click links in text for more info


Caelum is a faint constellation in the southern sky, introduced in the 1750s by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille and counted among the 88 modern constellations. Its name means “chisel” in Latin, it was known as Caelum Scalptorium, it is the eighth-smallest constellation, subtends a solid angle of around 0.038 steradians, just less than that of Corona Australis. Due to its small size and location away from the plane of the Milky Way, Caelum is a rather barren constellation, with few objects of interest; the constellation's brightest star, Alpha Caeli, is only of magnitude 4.45, only one other star, γ 1 Caeli, is brighter than magnitude 5. Other notable objects in Caelum are RR Caeli, a binary star with one known planet 20.13 parsecs away. Caelum was incepted as one of fourteen southern constellations in the 18th century by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, a French astronomer and celebrater of the Age of Enlightenment, it retains its name Burin among French speakers, latinized in his catalogue of 1763 as Caelum Sculptoris.

Francis Baily shortened this name to Caelum. In Lacaille's original chart, it was shown as a pair of engraver's tools: a standard burin and more specific shape-forming échoppe tied by a ribbon, but came to be ascribed a simple chisel. Johann Elert Bode stated the name as plural with a singular possessor, Caela Scalptoris – in German Grabstichel – but this did not stick. Caelum is bordered by Dorado and Pictor to the south and Eridanus to the east, Lepus to the north, Columba to the west. Covering only 125 square degrees, it ranks 81st of the 88 modern constellations in size, its main asterism consists of four stars, twenty stars in total are brighter than magnitude 6.5. The constellation's boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are a 12-sided polygon. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 04h 19.5m and 05h 05.1m and declinations of −27.02° to −48.74°. The International Astronomical Union adopted the three-letter abbreviation “Cae” for the constellation in 1922.

Its main stars are visible in favourable conditions and with a clear southern horizon, for part of the year as far as about the 41st parallel northThese stars avoid being engulfed by daylight for some of every day to viewers in mid- and well-inhabited higher latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Caelum shares with Taurus and Orion midnight culmination in December, resulting in this fact. In winter the constellation can be observed sufficiently inset from the horizons during its rising before dawn and/or setting after dusk as it culminates at around mid-day, well above the sun. In South Africa, their sub-tropical neighbouring areas and some of Australia in high June the key stars may be traced before dawn in the east. Caelum is a faint constellation: It has no star brighter than magnitude 4 and only two stars brighter than magnitude 5. Lacaille gave six stars Bayer designations, labeling them Alpha to Zeta in 1756, but omitted Epsilon and designated two adjacent stars as Gamma. Bode extended the designations to Rho for other stars.

Caelum is too far south for any of its stars to bear Flamsteed designations. The brightest star, α Caeli, is a double star, containing an F-type main-sequence star of magnitude 4.45 and a red dwarf of magnitude 12.5, 20.17 parsecs from Earth. Β Caeli, another F-type star of magnitude 5.05, is further away, being located 28.67 parsecs from Earth. Unlike α, β Caeli is a subgiant star evolved from the main sequence. Δ Caeli of magnitude 5.05, is a B-type subgiant and is much farther from Earth, at 216 parsecs. Γ 1 Caeli is a double-star with a red giant primary of magnitude 4.58 and a secondary of magnitude 8.1. The primary is 55.59 parsecs from Earth. The two components are difficult to resolve with small amateur telescopes because of their difference in visual magnitude and their close separation; this star system forms an optical double with the unrelated X Caeli, a Delta Scuti variable located 98.33 parsecs from Earth. These are a class of short-period pulsating stars that have been used as standard candles and as subjects to study astroseismology.

X Caeli itself is a binary star a contact binary, meaning that the stars are so close that they share envelopes. The only other variable star in Caelum visible to the naked eye is RV Caeli, a pulsating red giant of spectral type M1III, which varies between magnitudes 6.44 and 6.56. Three other stars in Caelum are still referred to by their Bayer designations, although they are only on the edge of naked-eye visibility. Ν Caeli is another double star, containing a white giant of magnitude 6.07 and a star of magnitude 10.66, with unknown spectral type. The system is 52.55 parsecs away. Λ Caeli, at magnitude 6.24, is much redder and farther away, being a red giant around 227 parsecs from Earth. (

Fabio Cerutti

Fabio Cerutti is an Italian sprinter who specializes in the 100 metres. He finished sixth in 60 metres at the 2007 European Indoor Championships, he competed at the 2008 World Indoor Championships and the 2008 Olympic Games without reaching the final round. In Beijing he finished 5th in his heat in 10.49 seconds. Together with Simone Collio, Emanuele di Gregorio and Jacques Riparelli he took part in the 4 x 100 metres relay, but they were disqualified in the first round, his personal best time is 10.13 seconds, achieved in July 2008 in Cagliari. He equalled the Italian record of 6.55 seconds for 60m at the Italian indoor championships on 22 February 2009 winning his semi-final, however he was disqualified in the final due to a false start and it was won by Simone Collio. At the European Indoor Championships in Turin, Cerutti finished second to Dwain Chambers in a time of 6.56. His teammate, Emanuele Di Gregorio ran a 6.56 earning him the bronze medal. He competed at the 2009 World Championships in Athletics, reaching the quarterfinals stage of the 100 m.

He won 4 national championships at individual senior level. Italian Athletics Championships 100 metres: 2008, 2012, 2015 Italian Indoor Athletics Championships 60 metres: 2014 Italian all-time lists - 100 metres Italy national relay team Fabio Cerutti at World Athletics Fabio Cerutti at Olympics at

Amorbia humerosana

Amorbia humerosana, the white-lined leafroller, is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found from the Gulf states to the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada; the length of the forewings is 11 -- 13 mm for 12 -- 13.5 mm for females. The ground color of the forewings is dark gray, the median and subterminal fascia paler, varying to a pale brown with a dark costal blotch; the hindwings are brown with a darker patch at the apex. Adults are on wing from March to September; the larvae feed on Picea glauca, Picea rubens, Pinus species, Abies balsamea, Larix laricina, Viburnum species, Rhus radicans, Rhus aromatica, Aralia species, Solidago species, Alnus species, Betula species, Castanea dentata, Lindera species, Asparagus officinalis, Gaylussacia species, Malus domestica and Salix species. They roll the leaves of their host plants. Full-grown larvae reach a length of about 25 mm

The Blob (Pacific Ocean)

The Blob was a large mass of warm water in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of North America. It was first detected in late 2013 and continued to spread throughout 2014 and 2015, it is known as a marine heatwave. Sea surface temperature indicated that The Blob persisted into 2016, but was thought to have dissipated that year; this warm water mass was unusual in ocean conditions and was considered to have a role in the formation of the unusual weather conditions felt in the Pacific Coast of North America. The warm waters of the Blob were nutrient poor and adversely affected marine life. By September 2016, "The Blob" made itself known to meteorologists; the Blob was first detected in the autumn of 2013 and the early months of 2014 by Nicholas Bond of the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean of the University of Washington, his colleagues, when a large circular body of sea-water did not cool as expected and remained much warmer than the average normal temperatures for that location and season.

Bond the State Climatologist for Washington, coined the term "The Blob", with the term first appearing in an article in the monthly newsletter of the Office of the Washington State Climatologist for June 2014. The Blob was reported as being 500 miles wide and 300 feet deep, it expanded and reached the size 1,000 miles long, 1,000 miles wide and 300 feet deep, in the month of June 2014 when the term "The Blob" was coined. The Blob now hugs the coast of North America from Mexico to Alaska and beyond, over a stretch of 2,000 miles and more, has formed three distinct patches, the first, off the coast of Canada, Washington and California, a region known to oceanographers as the Coastal Upwelling Domain. In February 2014, the temperature of the Blob was around 2.5 °C warmer than what was usual for the time of year. A NOAA scientist noted in September 2014, based on ocean temperature records, that the North Pacific Ocean had not experienced temperatures so warm since climatologists began taking recordings.

The immediate cause of the phenomenon was the lower than normal rates of heat loss from the sea to the atmosphere, compounded with lower than usual water circulation resulting in a static upper layer of water. Both of these are attributed to a static high pressure region in the atmosphere, termed the Ridiculously Resilient Ridge, which has existed since spring 2014; the lack of air movement impacts the wind-forced currents and the wind-generated stirring of surface waters. These in turn have influenced the weather in the Pacific Northwest from the winter of 2013–2014 onwards and may have been associated with the unusually hot summer experienced in the continental Pacific Northwest in 2014; the reason for the phenomenon remains unclear. Some experts consider that the wedge of warm water portends a cyclical change with the surface waters of the mid-latitude Pacific Ocean flipping from a cold phase to a warm phase in a cycle known as the Pacific decadal oscillation; this poorly-understood change happens at irregular intervals of decades.

During a warm phase, the west Pacific becomes part of the eastern ocean warms. Scientists believe a cold phase started in the late 1990s and the arrival of the Blob may be the start of the next warm phase; the PDO phases may be related to the likelihood of El Nino events. NASA climatologist William Patzert predicts that if the PDO is at work here, there will be widespread climatological consequences and southern California and the American South may be in for a period of high precipitation, with an increase in the rate of global warming. Another climatologist, Matt Newman of the University of Colorado, does not think the Blob fits the pattern of a shift in the PDO, he believes the unusually warm water is due to the persistent area of high pressure stationary over the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Dan Cayan of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography is unsure about the ultimate cause of the phenomenon, but states "there's no doubt that this anomaly in sea surface temperature is meaningful". Sea surface temperature anomalies are a physical indicator which adversely affect the zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific and in the Coastal Upwelling Domain.

Warm waters are much less nutrient-rich than the cold upwelling waters which were the norm till off the Pacific Coast. This results in reduced phytoplankton productivity with knock on effects on the zooplankton which feed on it and the higher levels of the food chain. Species lower in the food web that prefer colder waters, which tend to be fattier were replaced by warmer water species of lower nutritional value; the Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle predicted reduced catches of coho and Chinook salmon, a major contributing factor being the raised temperatures of seawater in the Blob. Salmon catches dropped. Thousands of sea lion pups are starving in California leading to forced beachings. Thousands of Cassin's auklets in Oregon have starved due to lack of food. Animals which favour warm waters and which have never been seen as far north as Alaska, have been spotted, examples being the warm water thresher sharks and ocean sunfish. In the spring of 2016, acres of Velella velella were reported in the waters south of the Copper River Delta.

The discovery of a skipjack tuna a fish of warm tropical waters, off Copper River, in Alaska, 200 miles north of the previous geographic limit, a dead sooty storm-petrel (Oce

Marlee Matlin filmography

The following is a list of the film and television appearances of American actress Marlee Matlin. Matlin, who had acted in stage productions, made her screen debut as the female lead in the 1986 film Children of a Lesser God, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress and a Golden Globe Award. Matlin, deaf plays deaf characters. However, in 1994 Matlin played a hearing woman when she appeared in the title role of the television movie Against Her Will: The Carrie Buck Story, based on the true story of Carrie Buck, not deaf. Matlin was nominated for a CableACE Award for her performance as Carrie Buck. Although Matlin has continued to make occasional film appearances, most of her work has been in television. From 1991 to 1993, she starred in the police drama series Reasonable Doubts as Assistant District Attorney Tess Kaufman, receiving two Golden Globe nominations, she has had recurring roles as Mayor Laurie Bey in Picket Fences, pollster Joey Lucas in The West Wing, attorney Ruby Whitlow in My Name Is Earl, gay sculptor Jodi Lerner in The L Word, guidance counselor Melody Bledsoe in Switched at Birth.

Her numerous guest appearances have included Seinfeld, The Practice, Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, each of which brought her another Emmy nomination. Matlin has competed on the game shows Dancing with the Stars and The Celebrity Apprentice. On the April 3, 2011 episode of The Celebrity Apprentice, Matlin raised $986,000 for her charity, the Starkey Hearing Foundation, setting a record for the most funds raised for charity in a single event on any television show; the show's production company donated an additional $14,000 to bring the contribution to one million dollars. List of awards and nominations received by Marlee Matlin "Marlee Matlin – Biography - Filmography". AllMovie. AllRovi. Retrieved September 12, 2014. "Marlee Matlin – Filmography - Actress - Producer - Self - Archive Footage". Internet Movie Database. IMDb. Retrieved September 12, 2014. "Marlee Matlin – Biography - Highest Rated Movies - Filmography". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved September 12, 2014.

"Marlee Matlin – Famous Works - Stage Appearances". Film Reference. Advameg. Retrieved September 12, 2014. > About Marlee > Film/Television at the Official website Marlee Matlin filmography at AllMovie Marlee Matlin filmography on IMDb Marlee Matlin filmography at the TCM Movie Database

History of Polish intelligence services

This article covers the history of Polish Intelligence services dating back to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Though the first official Polish government service entrusted with espionage and counter-intelligence was not formed until 1918, Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth had developed networks of informants in neighbouring countries. Envoys and ambassadors had gathered intelligence using bribery; such agents included the 17th-century Polish poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn. Polish kings and Polish–Lithuanian military commanders such as Stanisław Koniecpolski maintained intelligence networks; the hetmans were responsible for intelligence-gathering in the Ottoman Empire, its vassal states and disputed territories such as Wallachia and Transylvania. Intelligence networks operated in Muscovy and among the restless Cossacks. In 1683, during the Battle of Vienna, the Polish merchant-spy Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki secured a promise of military assistance for Vienna, besieged by the Turkish forces of Kara Mustafa Pasha, thus facilitated the victory of a Christian European coalition led by Polish King Jan III Sobieski.

Kulczycki is reported to have received as reward for his services the Turks' supplies of coffee beans and to have established Vienna's first coffee house. During the period when Poland had been partitioned by three adjacent empires, intelligence played an important role in patriotic Poles' surveillance of their occupiers and in their planning and conduct of successive Polish uprisings. In 1914 Józef Piłsudski created the Polish Military Organization, an intelligence and special-operations organization which worked alongside the Polish Legions; as such, it was independent of Austro-Hungary and loyal to Piłsudski and to a future independent Poland. Upon achieving independence in 1918, Poland established armed forces. Reflecting the influence of the French Military Mission to Poland, the Polish General Staff was divided into divisions entrusted with specific tasks: Oddział I – Organization and mobilization. Division II was formed in October 1918 before Poland had declared her independence. Called the "General Staff Information Department," Division II was divided into sections: Sekcja I – Reconnaissance and close intelligence.

An extensive network of domestic and foreign informants developed rapidly. This was due to Poland's poor economic situation, itself the result of over a century of foreign occupation. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Poland's economic and political situation had forced hundreds of thousands to emigrate. With the advent of Polish independence, many émigrés offered their services to Polish intelligence agencies. Others Poles, living in the former Russian Empire and were now making their way home through war-torn Russia, provided priceless intelligence on the logistics, order of battle and status of the parties in the Russian Civil War. In Western Europe the Polish diaspora formed the backbone of heavy industry. Many of these provided intelligence on economic conditions. After the outbreak of the Polish-Soviet War in early 1919, intelligence from the east proved vital to Poland's survival against a far superior enemy. A separate organization was formed within Polish Intelligence, taking over most intelligence duties for the duration of the war.

This was a Biuro Wywiadowcze comprising seven departments: Organisation. The fourth department, Offensive Intelligence "C", became the most developed because it carried out all the duties connected with "front-line" reconnaissance and intelligence, as well as "long-range" intelligence and surveillance in countries surrounding Bolshevik Russia, including Siberia, Persia, China and Japan; the third department, Offensive Intelligence "B," controlled an intelligence network in European Russia. Additional intelligence was obtained from Russian defectors and prisoners of war who crossed the Polish lines in their thousands after the 1920 Battle of Warsaw. After the Polish–Soviet War and the Treaty of Riga, Polish Intelligence had to restructure to cope with new challenges. Though Poland had won most of her border conflicts, her international situation was unenviable. By mid-1921, Section II had been restructured into three main departments, each overseeing a number of offices: Organization Department:Organization.

Information Department:East.