An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although concerned with visual art, art galleries are used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums frequently host themed temporary exhibitions which include items on loan from other collections. In distinction to a commercial art gallery, run by an art dealer, the primary purpose of an art museum is not the sale of the items on show. Throughout history and expensive works of art have been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as an early form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects donated their collections to temples.
It is unclear. In Europe, from the Late Medieval period onwards, areas in royal palaces and large country houses of the social elite were made accessible to sections of the public, where art collections could be viewed. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to people wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside; the treasuries of cathedrals and large churches, or parts of them, were set out for public display. Many of the grander English country houses could be toured by the respectable for a tip to the housekeeper, during the long periods when the family were not in residence. Special arrangements were made to allow the public to see many royal or private collections placed in galleries, as with most of the paintings of the Orleans Collection, which were housed in a wing of the Palais-Royal in Paris and could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy, the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry from the 18th century onwards, cities made efforts to make their key works accessible.
The Capitoline Museums began in 1471 with a donation of classical sculpture to the city of Rome by the Papacy, while the Vatican Museums, whose collections are still owned by the Pope, trace their foundation to 1506, when the discovered Laocoön and His Sons was put on public display. A series of museums on different subjects were opened over subsequent centuries, many of the buildings of the Vatican were purpose-built as galleries. An early royal treasury opened to the public was the Grünes Gewölbe of the Kingdom of Saxony in the 1720s. Established museums open to the public began to be established from the 17th century onwards based around a collection of the cabinet of curiosities type; the first such museum was the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, opened in 1683 to house and display the artefacts of Elias Ashmole that were given to Oxford University in a bequest. In the second half of the eighteenth century, many private collections of art were opened to the public, during and after the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars many royal collections were nationalized where the monarchy remained in place, as in Spain and Bavaria.
In 1753, the British Museum was established and the Old Royal Library collection of manuscripts was donated to it for public viewing. In 1777, a proposal to the British government was put forward by MP John Wilkes to buy the art collection of the late Sir Robert Walpole who had amassed one of the greatest such collections in Europe, house it in a specially built wing of the British Museum for public viewing. After much debate, the idea was abandoned due to the great expense, twenty years the collection was bought by Tsaritsa Catherine the Great of Russia and housed in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg; the Bavarian royal collection was opened to the public in 1779 and the Medici collection in Florence around 1789. The opening of the Musée du Louvre during the French Revolution in 1793 as a public museum for much of the former French royal collection marked an important stage in the development of public access to art by transferring the ownership to a republican state; the building now occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built before the French Revolution for the public display of parts of the royal art collection, similar royal galleries were opened to the public in Vienna and other capitals.
In Great Britain, the corresponding Royal Collection remained in the private hands of the monarch and the first purpose-built national art galleries were the Dulwich Picture Gallery, founded in 1814 and the National Gallery opened to the public a decade in 1824. University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities; this phenomenon exists in the East, making it a global practice. Although overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in the US alone; this number, compared to other kinds of art museums, makes university art museums the largest category of art museums in the country. While the first of these collections can be traced to learning collections developed in art academies in Western Europe, they are now associated with and housed in centers of higher education of all types; the word gallery being an archite
Gerard Leon Cafesjian was a businessman and philanthropist who founded the Cafesjian Family Foundation, the Cafesjian Museum Foundation and the Cafesjian Center for the Arts. Cafesjian was born April 1925, in the Bensonhurst neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, his parents had come to the United States preceding the Armenian Genocide by the Turks. After amphibious training, he served as a sailor in World War II aboard J. P. Morgan's yacht, the Corsair III, built in 1895 and renamed the USS Oceanographer; the ship did extensive survey work in and around Guadalcanal and other Solomon Islands in 1943 and 1944. He served aboard the USS Andres, a destroyer escort for convoys from the United States to North Africa in late 1944 and 1945; when he returned after the war he married a nurse he met during the war. Cafesjian earned a degree in economics from Cornell University and a doctorate of jurisprudence from Columbia Law School, both in five and a half years, he was a member of the New York Bar Association.
He began his career with West Publishing as a legal editor in New York City. He was the first employee in the history of the 100-year-old company to be transferred into the home offices in St. Paul, Minnesota. At West Publishing he rose through the ranks to the position of executive vice president, overseeing sales, customer service, public relations, all Westlaw office training and development. At West, he conceived of and started the West Legal Directory and a well-known program, "Art and the Law", which earned him and West numerous awards. Cafesjian retired from West Publishing when it was sold to Thompson Publishing in 1996; as he said publicly, he felt his destiny was to help the country of Armenia, which had gained its independence after hundreds of years of subjugation under various rulers. The time and circumstances and confluence of resources would help him make a difference for the country. After attending to his family needs, he established the Cafesjian Family Foundation. Through the foundation he devoted more than $128 million to various Armenian projects.
His investments included the private Armenia TV and ArmNews television stations, the Cascade financial services group, real estate and a renewable energy company, all sold. Any profits generated. In the United States, Cafesjian helped restore a dismantled historic carousel for Como Park in St. Paul and founded the Scottsdale Museum of Contemporary Art in Arizona, he donated to the Armenia Fund USA, the Armenian Assembly of America, the Armenian General Benevolent Union, the Armenian National Committee of America, others. He was the owner of The Armenian Reporter, the oldest independent Armenian American publication. Cafesjian received accolades and recognition from both the U. S. and Armenia institutions, including the Ellis Island Medal of Honor in 2000 and COAF Save a Generation Award in 2010. Cafesjian renovated the Cascade site in downtown Yerevan, Armenia; as of the early 2000s, it was an unfinished and crumbling Soviet structure of epic proportions on a hillside. Following a major reconstruction, the Cascade became the site of the Cafesjian Center for the Arts that opened in 2009.
The museum enjoys a world-class sculpture garden with works by Fernando Botero, Lynn Chadwick, Barry Flanagan, François-Xavier Lalanne and Jaume Plensa, among others. Admission is free, it is now the most prominent meeting place in Armenia. Over one million people have visited the Center since its opening. From 2000 to 2003, Cafesjian assembled a group of properties in Washington, D. C. two blocks from the White House, with the intention to build an Armenian Genocide Museum and Memorial. But due to continuing litigation, the project remains unrealized. Although Cafesjian won the basic lawsuit in January 2011 and was awarded the property, subsequent motions for new trial were dismissed, the project is still in limbo awaiting the Court to rule on yet another appeal. Gerard Cafesjian married Cleo Thomas, a nurse he met during World War II, on July 4, 1947, together they had three children. Gerard's eldest son, Tommy Cafesjian, was a real estate magnate based out of Philadelphia. Gerard Cafesjian died on September 15, 2013 at the age of 88.
His wife Cleo Cafesjian had died just a few months earlier, on March 7, 2013. Cafesjian Museum of Art Cafesjian Family Foundation
Roza Isakovna Otunbayeva is a Kyrgyz diplomat and politician who served as the President of Kyrgyzstan from 7 April 2010 until 1 December 2011. She was sworn in on July 3, 2010, after acting as interim leader following the 2010 April revolution which led to the ousting of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev, she served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and as head of the parliamentary caucus for the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan. Roza Otunbayeva was born in Frunze, Kyrgyz SSR, USSR into the family of Isak Otunbayev, a member of the Supreme Court of Kyrgyz SSR, Salika Daniyarova, Teacher, she graduated from the Philosophy Faculty of Moscow State University in 1972 and went on to teach as Senior Teacher and as Head of the Philosophy Department at Kyrgyz State National University for six years. In 1975 she became Candidate of Sciences after defending her dissertation, "Critique of falsification of Marxist-Leninist dialectic by the philosophers of Frankfurt school". Roza Otunbayeva is a divorced mother of two children.
She is fluent in Russian, English and French in addition to Kyrgyz. In 1981, she began her political career as the Communist Party's Second Secretary of the Lenin raion council of Frunze. From 1983 to 1986 Ms. Otunbayeva served as the Secretary of the City Communist Party Committee in Frunze. In 1986 she was appointed the Deputy to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, the same time the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1989 she was appointed as the Executive Secretary and as the Chairwoman of the USSR UNESCO National Committee, she became member of the USSR Foreign Ministry's Board. In 1989–1992 she served as the Vice-President of the UNESCO Executive Council. By 1992, the now independent Kyrgyzstan was led by Askar Akayev, who chose her to be Minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister, positions she held until that year when she became her country's first ambassador to the US and Canada. In May 1994 she was called back to her original post of Kyrgyz Minister of Foreign Affairs, remaining there for three years.
From 1997 to 2002, she served as the first Kyrgyz ambassador to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. From 2002 to 2004, she was recruited Deputy Special Representative of the UN Secretary General in the Peacekeeping Mission for Georgia. Upon her return to Kyrgyzstan in late 2004, Otunbayeva became politically active. In December 2004, she and three other opposition parliamentarians founded the Ata-Jurt public movement in preparation for the February 2005 parliamentary elections. From March to September 2005 Ms. Otunbayeva served as Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs. Otunbayeva was one of the key leaders of the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan which led to the overthrow of President Akayev. Subsequently, she served for a few months as Acting Foreign Minister in the interim government of prime minister Kurmanbek Bakiyev. After Bakiyev was elected President and Feliks Kulov became Prime Minister, Otunbayeva failed to receive the required parliamentary support to become Foreign Minister.
She ran unsuccessfully in a parliamentary by-election a few months later. Otunbayeva played a key role in the November 2006 protests that pressed for a new democratic constitution, she was the co-chairwoman of the country's Asaba National Revival Party for a short time. In December 2007, Otunbayeva was elected to the Jogorku Kenesh – the Parliament of Kyrgyzstan – on the list of the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan, she served as the Leader of the Opposition SDP from 2008 to 2010. In 2009 she became the Leader of People's Front opposition. On April 7, 2010, Otunbayeva was chosen by opposition leaders as head of the Interim Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, following widespread rioting in Bishkek and the ouster of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev. Bakiyev fled the Jalal-Abad area. Unable to rally support, he resigned as president on April 10, 2010, left the country for Kazakhstan. Nine days he went to Minsk, where he was given protected-exile status. On April 21 he declared that he was still president of Kyrgyzstan.
Otunbayeva vowed to bring him to trial. As interim president, Otunbayeva had four male deputies. Otunbayeva is considered to be unusual, her first conversation after she came to power was with Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. Otunbayeva declared that new elections would be called within six months and that she would act as president until then. With violent protests in support of ousted President Kurmanbek Bakiyev continuing in Jalalabad, the home city of the former president, it was announced on May 19, 2010, by the interim government that elections would be delayed until 2011 and Otunbayeva was named as president. Following a referendum on the new Kyrgyz constitution, she was sworn in on July 3, 2010. Otunbayeva however was prohibited by the new constitution from running in the 2011 presidential election and her term ended on December 31, 2011; the referendum was supported by over 90% and changes the government from a Presidential republic to a Parliamentary republic. Parliamentary elections were held in October and the new parliament elected the Prime Minister and Cabinet.
In January 2012 Roza Otunbayeva has established the International Public Foundation "Roza Otunbayeva Initiative". The main objective of the Foundation is to implement programs and projects that will contribute to the social and economic development of the Kyrgyz Republic. Roza Otunbayeva wa
Fernando Botero Angulo is a Colombian figurative artist and sculptor. Born in Medellín, his signature style known as "Boterismo", depicts people and figures in large, exaggerated volume, which can represent political criticism or humor, depending on the piece, he is considered the most recognized and quoted living artist from Latin America, his art can be found in visible places around the world, such as Park Avenue in New York City and the Champs-Élysées in Paris. Self-titled "the most Colombian of Colombian artists" early on, he came to national prominence when he won the first prize at the Salón de Artistas Colombianos in 1958. Working most of the year in Paris, in the last three decades he has achieved international recognition for his paintings and sculpture, with exhibitions across the world, his art is collected by many major international museums and private collectors. In 2012, he received the International Sculpture Center's Lifetime Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award. Fernando Botero was born as the second of three sons of David Botero and Flora Angulo in 1932.
David Botero, a salesman who traveled by horseback, died of a heart attack. His mother worked as a seamstress. An uncle took a major role in his life. Although isolated from art as presented in museums and other cultural institutes, Botero was influenced by the Baroque style of the colonial churches and the city life of Medellín while growing up, he received his primary education in Antioquia Ateneo and, thanks to a scholarship, he continued his secondary education at the Jesuit School of Bolívar. In 1944, Botero's uncle sent him to a school for matadors for two years. In 1948, Botero at age 16 had his first illustrations published in the Sunday supplement of the El Colombiano, one of the most important newspapers in Medellín, he used the money. Botero's work was first exhibited in a group show along with other artists from the region. From 1949 to 1950, Botero worked as a set designer, before moving to Bogotá in 1951, his first one-man show was held at the Galería Leo Matiz in a few months after his arrival.
In 1952, Botero travelled with a group of artists to Barcelona, where he stayed before moving on to Madrid. In Madrid, Botero studied at the Academia de San Fernando. In 1952, he traveled to Bogotá. In 1953, Botero moved to Paris, where he spent most of his time in the Louvre, studying the works there, he lived in Italy from 1953 to 1954, studying the works of Renaissance masters. In recent decades, he has lived most of the time in Paris, but spends one month a year in his native city of Medellín, he has had more than 50 exhibits in major cities worldwide, his work commands selling prices in the millions of dollars. In 1958, he won the ninth edition of the Salón de Artistas Colombianos. While his work includes still-lifes and landscapes, Botero has concentrated on situational portraiture, his paintings and sculptures are united by their proportionally exaggerated, or "fat" figures, as he once referred to them. Botero explains his use of these "large people", as they are called by critics, in the following way:"An artist is attracted to certain kinds of form without knowing why.
You adopt a position intuitively. Botero is an abstract artist in the most fundamental sense, choosing colors and proportions based on intuitive aesthetic thinking. Though he spends only one month a year in Colombia, he considers himself the "most Colombian artist living" due to his isolation from the international trends of the art world. In 2004, Botero exhibited a series of 27 drawings and 23 paintings dealing with the violence in Colombia from the drug cartels, he donated the works to the National Museum of Colombia. In 2005, Botero gained considerable attention for his Abu Ghraib series, exhibited first in Europe, he based the works on reports of United States forces' abuses of prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison during the Iraq War. Beginning with an idea he had on a plane journey, Botero produced more than 85 paintings and 100 drawings in exploring this concept and "painting out the poison"; the series was exhibited at two United States locations in 2007, including Washington, DC. Botero said he would donate them to museums.
In 2006, after having focused on the Abu Ghraib series for over 14 months, Botero returned to the themes of his early life such as the family and maternity. In his Une Famille Botero represented the Colombian family, a subject painted in the seventies and eighties. In his Maternity, Botero repeated a composition he painted in 2003, being able to evoke a sensuous velvety texture that lends it a special appeal and testifies for a personal involvement of the artist; the child in the 2006 drawing has a wound in his right chest as if the Author wanted to identify him with Jesus Christ, thus giving it a religious meaning, absent in the 2003 artwork. In 2008, he exhibited the works of his The Circus collection, featuring 20 works in oil and watercolor. In a 2010 interview, Botero said that he was ready for other subjects: "After all this, I always return to the simplest things: still lifes." Between 1963 and 1964, Fernando Botero attempted to create sculptures. Due to financial constraints preventing him from working with bronze, he made his sculptures with acrylic resin and sawdust.
A notable example during this time was "Small Head" in 1964, a sculpture painted with great realism. However, the material was too porous and Botero decided to abandon this
Kentron, is one of the 12 districts of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It comprises the commercial centre of the city; as of the 2011 census, the district has a population of 125,453. Kentron is bordered by Ajapnyak and Malatia-Sebastia districts from the west and Erebuni districts from the south, Nor Nork District from the east and Arabkir and Kanaker-Zeytun districts from the north. Hrazdan River flows through the western part of the district; the word kentron means "centre" in Armenian, has the same etymological root as the English word from Ancient Greek κέντρον. Its Western Armenian cognate is getron; the district is unofficially divided into smaller neighborhoods such as Kond, Pokr Kentron, Nor Kilikia and Aygestan. Kond and Noragyugh are among the 7 original neighbourhoods of old Yerevan. Parks: English Park. Children's Park Abovyan Children's Park and Railway Tsitsernakaberd Park Circular Park Lovers' Park Martiros Saryan Park Komitas Park Shahumyan Park Missak Manouchian Park After Armenia fell under Soviet rule between 1920-1921, Yerevan became the first among the cities in the Soviet Union for which a general plan was developed.
The "General Plan of Yerevan" developed by the academic Alexander Tamanian, was approved in 1924. It was designed for a population of 150,000; the city was transformed into a modern industrial metropolis of over one million people. New educational and cultural institutions were founded as well. Tamanian incorporated national traditions with contemporary urban construction, his design presented a radial-circular arrangement that overlaid the existing city and incorporated much of its existing street plan. As a result, many historic buildings in the centre of Yerevan were demolished, including churches, the Safavid fortress, baths and caravanserais. Within the years, Kentron has become the most developed district of Yerevan, something that created a significant gap compared with other districts in the city. Most of the educational and scientific institutions were centred in the Kentron district, it became home to administrative buildings of the Republic of Armenia, including the Presidential Palace, the National Assembly of Armenia, the Central Bank of Armenia, the National Security Service and most of the ministry buildings.
Religious buildings and historical sites: Zoravor Surp Astvatsatsin Church Saint Sarkis Cathedral Katoghike Church Saint John the Baptist Church Saint Gregory Cathedral Surp Anna Church Blue Mosque Kond neighbourhood Yerevan Red Bridge of the 17th century National Library of Armenia National Gallery of Armenia Yerevan Opera Theater Sundukyan State Academic Theatre Paronyan Musical Comedy Theatre Stanislavski Russian Theatre Hovhannes Tumanyan Puppet Theatre of Yerevan Komitas Chamber Music Hall Arno Babajanian Concert Hall Museum-Institute of Ancient Manuscripts History Museum of Armenia Cafesjian Museum of Art Yerevan History Museum The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Sergei Parajanov Museum House-Museum of Aram Khachaturian Khnko Aper Children's Library Center of Contemporary Experimental ArtEntertainment and recreation: Moscow Cinema Nairi Cinema Yerevan Circus Yerevan Cascade Tashir Mall Yerevan Vernissage of art exhibition Kentron district is served by a public transport network of buses and trolleybuses.
The Yerevan underground metro has 4 stations in the Kentron district: Marshal Baghramyan station Yeritasardakan station Republic Square station General Andranik station Aram Street Abovyan Street Mashtots Avenue Mikael Nalbandian Street Amiryan Street Tigran Mets Avenue Sayat-Nova Avenue Tumanyan Street Marshal Baghramyan Avenue Charents Street Paronyan Street Proshyan Street Italy Street Vazgen Sargsyan Street Argishti I Street Northern Avenue Saralanj Avenue Republic Square Freedom Square Charles Aznavour Square Andrei Sakharov Square Square of Russia Place de France Stepan Shahumyan Square Alexandr Myasnikyan Square Industrial plants: Yerevan Ararat Wine Factory Yerevan Brandy Company Electro-House engineering factory Educational institutions: Yerevan State University Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction Yerevan State Musical Conservatory Armenian State Pedagogical University Yerevan State Medical University State Engineering University of Armenia Yerevan State Linguistic University Armenian State University of Economics Armenian National Academy of Sciences Armenia Sports Stadium Republican Stadium Tigran Petrosian Chess House Hrazdan Stadium Karen Demirchyan Complex Orange Tennis Club Master Class Tennis Club Dinamo Sports Arena Kilikia Sports Hall Pyunik Stadium Pyunik Training Centre Kentron district
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane. What is performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts raised; the technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point in stone. In other materials such as metal, plaster stucco, ceramics or papier-mâché the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, monumental bronze reliefs are made by casting. There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the sculpted form from the field, for which the Italian and French terms are still sometimes used in English.
The full range includes high relief, where more than 50% of the depth is shown and there may be undercut areas, mid-relief, low-relief, shallow-relief or rilievo schiacciato, where the plane is only slightly lower than the sculpted elements. There is sunk relief, restricted to Ancient Egypt. However, the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, these two are the only terms used to discuss most work; the definition of these terms is somewhat variable, many works combine areas in more than one of them, sometimes sliding between them in a single figure. The opposite of relief sculpture is counter-relief, intaglio, or cavo-rilievo, where the form is cut into the field or background rather than rising from it. Hyphens may or may not be used in all these terms, though they are seen in "sunk relief" and are usual in "bas-relief" and "counter-relief". Works in the technique are described as "in relief", in monumental sculpture, the work itself is "a relief".
Reliefs are common throughout the world on the walls of buildings and a variety of smaller settings, a sequence of several panels or sections of relief may represent an extended narrative. Relief is more suitable for depicting complicated subjects with many figures and active poses, such as battles, than free-standing "sculpture in the round". Most ancient architectural reliefs were painted, which helped to define forms in low relief; the subject of reliefs is for convenient reference assumed in this article to be figures, but sculpture in relief depicts decorative geometrical or foliage patterns, as in the arabesques of Islamic art, may be of any subject. Rock reliefs are those carved into solid rock in the open air; this type is found in many cultures, in particular those of the Ancient Near East and Buddhist countries. A stele is a single standing stone; the distinction between high and low relief is somewhat subjective, the two are often combined in a single work. In particular, most "high reliefs" contain sections in low relief in the background.
From the Parthenon Frieze onwards, many single figures in large monumental sculpture have heads in high relief, but their lower legs are in low relief. The projecting figures created in this way work well in reliefs that are seen from below, reflect that the heads of figures are of more interest to both artist and viewer than the legs or feet; as unfinished examples from various periods show, raised reliefs, whether high or low, were "blocked out" by marking the outline of the figure and reducing the background areas to the new background level, work no doubt performed by apprentices. A low relief or bas-relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief. In the lowest reliefs the relative depth of the elements shown is distorted, if seen from the side the image makes no sense, but from the front the small variations in depth register as a three-dimensional image. Other versions distort depth much less, it is a technique which requires less work, is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required.
In the art of Ancient Egypt, Assyrian palace reliefs, other ancient Near Eastern and Asian cultures, Meso-America, a consistent low relief was used for the whole composition. These images would be painted after carving, which helped define the forms; the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now in Berlin, has low reliefs of large animals formed from moulded bricks, glazed in colour. Plaster, which made the technique far easier, was used in Egypt and the Near East from antiquity into Islamic times and Europe from at least the Renaissance, as well as elsewhere. However, it needs good co
Barry Flanagan OBE RA was a Welsh sculptor. He is best known for his bronze statues of other animals. Barry Flanagan was born on 11 January 1941 in North Wales. From 1957 to 1958 he studied architecture at Birmingham College of Crafts, he studied sculpture at Saint Martin's School of Art in London from 1964 to 1966, from 1967 to 1971 taught both at Saint Martin's and at the Central School of Art and Design. Flanagan died on 31 August 2009 of motor neurone disease, he was the subject of a biographical film by Peter Bach, The Man Who Sculpted Hares: Barry Flanagan, A Life.'Poet of the Building Site' by Robin Marchesi. A book on his life with Barry Flanagan was published by The Irish Museum of Modern Art 2011. Flanagan's Thinker on a Rock is in the National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden in Washington, D. C. Flanagan's hare statue Large Left-Handed Drummer was on display in Union Square park from 18 February to 24 June 2007. Flanagan's 1993 Large Mirror Nijinski, again with two hares, is displayed at the Skulpturen Park Köln, in Cologne.
Tate Britain held a retrospective show Early Works 1965–1982 from September 2011 to January 2012. This exhibition contained many examples of his less well known pieces using materials such as cloth and rope, as well as some of the early bronze hare sculptures for which he became famous. At an exhibition held by Sotheby's at Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, in September–October 2012, fifteen of Flanagan's works were shown in a parkland setting, they included Large Nijinski on Anvil Point and Nijinski Hare, placed at opposite ends of the Canal Pond. 2011: "Barry Flanagan: Works from 1964 - 1982," Tate Britain 2010: "Barry Flanagan: Works 1966-2008," Waddington Galleries, London 2009: Paul Kasmin, New York 2009: "Barry Flanagan: Hare Coursed," New Art Centre, Roche Court, Wiltshire 2008: Vero Beach Museum of Art, Vero Beach, Florida 2008: Waddington Galleries, London 2007: Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York Hare on Ball and Claw, Ohio Official website Royal Academy of Arts