Mercedes-Benz has been making buses since 1895 in Mannheim in Germany. Since 1995, the brand of Mercedes-Benz buses and coaches is under the umbrella of EvoBus GmbH, belonging 100% to the Daimler AG; the world's first motorised bus was built in Germany by Karl Benz in 1895, some years before Gottlieb Daimler started to build and sell buses in Germany as well. By 1898 both Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler rivals, were exporting their buses to Wales and England. Soon Daimler products were sold in the British Empire in a partnership with the British company Milnes. Milnes-Daimler developed a double-decker in 1902 and provided a bus for the first motorised bus service in the United Kingdom the following year. Though the company met success in selling buses throughout the British Empire, the partnership between Daimler and Milnes had to be undone due to the First World War. Due to economic hardships in the early 1900s, Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft and Benz & Cie. merged into one company in 1926, two years after both companies signed an agreement of mutual interest.
Thus, Daimler-Benz AG was formed. In the next year, the company presented its first combined bus range. By that time emphasis was given to diesel engines for commercial vehicles. In 1951 Mercedes-Benz unveiled its first bus designed for bus operation - the O6600 H; this 11-metre-long vehicle was equipped with a six-cylinder, transverse-mounted rear engine delivering 145 hp, a lower frame than its predecessors, an electric gearshift system. In 1954 Mercedes-Benz unveiled its first semi-integral bus - the O321 H; the semi-integral design meant a reduction in improvements in stability and body resistance. The O321 H was the first to feature coil springs in the front-axle suspension; this 9.2-metre-long vehicle featured a rear-mounted engine. The first version was available with an output of 110 hp, a optional 126-hp version was made available. More than 30,000 units of the O321 H complete bus and its platform were sold around the world, a mark which places it as the best-selling bus of its time and, until today, one of the most successful models by Mercedes-Benz.
In the year 1951, technicians from Daimler Benz, accompanied by Brazilian specialists, carried out studies to analyse the viability of producing vehicles in Brazil. Two years on 7 October 1953, Mercedes-Benz do Brasil was founded, having as its first president Alfred Jurzykowski. A plant was built in São Bernardo do Campo in São Paulo State. On 28 September 1956 the plant was inaugurated in the presence of the President of Brazil, Juscelino Kubitschek; this date marks the birth of the Brazilian vehicle industry. Until 1958 only lorries were produced in the Brazilian plant, local body builders used lorry chassis to make buses. In 1958, the integral bus Mercedes-Benz O321 H started to the local production, supplying the local market as well as the market of other South American countries. For instance, 550 units of Brazilian-made O321 integral buses were exported to Argentina in 1961, other 300 units were exported to Venezuela in 1965. In 1963, a front-engine bus chassis was unveiled, based on the LP 321 lorry.
New versions of this chassis as well as new versions of the O 321 integral bus were presented the following year. The first integral bus tailored to the Brazilian market was the O 326, a rear-engine coach unveiled in 1966, it featured the turbo-charged OM 326 engine delivering up to 200 hp. One year a new front-engine bus chassis was unveiled – the LPO 344 based on a lorry chassis. In 1969 a new rural- and urban-service bus was presented by Mercedes-Benz do Brasil. Designated O 352, this integral bus was equipped with a direct-injection diesel engine. Two new front-engine chassis were presented that same year – the LPO 1113 and the LPO 1520. During the 1970s the plant in São Bernardo do Campo was being expanded to meet with the increasing demand for the production of commercial vehicles. By the end of that decade, Mercedes-Benz had produced more than 500,000 commercial vehicles in the Brazilian plant, about 4,000 of which were integral buses. In 1970, the rear-engine OH 1313 and the front-engine OF 1313 bus chassis were unveiled.
One year a new integral coach was unveiled - the O 362 - featuring a larger luggage compartment than its predecessor, the O 321. Yet another integral bus was presented by Mercedes-Benz do Brasil - the O 355 - in 1974; the OH 1517 rear-engine chassis was presented that year. One year after the first three-axle bus was built in Brazil made its debut in 1977, the new O 364 integral bus was presented by Mercedes-Benz do Brasil in two versions - one with a 130-hp engine, the other with a 170-hp engine. In 1978 the production of the O 362 was discontinued, after more than 35,100 units were produced in Brazil. Since the demand for buses was growing by that time, a new plant was inaugurated in Campinas, dedicated only for the production of buses; this plant was considered the biggest and most modern plant dedicated for the production of buses in the Western World. Meanwhile, the plant in São Bernardo do. In 1984 two new integral bus range were presented by Mercedes-Benz do Brasil. One of them was available in two - and three-axle versions.
It was the first coach range produced by Mercedes-Benz do Brasil fitted with air suspension as standard. The other wa
Blackpool is a seaside resort on the Lancashire coast in North West England. The town is on the Irish Sea, between the Ribble and Wyre estuaries, 15 miles northwest of Preston, 27 miles north of Liverpool, 28 miles northwest of Bolton and 40 miles northwest of Manchester, it had an estimated population of 139,720 at the 2011 Census, making it the most populous town in Lancashire. Throughout the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, Blackpool was a coastal hamlet in Lancashire's Hundred of Amounderness, remained such until the mid-18th century when it became fashionable in England to travel to the coast in the summer to improve well-being. In 1781, visitors attracted to Blackpool's 7-mile sandy beach were able to use a new private road, built by Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton. Stagecoaches began running to Blackpool from Manchester in the same year, from Halifax in 1782. In the early 19th century, Henry Banks and his son-in-law John Cocker erected new buildings in Blackpool such that its population grew from less than 500 in 1801 to over 2,500 in 1851.
St John's Church in Blackpool was consecrated in 1821. Blackpool rose to prominence and as a major centre of tourism in England when a railway was built in the 1840s connecting it to the industrialised regions of Northern England; the railway made it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Blackpool, triggering an influx of settlers, such that in 1876 Blackpool was incorporated as a borough, governed by its own town council and aldermen. In 1881, Blackpool was a booming resort with a population of 14,000 and a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops and theatres. By 1901 the population of Blackpool was 47,000, by which time its place was cemented as "the archetypal British seaside resort". By 1951 it had grown to 147,000. Shifts in tastes, combined with opportunities for Britons to travel overseas, affected Blackpool's status as a leading resort in the late 20th century. Blackpool's urban fabric and economy remains undiversified, rooted in the tourism sector, the borough's seafront continues to attract millions of visitors every year.
In addition to its grime music scene, Blackpool's major attractions and landmarks include Blackpool Tower, Blackpool Illuminations, the Pleasure Beach, Blackpool Zoo, Sandcastle Water Park, the Winter Gardens, the UK's only surviving first-generation tramway. Blackpool gets its name from a historic drainage channel that ran over a peat bog, discharging discoloured water into the Irish Sea, which formed a black pool. Another explanation is that the local dialect for stream was "pul" or "poole", hence "Black poole". People originating from Blackpool are called Blackpudlians although Sandgrownians or Sandgrown'uns is sometimes used or Seasiders. A 13,500-year-old elk skeleton was found with man-made barbed bone points on Blackpool Old Road in Carleton in 1970. Now displayed in the Harris Museum this provided the first evidence of humans living on the Fylde as far back as the Palaeolithic era; the Fylde was home to a British tribe, the Setantii a sub-tribe of the Brigantes, who from about AD80 were controlled by Romans from their fort at Dowbridge, Kirkham.
During the Roman occupation the area was covered by bog land. Some of the earliest villages on the Fylde, which were to become part of Blackpool town, were named in the Domesday Book in 1086. Many of them were Anglo-Saxon settlements; some though had 10th century Viking place names. The Vikings and Anglo-Saxons seem to have co-existed peacefully, with some Anglo-Saxon and Viking placenames being joined together – such as Layton-with-Warbreck and Bispham-with-Norbreck. Layton was controlled by Barons of Warrington from the 12th century. In medieval times Blackpool emerged as a few farmsteads on the coast within Layton-with-Warbreck, the name coming from "le pull", a stream that drained Marton Mere and Marton Moss into the sea close to what is now Manchester Square; the stream ran through peatlands that discoloured the water, so the name for the area became "Black Poole". In the 15th century the area was just called Pul, a 1532 map calls the area "the pole howsys alias the north howsys". In 1602, entries in Bispham Parish Church baptismal register include both Poole and for the first time blackpoole.
The first house of any substance, was built toward the end of the 17th century by Edward Tyldesley, the Squire of Myerscough and son of the Royalist Sir Thomas Tyldesley. An Act of Parliament in 1767 enclosed a common sand hills on the coast, that stretched from Spen Dyke southwards. Plots of the land were allocated to landowners in Bispham, Great Marton and Little Marton; the same act provided for the layout of a number of long straight roads that would be built in the areas south of the town centre, such as Lytham Road, St. Annes Road, Watson Road and Highfield Road. By the middle of the 18th century, the practice of sea bathing to cure diseases was becoming fashionable among the wealthier classes, visitors began making the arduous trek to Blackpool for that purpose. In 1781, Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton built a private road to Blackpool, a regular stagecoach service from Manchester and Halifax was established. A few amenities, including four hotels, an archery stall and bowling greens, were developed, the town grew slowly.
The 1801 census records the town's population at 473. The growth was acce
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
Edwards Coaches is a family-owned coach company based in Llantwit Fardre, near Pontypridd in South Wales. In 1925 Edwards Coaches was founded by George Edwards. Over recent years, the company has expanded by acquiring several smaller local firms. Today, their fleet consists of single decker coaches used for holiday tours and private hire but they have a number of double-decker buses for school contracts and park and ride services. Edwards Coaches carry around 7,100 students to school every day and around 80,000 customers on holidays each year. A small fleet of service buses is maintained to operate a group of local bus services. On 7 January 2011, Swansea based coach holiday operator Diamond Coach Holidays went into administration. In the week after Diamond collapsed, Edwards took over £1m in holiday bookings. On 25 January 2011, after talks with administrators PricewaterhouseCoopers, Edwards Coaches agreed to buy the firm becoming the largest coach holiday operator in Wales In 2016, as Silcox Coaches of Pembroke Dock were going out of business, Edwards took over their school contracts and some of their bus services.
The local bus services however have since been retendered. Edwards Coaches are a National Express contractor and as of November 2015 operated services on routes: 201 Swansea – Brighton 202 Swansea – Heathrow Airport 216 Cardiff – Bristol Airport 320 Cardiff – Bradford 322 Swansea – Birmingham 507 Swansea – London 508 Haverfordwest – London 509 Cardiff – London 528 Haverfordwest – RochdaleIn May 2017, Edwards will commence operating more National Express services operated by South Gloucestershire Bus & Coach from a new depot in Avonmouth; as at October 2014, the fleet coaches. Media related to Edwards Coaches at Wikimedia Commons Company website
Scania K series
The Scania K series is a series of chassis in Scania's city bus and coach range with longitudinally, straight-up mounted engine at the rear, replacing the K- and L-type chassis of the 4 series. The K series was first presented on Busworld 2005 in Kortrijk and models were available from 2006. Plant at which the vehicle was assembled C: former Kapena plant, Poland L: Lahden Autokori plant, Finland - Interlink and OmniExpress T: Higer plant, China - A30 and A808 Touring coaches Engine locationK: chassis with centrally mounted longitudinal engine behind rearmost axlePower codeApproximation of the power rating in hp to the nearest ten; the power code has spaces on both sides. Type of transportE: coach, long distance, high comfort I: intercity, short to long distance, normal comfort U: urban, short distance, normal comfortChassis adaptionA: articulated bus B: normal bus D: double-decker busWheel configuration4x2: two-axle bus 6x2: tri-axle bus 6x2/2: tri-axle articulated bus 6x2*4: tri-axle bus with steered tag axle 8x2: quad-axle bus 8x2/2: quad-axle articulated bus Chassis heightL: low front, normal rear M: low front and middle, normal rear N: normal front and rearSuspensionB: air suspension front and rear, rigid front axle I: air suspension front and rear, independent front suspensionK 230 UB4x2LB would be a two-axle "low entry" city bus, while K 480 EB6x2*4NI would be a tri-axle long-distance coach.
Note: One might think that double-decker coaches are designated as K 440 ED6x2*4NI. But they still use K EB for some reason; when introduced, the K series was available with Euro IV-compliant 8.9-litre 5-cylinder engines with output of 230 hp, 270 hp and 310 hp as well as the 11.7-litre 6-cylinder engines with output of 340 hp, 380 hp, 420 hp or 470 hp, the latter being a DT12 turbo-compound engine. For the 5- and 6-cylinder engines Scania is using exhaust gas recirculation and selective catalytic reduction systems to fulfill the legal Euro emission standards. In 2008 Scania released upgraded Euro V engines in order to meet these regulations; the 5-cylinder DC9 engines displace 9.3-litres instead of 8.9-litres. The new DC13 engines feature both a larger bore and a longer stroke and therefore displace 12.7-litres instead of 11.7-litres. Some engines received slight performance improvements, for example the DC9 engine that outputs 310 hp was upgraded to 320 hp. With the introduction of Euro VI engines in 2013, the DC09 outputs 250 hp, 280 hp, 320 hp and 360 hp, while the DC13 outputs 410 hp, 450 hp and 490 hp.
Euro III, IV and V engines are still available for export markets. For alternative fuels, the 9.3-litre was available as the OC9 CNG engine with power outputs of 270 hp and 305 hp, which from the introduction of Euro VI was replaced by the OC09 with power outputs of 280 hp and 340 hp. The 8.9-litre is available. The K280EB, K310EB, K320EB, K340EB, K360EB, K380EB, K400EB, K410EB, K420EB, K440EB, K450EB, K470EB, K480EB and K490EB chassis have independent front suspension and are used for top end coaches.. The K310IA is an articulated intercity bus chassis available in Latin America as 6x2/2 and 8x2/2. TransJakarta has one K340IA, 51 units K320IA and 56 units K320IA from TransJakarta operator PT, Mayasari Bakti; the CNG engine fulfils emission euro 6, powered by Scania OC09 102 340 horsepower and OC09 106 320 horsepower The K270IB, K280IB, K310IB, K320IB, K340IB, K360IB, K380IB, K400IB, K410IB, K420IB are the intercity bus variants but are used for coaches. Available as 4x2, 6x2, 6x2*4 and 8x2; the K270UA, K280UA, K305UA, K310UA, K320UA, K360UA are the articulated city bus variant which can be ordered with the two stronger 9-litre diesel engine variants or the strongest 9-litre CNG engine variant.
Sydney Buses has one K310UA in service on Metrobus Route 10, plying between Maroubra Junction and Leichhardt via CBD. In Adelaide, Light-City Buses have 65 K320UA units plus 5 K360UAs. In addition Torrens, Transit has one K310UA unit, used as an initial trial bus on the O-Bahn and is owned by Scania. TT has 12 K320UAs and 4 K360UAs. Southlink has 20 K320UA units plus 16 K360UAs. There is a K320UD being trialled in the hills The K230UB, K250UB, K270UB, K280UB, K305UB, K310UB, K320UB, K360UB are the rigid city bus variant which can be ordered with all 9-litre engines. A pair of K380UB 6x2*4 with the 11.7-litre engine has been made for a customer in Norway. Numerous bus operators in Australia operate the Scania K-series chassis. In Melbourne, CDC Melbourne, Transdev Melbourne and Ventura Bus Lines all operate fleets of K230UBs. In Geelong, CDC Geelong operates a number of K230UBs and McHarry's Buslines operate a number of K270UBs, K270IBs, K280UBs, K280IBs, K320IBs and one K310IB. In New South Wales and ComfortDelGro Australia's Hillsbus and Hunter Valley Buses subsidiaries have significant numbers of K230UB, K280UB and K310UB in their fleet.
Transdev NSW operates a fleet of K230UB while State Transit operate K280UB & K310UB. In Canberra, ACTION operates
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
Stotts Coaches is a bus and coach company based in Milnsbridge, West Yorkshire. Stotts Coaches has been providing services in Huddersfield and the wider Kirklees area for over 50 years; the company provides coach services for schools in Kirklees along with day trips and private coach hire. The company runs coach journeys for the town's football and rugby league teams. Stotts Coaches provide local bus services in the Huddersfield area serving Huddersfield town centre, Dalton, Holmfirth and Slaithwaite; these services, along with the school bus service, are run on behalf of the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive. As at August 2013 Stotts Coaches operated 18 routes. Stotts Coaches are a National Express contractor and operate services on routes: 310 Bradford - Leicester 335 Halifax - Birmingham 351 Sheffield - Blackpool 542 Blackpool - Glasgow 561 Bradford - London 660 Bradford - Ingoldmells As at August 2010 the fleet consisted of 32 buses and coaches. Company website