Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant of the methylxanthine class. It is the world's most consumed psychoactive drug. Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. There are several known mechanisms of action to explain the effects of caffeine; the most prominent is that it reversibly blocks the action of adenosine on its receptor and prevents the onset of drowsiness induced by adenosine. Caffeine stimulates certain portions of the autonomic nervous system. Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline purine, a methylxanthine alkaloid, is chemically related to the adenine and guanine bases of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid, it is found in the seeds, nuts, or leaves of a number of plants native to Africa, East Asia and South America, helps to protect them against predator insects and to prevent germination of nearby seeds. The most well-known source of caffeine is a misnomer for the seed of Coffea plants. People may drink beverages containing caffeine to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to improve cognitive performance.
To make these drinks, caffeine is extracted by steeping the plant product in water, a process called infusion. Caffeine-containing drinks, such as coffee and cola, are popular. Caffeine can have both negative health effects, it can treat and prevent the premature infant breathing disorders bronchopulmonary dysplasia of prematurity and apnea of prematurity. Caffeine citrate is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, it may confer a modest protective effect including Parkinson's disease. Some people experience sleep disruption or anxiety if they consume caffeine, but others show little disturbance. Evidence of a risk during pregnancy is equivocal. Caffeine can produce a mild form of drug dependence – associated with withdrawal symptoms such as sleepiness and irritability – when an individual stops using caffeine after repeated daily intake. Tolerance to the autonomic effects of increased blood pressure and heart rate, increased urine output, develops with chronic use. Caffeine is classified by the US Food and Drug Administration as recognized as safe.
Toxic doses, over 10 grams per day for an adult, are much higher than the typical dose of under 500 milligrams per day. A cup of coffee contains 80–175 mg of caffeine, depending on what "bean" is used and how it is prepared, thus it requires 50–100 ordinary cups of coffee to reach the toxic dose. However, pure powdered caffeine, available as a dietary supplement, can be lethal in tablespoon-sized amounts. Caffeine is used in: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants for both prevention and treatment, it may improve weight gain during therapy and reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy as well as reduce language and cognitive delay. On the other hand, subtle long-term side effects are possible. Apnea of prematurity as a primary treatment, but not prevention. Orthostatic hypotension treatment; some people use caffeine-containing beverages such as tea to try to treat their asthma. Evidence to support this practice, however, is poor, it appears that caffeine improves airway function in people with asthma, increasing forced expiratory volume by 5% to 18%, with this effect lasting for up to four hours.
The caffeine in a cup of coffee improved pain when combined with paracetamol or ibuprofen in 5-10% of people. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that reduces drowsiness. At normal doses, caffeine has variable effects on learning and memory, but it improves reaction time, wakefulness and motor coordination; the amount of caffeine needed to produce these effects varies from person to person, depending on body size and degree of tolerance. The desired effects arise one hour after consumption, the desired effects of a moderate dose subside after about three or four hours. Caffeine improves task performance during sleep deprivation. Shift workers who use caffeine make fewer mistakes due to drowsiness. A systematic review and meta-analysis from 2014 found that concurrent caffeine and L-theanine use has synergistic psychoactive effects that promote alertness and task switching. Caffeine is a proven ergogenic aid in humans. Caffeine improves athletic performance in anaerobic conditions. Moderate doses of caffeine can improve sprint performance and running time trial performance and cycling power output.
Caffeine increases basal metabolic rate in adults. Caffeine improves muscular strength and power, may enhance muscular endurance. Caffeine enhances performance on anaerobic tests. Caffeine consumption before constant load exercise is associated with reduced perceived exertion. While this effect is not present during exercise-to-exhaustion exercise, performance is enhanced; this is congruent with caffeine reducing perceived exertion, because exercise-to-exhaustion should end at the same point of fatigue. Caffeine improves power output and reduces time to completion in aerobic time trials, an effect positively associated with longer duration exercise
Dudleston Heath is a village in north-west Shropshire, England. It is located on the B5068 road between Ellesmere and St Martin's and is part of Ellesmere Rural civil parish; the Wales-England border is just to the north. The village has a village hall which hosts regular events such as coffee mornings, open days and other fund raising activities; these are arranged by the Events Committee. There are regular user groups such as the Women's Institute, senior citizens and bingo as well as card playing groups. There is a franchised pub called the'Parish Pump'; the hall possesses facilities for snooker and crown green bowls, as well as having a football pitch and beautiful allotments which are an asset to the community. The Parish Pump pub and hall have in the past played host to a small country music festival and a village fete; the village has a football team of the same name. The village consists of a local post office, a working men's club, in addition to the Parish Hall; the main source of income in the area is farming which provides jobs for many people of the local area.
The reason for the high amount of farming is that the majority of land in the area is taken up by fields and the high clay content in the ground provides minerals for the growth of crops. Others from the community commute to nearby towns such as Ellesmere, Oswestry or Shrewsbury as the village is served by the 53 bus route stopping outside the Parish Hall; the village has a primary school, expanded over the years. Many of its pupils go on to Lakelands Academy in Ellesmere travelling on the 53 bus; the family of Charles de Gaulle, lived in the village at Gadlas Hall during their exile from France in World War II. They rented the house between August 1940 and autumn of 1941, from its owner, judge Francis Taylor, 1st Baron Maenan. British showjumper, Nick Skelton, born 1957, owned stables in the area. Welsh International snooker player Daniel Gorton, born 1997, grew up in the area Kieran Davies. Local business man, most well known for a brief appearance on ‘The Apprentice’ in 2017. Leyla Acar. Best known for her time as head Judge on ‘X Factor Taiwan’.
David Levithan is an American young adult fiction author and editor. His first book, Boy Meets Boy, was published by Knopf Books for Young Readers in 2003, he has written numerous works featuring strong male gay characters, most notably Boy Meets Boy and Naomi and Ely's No Kiss List. Levithan was born in New Jersey, to a family of Jewish background. At nineteen, Levithan received an internship at Scholastic Corporation where he began working on The Baby-sitters Club series. Levithan still works for Scholastic as an editorial director. Levithan is the founding editor of PUSH, a young-adult imprint of Scholastic Press focusing on new voices and new authors. PUSH publishes edgier material for young adults and is where Patricia McCormick got her start with 2002's Cut. In an interview with Barnes & Noble, Levithan said that he learned how to write books that were both funny and touching from Judith Viorst's Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day, he continues to work as both a writer and editor saying, "I love editing just as much, if not more than writing".
Three of Levithan's novels have been made into films. His first collaboration with Rachel Cohn and Norah's Infinite Playlist, was published in 2006 and adapted for the big screen in 2008. Levithan's 2012 novel of the same name was adapted into Every Day, a romantic fantasy drama, released in 2018, his second collaboration with Rachel Cohn and Ely's No Kiss List, was published in 2007 and adapted into a film of the same name in 2015. Levithan has been a resident of New Jersey. In 2016, Levithan won the Margaret A. Edwards Award for The Realm of Possibility, Boy Meets Boy, Love Is the Higher Law, How They Met and Other Stories, Wide Awake, Nick and Norah's Infinite Playlist. 10 Things I Hate About You Boy Meets Boy The Realm of Possibility Are We There Yet? Marly's Ghost: A Remix of Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, illustrated by Brian Selznick Wide Awake How They Met Love is the Higher Law Will Grayson, Will Grayson, co-written with John Green The Lover's Dictionary Every You, Every Me Every Day Invisibility, co-written with Andrea Cremer Two Boys Kissing Another Day Hold Me Closer You Know Me Well, co-written with Nina LaCour Someday 19 Love Songs, story/essay collection Nick and Norah's Infinite Playlist Naomi and Ely's No Kiss List Dash & Lily's Book of Dares The Twelve Days of Dash & Lily Sam & Ilsa's Last Hurrah Likely Story Likely Story: All That Glitters Likely Story: Red Carpet Riot You Are Here, This is Now: The Best Young Writers and Artists in America: A Push Anthology Friends: Stories about New Friends, Old Friends and Unexpectedly True Friends, ed. with Ann M. Martin When We Are, What We See: A Push Anthology The Full Spectrum: A New Generation of Writing About Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Other Identities, ed. with Billy Merrell 21 Proms, ed. with Daniel Ehrenhaft We Are Quiet, We Are Loud: The best young writers and artists in America: a Push anthology How to Say Goodbye in Robot, a novel by Natalie Standiford "The Alumni Interview", short story in Sixteen: Stories About That Sweet and Bitter Birthday, edited by Megan McCafferty "The Good Girls", essay in Girls Who Like Boys Who Like Boys, eds.
Melissa De la Cruz and Tom Dolby How They Met, Other Stories "A Word From the Nearly Distant Past", story in How Beautiful the Ordinary: Twelve Stories of Identity "Quiz Bowl Antichrist", story in Geektastic: Stories from the Nerd Herd "The Skeleton Keeper", story in Bones: Terrifying Tales to Haunt Your Dreams "Your Temporary Santa", story in My True Love Gave To Me: Twelve Holiday Stories, edited by Stephanie Perkins. "Day 3196", a story about the character A, from the Every Day trilogy, first published in the National Book Store edition of Someday Official website PUSH David Levithan at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database David Levitan at Library of Congress Authorities, with 33 catalog records