Caen is a commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the department of Calvados; the city proper has 108,365 inhabitants, while its urban area has 420,000, making Caen the largest city in former Lower Normandy. It is the third largest municipality in all of Normandy after Le Havre and Rouen and the third largest city proper in Normandy, after Rouen and Le Havre; the metropolitan area of Caen, in turn, is the second largest in Normandy after that of Rouen, the 21st largest in France. It is located 15 kilometres inland from the English Channel, 200 kilometres north-west of Paris, connected to the south of England by the Caen--Portsmouth ferry route. Caen is located in the centre of its northern region, it is a centre of political and cultural power. Located a few miles from the coast, the landing beaches, the bustling resorts of Deauville and Cabourg, Norman Switzerland and Pays d'Auge, Caen is considered the archetype of Normandy. Caen is known for its historical buildings built during the reign of William the Conqueror, buried there, for the Battle for Caen—heavy fighting that took place in and around Caen during the Battle of Normandy in 1944, destroying much of the city.

The city has now preserved the memory by erecting a memorial and a museum dedicated to peace, the Mémorial de Caen. Current arms: Gules, a single-towered open castle Or, windowed and masoned sable. Under the Ancien Régime: Per fess and azure, 3 fleurs de lys Or. During the First French Empire: Gules, a single-towered castle Or, a chief of Good Imperial Cities. Today, Caen has no motto; as a result, its spelling has not been updated: Un Dieu, un Roy, une Foy, une Loy. This motto is reflected in a notable old Chant royal. Caen's home port code is CN. Caen was known in Roman times as'Catumagos', from the Gaulish roots magos meaning'field' and catu meaning'combat', it remained a minor settlement throughout the Roman period and began to see major development commence in the 10th century, under the patronage of the Dukes of Normandy. Around 1060, William the Conqueror began construction on the Château de Caen, which became the centre of the ducal court. Duchess Matilda of Flanders founded the Benedictine Abbey of Sainte-Trinité, Caen around the same time being buried in the abbey.

Caen succeeded Bayeux as the capital of Lower Normandy, complementing the second ducal capital of Rouen. Caen fell to Philip II of France on 21 May 1204, was incorporated along with the remainder of Normandy into the Kingdom of France. In 1346, King Edward III of England led his army against the city, it was expected that a siege of several weeks would be required, but the army took the city in less than a day, on 26 July 1346, storming and sacking it, killing 3,000 of its citizens, burning much of the merchants' quarter on the Ile Ste-Jean. During the attack, English officials searched its archives and found a copy of the 1339 Franco-Norman plot to invade England, devised by Philip VI of France and Normandy; this was subsequently used as propaganda to justify the supplying and financing of the conflict and its continuation. Only the castle of Caen held out, despite attempts to besiege it. A few days the English left, marching to the east and on to their victory at the Battle of Crécy, it was captured following a siege by Henry V in 1417 and treated harshly for being the first town to put up any resistance to his invasion.

In 1450 towards the end of the war, French forces recaptured Caen. During the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War, Caen was liberated from the Nazis in early July, a month after the Normandy landings those by British I Corps on 6 June 1944. British and Canadian troops had intended to capture the town on D-Day; however they were held up north of the city until 9 July, when an intense bombing campaign during Operation Charnwood destroyed 70% of the city and killed 2,000 French civilians. The Allies seized the western quarters, a month than Field Marshal Montgomery's original plan. During the battle, many of the town's inhabitants sought refuge in the Abbaye aux Hommes, built by William the Conqueror some 800 years before; the spire of the Church of Saint-Pierre and the university were destroyed by the British and Canadian bombing. Post-Second World War work included the reconstruction of complete districts of the city and the university campus, it led to the current urbanization of Caen. Having lost many of its historic quarters and its university campus in the war, the city does not have the atmosphere of a traditional Normandy town such as Honfleur, Cabourg and Bayeux.

The Canadian Army Film and Photo Unit filmed the D-Day offensive and Orne breakout several weeks then returned several months to document the city's recovery efforts. The resulting film, is preserved in the National Archives of Canada; the first mentions of the name of Caen are found in different acts of the dukes of Normandy: Cadon 1021/1025, Cadumus 1025, Cathim 1026/1027. Year 1070 of the Parker manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle refers to Caen as Kadum, year 1086 of the Laud manuscript gives the name as Caþum. Despite a lack of sources as to the origin of the settlements, the name Caen would seem to be of Gaulish origin, from the words catu-, referring to military activities and magos, hence meaning "manoeuvre field" or "battlefield". In Layamon's Brut, the poet asserts. Caen is in an area of high humidity. The

Ali Kianfar

Ali Kianfar is a Sufi master, teacher and international speaker. He is a co-founder and co-director of the International Association of Sufism and Editor-in-Chief of the online journal, Sufism: An Inquiry, he has taught Islamic Philosophy for over forty years. Kianfar was born in Iran and began his study and devotion to the discipline of Sufism in his twenties under the direct supervision of 20th century Sufi Master, Moulana Shah Maghsoud of the Uwaiysi school or “tarighat.” Kianfar was appointed to teach in the Uwaiysi school. Kianfar was among the first of Moulana Shah Maghsoud’s students to be given permission to teach Sufism. To commemorate this honor, his master gave Kianfar the title of “Shah Nazar,” and accepted him as a spiritual son, he began his teaching in Iran and has continued to teach Sufism throughout North America and the Middle East. As Sufi Master, he guides students under the name, Shah Nazar Seyyed Dr. Ali Kianfar. Since his arrival in the United States in 1979, Kianfar began teaching Sufism for Persian and American audiences through private gatherings and university lectures in many cities across the United States.

Kianfar established a Department of Sufism and Islamic Philosophy at Yuin University in Los Angeles. He served as the chair of that department. Kianfar continues to lecture in the United States and internationally, he has given talks on Sufism, Islam and the relationship between Science and Spirituality at conferences held in Australia, Scotland, The United States and Uzbekistan. Kianfar’s approach in explaining the subtle, mystical world of Sufism to western audiences relies as much on contemporary science and psychology as it does on traditional Sufi philosophy, his own ideas spring from philosophical and rational principles confirmed by his spiritual and inward experience. In this way, he models what he believes is the best way to understand Sufism and the reality of each individual, his teachings are consistent and compatible with ancient Sufi wisdom and modern scientific principles. Among Kianfar’s many sayings is: “Tranquility is available only by unity of heart and mind.” Kianfar created the 40 Days: Alchemy of Tranquility program, a Sufi-Psychology system which brings western psychology, psychological principles and Sufi teachings together to establish a new and innovative approach in the realm of psychotherapy.

Kianfar’s discoveries and ideas present an interesting challenge to the current psychological approach and are to have a deep impact on the standard for psychotherapy. His integration of "chelleh" into the practice of psychology is new to the field and a practical extension. Chelleh is a forty days technique of purification rooted in many mystical traditions, his principles are introduced through the 40 Days team and the therapists at the Community Healing Centers in the Bay Area of California. Kianfar has been one of the important Muslim Sufi leaders to participate in the interfaith movement, he has been involved in many interfaith events and conferences, promoting peace and understanding among faith traditions. He and his wife and IAS co-founder, Dr. Nahid Angha, have helped to raise awareness about the peaceful dimensions of Islam and Islamic spirituality while opening the lines of communication for a better understanding of humanity and the complexity of the human being, they have developed bonds of deep friendship and mutual appreciation with countless faith leaders, philanthropic organizations and educators.

"Illumination of the Names: Meditation by Sufi Masters on the Ninety-Nine Beautiful Names of God," IAS, 2011, ISBN 978-0918437273 "Seasons of the Soul: The Spoken Wisdom of Shah Nazar Seyyed Ali Kianfar," IAS, 2006, ISBN 978-0918437259 "The Zekr," IAS, 2000, ISBN 978-0918437013 "Fatimah" "Oveys-e-Gharan and the History of the Robe" "An Introduction to Religion," IAS, 1996, ISBN 978-0918437136In addition, Kianfar contributes articles in the online journal, Sufism: An Inquiry and to the Sufism-Psychology Series, "Human Self, Volume 1: Body," IAS, 2012, ISBN 978-0-918437-29-7

Leon Louw

Leon Louw is a South African intellectual, author and policy advisor. He is the executive director and cofounder of the Free Market Foundation, a nonprofit organisation ranked at number 123 in a 2017 list of the most influential think-tanks in the world, he is a featured speaker and writer in South African and international media. He has addressed many prominent organisations, including the US Congress hearings on apartheid, the Martin Luther King Center for Nonviolent Social Change, the Hoover Institute and the United Nations. Leon Louw was born in the town of Krugersdorp on 18 March 1948 to a conservative Afrikaner family. After his mother died in his infancy, he was raised by relatives in Potchefstroom, where he attended preschool and started primary school; when his father remarried, he was moved to the new family home in Johannesburg where he completed primary school and attended secondary school. After matriculating, he studied law at the University of the Witwatersrand, after which he completed his BJuris degree through the University of South Africa whilst serving legal articles at a law firm.

At university, he became a anti-apartheid activist. He studied the major works of other communist writers; as an activist participating in anti-apartheid demonstrations and underground meetings he found himself at odds with the law and the police. He went on to work with Winnie Mandela, other anti-apartheid leaders, did courier work for the ANC. Louw experienced a “philosophical shift” during his early twenties when he was an article clerk at one of South Africa’s leading law firms, his activist life took a new turn due to an event that changed his life and led to the work he does now: “Every day I saw and patronised an old black lady who would sell fruit on the sidewalk outside our law offices. One day I saw the police kick her basket of fruit into the street, chase her down around the corner where they caught and arrested her, They threw her violently into their police van, drove off. I followed, they took her to central Johannesburg police station where I spent the rest of the day trying to get her released.”Louw asked his employer to investigate the plight of informal black traders and to provide them with legal defence.

After telling him that it was “none of their business”, his employer reluctantly allowed Louw to work pro bono for illegal street vendors, taxi operators and cottage industries. It was at this point that Louw first found himself questioning Marxism its anti-business and anti-individual liberty dogma, which he would abandon, by virtue of what he observed “in the real world”, as he puts it, under the influence of a colleague who introduced him to Ayn Rand’s Objectivist philosophy. In defence of informal traders, Louw began to work with a trade unionist from the National Union of Mineworkers, Laurence Mavundla, like Louw, had been enraged by the notorious “Granny Moyo” incident – she died due to head injuries suffered when tossed into a police van – and other atrocities perpetrated against what Louw saw as aspirant black capitalists, he teamed up with Mavundla’s African Chamber of Hawkers and Informal Businesses, worked with others in the black community for the liberation of black taxi operators, peasant farmers and informal contractors.

His work entailed representing street vendors in court cases, reclaiming their confiscated merchandise, seeking injunctions against illegal raids and brutality, confronting and obstructing police who were harassing small enterprise owners, organising or joining protest action. A used online biography describes Louw's past and present activism as follows: "Small and micro business, black economic empowerment, have been Leon Louw’s principle interest throughout his public life, he has been intimately involved with and a prominent activist for organised and informal SMMEs, starting with the fledgling National African Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Johannesburg Street Vendors in the late 1960s. Much of his life presently is spent with grassroots black communities in tribal areas and inner cities, fighting for their right to trade and own the land they occupy."In 1977, Louw was the Legal Manager at the Association of Chambers of Commerce of South Africa. Louw was one of the co-founders of the Free Market Foundation of Southern Africa in 1975, is the Executive Director of the organisation.

He represents the FMF in print and broadcast media, at FMF events. In March 1981, Louw said of affirmative action: "The most offensive aspect of affirmative action is the way it humiliates blacks, it implies that they are inferior, that they are not good enough to handle legal equality with whites. It is the most devious and arrogant form of white pseudo-liberal paternalism."In the early 1980s, Louw was the Chairman of the Commission of Inquiry into Ciskei Economic Policy. In 1987, at a conference of the Institute for Democratic Alternatives in South Africa in Port Elizabeth, Louw said that the struggle against apartheid was about winning freedom, not power, for black South Africans, that whites were concerned that a black government would be coercive, he argued that democracy and economic freedom were interdependent concepts which cannot exist in each other's absence. In the same year, at a symposium in honor of Martin Luther King Jr. in Atlanta, Louw said that a peaceful solution to apartheid South Africa's race conflict would be to include blacks in the freedoms whites had until that point enjoyed.

Whites, on the other hand, would require security of their already-existing freedoms, against a potentially-vengeful black government. Above all, the solution must include "the abolition