of law, so that individuals might have freedom of religion. Helwys died in prison as a consequence of the religious conflict with English dissenters under King James I. In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the First and Second Great Awakening increased church membership in the United States. Baptist missionaries have spread their faith to every continent. Baptist historian Bruce Gourley outlines four main views of Baptist origins: the modern scholarly consensus that the movement traces its origin to the 17th century via the English Separatists, the view that it was an outgrowth of Anabaptist traditions, the perpetuity view which assumes that the Baptist faith and practice has existed since the time of Christ, the successionist view, or "Baptist successionism", which argues that Baptist churches existed in an unbroken chain since the time of Christ.
Modern Baptist churches trace their history to the English Separatist movement in the 1600s, the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations. This view of Baptist origins has the most historical support and is the most accepted. Adherents to this position consider the influence of Anabaptists upon early Baptists to be minimal, it was a time of considerable religious turmoil. Both individuals and churches were willing to give up their theological roots if they became convinced that a more biblical "truth" had been discovered. During the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church. There were some Christians who were not content with the achievements of the mainstream Protestant Reformation. There were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses. Of those most critical of the Church's direction, some chose to stay and try to make constructive changes from within the Anglican Church.
They are described by Gourley as cousins of the English Separatists. Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists. Historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor. Three years earlier, while a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, he had broken his ties with the Church of England. Reared in the Church of England, he became "Puritan, English Separatist, a Baptist Separatist," and ended his days working with the Mennonites, he began meeting in England with 60–70 English Separatists, in the face of "great danger." The persecution of religious nonconformists in England led Smyth to go into exile in Amsterdam with fellow Separatists from the congregation he had gathered in Lincolnshire, separate from the established church. Smyth and his lay supporter, Thomas Helwys, together with those they led, broke with the other English exiles because Smyth and Helwys were convinced they should be baptized as believers.
In 1609 Smyth first baptized himself and baptized the others. In 1609, while still there, Smyth wrote a tract titled "The Character of the Beast," or "The False Constitution of the Church." In it he expressed two propositions: first, infants are not to be baptized. Hence, his conviction was that a scriptural church should consist only of regenerate believers who have been baptized on a personal confession of faith, he rejected the Separatist movement's doctrine of infant baptism. Shortly thereafter, Smyth left the group, layman Thomas Helwys took over the leadership, leading the church back to England in 1611. Smyth became committed to believers' baptism as the only biblical baptism, he was convinced on the basis of his interpretation of Scripture that infants would not be damned should they die in infancy. Smyth, convinced that his self-baptism was invalid, applied with the Mennonites for membership, he died while waiting for membership, some of his followers became Mennonites. Thomas Helwys and others kept their Baptist commitments.
The modern Baptist denomination is an outgrowth of Smyth's movement. Baptists rejected the name Anabaptist. McBeth writes that as late as the 18th century, many Baptists referred to themselves as "the Christians commonly—though falsely—called Anabaptists."Another milestone in the early dev