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Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living, transparent nematode, about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments. It is the type species of its genus; the name is rhabditis and Latin elegans. In 1900, Maupas named it Rhabditides elegans, Osche placed it in the subgenus Caenorhabditis in 1952, in 1955, Dougherty raised Caenorhabditis to the status of genus. C. Elegans lacks respiratory or circulatory systems. Most of these nematodes are hermaphrodites and a few are males. Males have specialised tails for mating. In 1963, Sydney Brenner proposed research into C. elegans in the area of neuronal development. In 1974, he began research into the molecular and developmental biology of C. elegans, which has since been extensively used as a model organism. It was the first multicellular organism to have its whole genome sequenced, as of 2019, is the only organism to have its connectome completed. C. elegans is unsegmented and bilaterally symmetrical. It has a cuticle, four main epidermal cords, a fluid-filled pseudocoelom.

It has some of the same organ systems as larger animals. About one in a thousand individuals is male and the rest are hermaphrodites; the basic anatomy of C. elegans includes a mouth, intestine and collagenous cuticle. Like all nematodes, they have neither a respiratory system; the four bands of muscles that run the length of the body are connected to a neural system that allows the muscles to move the animal's body only as dorsal bending or ventral bending, but not left or right, except for the head, where the four muscle quadrants are wired independently from one another. When a wave of dorsal/ventral muscle contractions proceeds from the back to the front of the animal, the animal is propelled backwards; when a wave of contractions is initiated at the front and proceeds posteriorly along the body, the animal is propelled forwards. Because of this dorsal/ventral bias in body bends, any normal living, moving individual tends to lie on either its left side or its right side when observed crossing a horizontal surface.

A set of ridges on the lateral sides of the body cuticle, the alae, is believed to give the animal added traction during these bending motions. In relation to lipid metabolism, C. elegans does not have any specialized adipose tissues, a pancreas, a liver, or blood to deliver nutrients compared to mammals. Neutral lipids are instead stored in the intestine and embryos; the epidermis corresponds to the mammalian adipocytes by being the main triglyceride depot. The pharynx is a muscular food pump in the head of C. elegans, triangular in cross-section. This transports it directly to the intestine. A set of "valve cells" connects the pharynx to the intestine, but how this valve operates is not understood. After digestion, the contents of the intestine are released via the rectum, as is the case with all other nematodes. No direct connection exists between the pharynx and the excretory canal, which functions in the release of liquid urine. Males have a single-lobed gonad, a vas deferens, a tail specialized for mating, which incorporates spicules.

Hermaphrodites have two ovaries and spermatheca, a single uterus. Numerous gut granules are present in the intestine of C. elegans, the functions of which are still not known, as are many other aspects of this nematode, despite the many years that it has been studied. These gut granules are found in all of the Rhabditida orders, they are similar to lysosomes in that they feature an acidic interior and the capacity for endocytosis, but they are larger, reinforcing the view of their being storage organelles. A remarkable feature of the granules is that when they are observed under ultraviolet light, they react by emitting an intense blue fluorescence. Another phenomenon seen is termed'death fluorescence'; as the worms die, a dramatic burst of blue fluorescence is emitted. This death fluorescence takes place in an anterior to posterior wave that moves along the intestine, is seen in both young and old worms, whether subjected to lethal injury or peacefully dying of old age. Many theories have been posited on the functions of the gut granules, with earlier ones being eliminated by findings.

They are thought to store zinc as one of their functions. Recent chemical analysis has identified the blue fluorescent material they contain as a glycosylated form of anthranilic acid; the need for the large amounts of AA the many gut granules contain is questioned. One possibility is. Another possibility is; this is seen a possible link to the melanin–containing melanosomes. The hermaphroditic worm is considered to be a specialized form of self-fertile female, as its soma is female; the hermaphroditic germline produces male gametes first, lays eggs through its uterus after internal fertilization. Hermaphrodites produce all their sperm in the L4 stage and produce only oocytes; the hermaphroditic gonad acts as an ovotestis with sperm cells being stored in the same area of the gonad as the oocytes until the first oocyte pushes the sperm into the spermatheca. The male can inseminate the hermaphrodite; the sperm of C

Suzuki GSX-R1100

The Suzuki GSX-R1100 was a sport bike from Suzuki's GSX-R series of motorcycles introduced in 1986. In the mid 1970s, the motorcycle industry was in a period of transition. Noise and pollution concerns lead to large two-stroke motorcycles being banned from the streets in many countries. There were no purpose-built four-stroke sport bikes, most of which were derivatives of regular motorcycles; those built by Japanese manufacturers were built around an in-line four-cylinder, air-cooled engine wrapped in a steel double cradle frame, most of which were similar enough that they became known as the Universal Japanese Motorcycle. Seeing an unfulfilled market position, Suzuki - which had made its reputation by building two strokes - built its first large four-stroke bikes: the dual overhead camshaft GS750 and the GS400 for the American market in 1976; the GS550 arrived soon after and by 1978 the formidable GS1000 were impressing customers everywhere. 1980 saw the introduction of the 16-valve DOHC engine.

It witnessed the creation of the extremely radical and influential Suzuki Katana, a bike stylistically resembling a modern sport bike on the outside but built on existing technology of the day, although Suzuki were quick to adopt the DOHC 16-valve cylinder head with their GSX 1100 range in 1980. In 1983 Honda introduced the VF750 Interceptor, a radically innovative bike that set the trend for modern sport bikes. Kawasaki followed suit in 1984 with its Kawasaki GPZ900R Ninja. Meanwhile, Suzuki soldiered on with its powerful and torquey but heavy air-cooled 16-valve DOHC GS1100/GSX1100EZ/GSX1100EF/EG: a capable machine but one of its generation if it was at the forefront of it; this engine was very strong, many Suzuki engines get deserved "bulletproof" reputations, as many drag racers found out - over 300BHP was possible and many ended up being turbocharged and tuned. The GSX750ES was well regarded for its fine handling, but again was another machine that represented the most refined development of its own current generation.

At Suzuki it was felt that something much newer was needed for the future, both in chassis and engine terms. By the mid-1980s the motorcycle industry was in a period of decline. Honda and Yamaha had engaged in a production war in order to decide who would become the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer, resulting in oversupply. Brand new bikes went unsold, stacked up in dealers' floors. For many years after, consumers could buy new old stock bikes, a previous year's model that had lain in its packing crate for years waiting to be sold, for the fraction of the price of a new bike. Needless to say, production tanked and manufacturers worried about their futures. In the midst of this market, Etsuo Yokouchi and his team of designers began work on a bike intended to change the market and outperform Honda's Interceptor, they began in 1983 on Suzuki's domestic market Gamma 250 with the goal of producing a lightweight two-stroke for the streets. The RG250 was the world's first production alloy framed motorcycle.

Building upon the Gamma's success, Suzuki introduced the four-cylinder, four-stroke, aluminum framed GSX-R400 in 1984 for the Japanese market. A full 18 percent lighter than comparable bikes on the market, the first GSX-R set the tone for those that would follow. "I felt that if we could do a 400 cc bike, 18 percent lighter, we should be able to do the same with a 750", recalls Mr. Yokouchi. Using a current model GS/GSX750ES as a starting point, Yokouchi's team went through every part, reducing weight wherever possible. A new aluminum frame was engineered in a distinctive shape with square tubes stretching back over and around the top of the engine turning downwards just past the carburetors to beneath the engine where they met the lower tubes; this design, unheard of at the time, would soon become familiar to a generation of motorcyclists and is referred to as the "humpback" frame. Where welding would have added unnecessary weight aircraft quality rivets were used. Weight was reduced further until parts failed to make the bike as light as practicable.

To save more weight, the suspension was engineered differently from most bikes of the day. The top of the shock was mounted solidly to the frame while the bottom was attached to a banana shaped linkage that housed an eccentric cam below the swing arm; the resulting system was lightweight and lowered the bike's overall center of gravity. While the engine used was a DOHC, four valve per cylinder design typical of most contemporary motorcycles, it had unique features that set it apart from other air-cooled designs of the day; the GSX-R used oil to cool parts of the engine otherwise unreachable by air, like the top of the combustion chamber. To provide enough oil for both cooling and lubrication, the team designed a double chamber pump, using the high-pressure side to lubricate the bearings while the low-pressure, high-volume side provided oil to the cooling circuit; the end result became known as the Suzuki Advanced Cooling System. The resulting motorcycle was rigorously tested to its breaking point: weaknesses found and re-engineered until the bugs were worked out.

Many of the bike's non mechanical design features were dictated by concerns other than pure mechanics. The flat front fascia and trade mark dual headlight were incorporated because designers wanted to give the bike the look of an endurance racer and because regulations dictated that the headlight be behind the front axle; the wide plastic panels under the seat were added to hide an unsightly exhaust hanger. The resulting GSX-R750 was introduced in 1985 but withheld from the United States due to ta

San Gabriel de Yungue-Ouinge

San Gabriel de Yungue-Ouinge, or San Gabriel de Yunque, was the site of the first Spanish capital of its provincial territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México. It is located where the Rio Chama meets the Rio Grande, west of present-day Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico; the pueblo of Yuque Yunque was provided as a gesture of goodwill toward Juan de Oñate, he founded his colonial government there. It was moved to Santa Fe in 1610; the site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1964. The archaeological site was leveled and plowed over in 1984, a historical marker has been placed on the west side of the Rio Grande, off the old New Mexico State Road 74; the pueblos of Ohkay and Yunque were two interrelated Puebloan settlements, Ohkay's establishment estimated around 1200 CE and Yunque's around 1300. The present-day tribal lands of Ohkay Owingeh encompass the area of both settlements; when Juan de Oñate arrived in 1598 to establish a Spanish provincial headquarters, he at first established a military camp outside the Ohkay pueblo, which he dubbed "San Juan" The Puebloans agreed to make the Yunque pueblo, located between the Chama River and Rio Grande, available as a compound for the Spanish, its residents were evacuated to Ohkay.

In the fall of 1598, the Spanish dug an acequia to bring water to Yunque. The site remained New Mexico's colonial capital until 1610, when Oñate was replaced by Pedro de Peralta, who established the Spanish capital at Santa Fe; the Yunque pueblo was either abandoned by the Spanish, or left with a few colonists, but it was abandoned entirely. The location of this early colonial capital was of recurring interest to historians, was tentatively identified in the 1890s. In the 1930s, the National Park Service surveyed the area but was unable to make a definitive determination. Excavations in the 1940s and 1960s made it abundantly clear that the area was an early Spanish settlement site, with the church site and a military barracks among the structures whose remains were found. After these excavations, the natives began removing adobe bricks from the ruins for reuse, the site was levelled and buried. A cross and memorial marker indicate the site. National Register of Historic Places listings in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico List of National Historic Landmarks in New Mexico Historic American Buildings Survey No.

NM-83, "Alcalde Village, Site of San Gabriel, Rio Arriba County, NM", 2 photos, supplemental material

2003 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship

The 2003 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship was the 17th edition of the FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship. The city of Madrid, in Spain, hosted the tournament. Serbia and Montenegro won the trophy for the fourth time in a row. Bulgaria France Macedonia Greece Israel Italy Lithuania Russia Serbia and Montenegro Slovenia Spain Turkey There were two qualifying rounds for this tournament. Twenty-four national teams entered the qualifying round. Fifteen teams advanced to the Challenge Round, where they joined Lithuania and France; the remaining eighteen teams were allocated in three groups of six teams each. The three top teams of each group joined Serbia and Montenegro and Spain in the final tournament; the twelve teams were allocated in two groups of six teams each. FIBA Archive FIBA Europe Archive

2016 Brownlow Medal

The 2016 Brownlow Medal was the 89th year the award was presented to the player adjudged the fairest and best player during the Australian Football League home and away season. Patrick Dangerfield of the Geelong Football Club won the medal by polling thirty-five votes during the 2016 AFL season, at the time the most by any player under the 3-2-1 voting system, beating the previous record of 34 votes set by Dane Swan in 2011. * The player was ineligible to win the medal due to suspension by the AFL Tribunal during the year. The three field umpires confer after each match and award three votes, two votes and one vote to the players they regard as the best, second best and third best in the match, respectively; the votes are kept secret until the awards night, are read and tallied on the evening. A change was made in 2015 to the rules under which players could become ineligible for the Brownlow Medal. Under previous rules, players were ineligible if found guilty at the AFL Tribunal of an offence with a base penalty equal to or greater than a one-match suspension if the player avoided suspension by taking an early guilty plea after the Match Review Panel's findings.

Under the rules: The penalty for all low-end offences for which a player could have received a reprimand but avoided suspension was changed to a $1000 fine for the first offence within a season, a $1500 fine for the second offence within a season, a one-match suspension for the third offence within a season Players would become ineligible for the Brownlow medal only if they incurred a suspension

Warszawa Praga railway station

Warszawa Praga railway station is a railway station in the Targówek district of Warsaw, Poland. As of 2011, it is used by Koleje Mazowieckie, who run the KM9 services from Warszawa Wola or Warszawa Zachodnia through the north of the Masovian Voivodeship to Działdowo, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship via Legionowo, Modlin, Ciechanów and Mława, at all of which some trains terminate, by Szybka Kolej Miejska, who run services to Wieliszew, with some trains terminating at Legionowo or Legionowo Piaski. Station article at kolej.one.pl Media related to Warszawa Praga railway station at Wikimedia Commons