Lot is a department in the Occitanie region of France. Named after the Lot River, it lies in the southwestern part of the country and had a population of 173,758 in 2013. Lot is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from part of the province of Quercy. In 1808 some of the original southeastern cantons were separated from it to form the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, it extended much farther to the south and included the city of Montauban. Lot is part of the region of Occitanie and is surrounded by the departments of Corrèze, Aveyron, Tarn-et-Garonne, Lot-et-Garonne, Dordogne. For a full list, see Communes of the Lot department. Settlements in the Lot include: Cahors - The prefecture of the department, Cahors is a medieval cathedral town known internationally for its production of Cahors wine, it is famous for its medieval bridge, the Pont Valentre. Figeac - a medieval town where Champollion, the first translator of Egyptian hieroglyphics, was born.
Figeac is a sub-prefecture of the department. Gourdon - a medieval hilltop town with a well preserved centre. There are many prehistoric painted caves nearby, notably the Grottes de Cougnac. Gourdon is a sub-prefecture of the department. Cantons of the Lot department Communes of the Lot department Grottes de Presque French singer-songwriter Léo Ferré lived in the Lot for a while. At Home in France, by Ann Barry.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, the Mediterranean, Italy. The Midi includes: Nouvelle-Aquitaine Occitanie Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur The island of CorsicaThis area corresponds in large part to Occitania, the territory in which Occitan — as distinct from the langues d'oïl of northern France — was the dominant language. Though part of Occitania, the regions of Auvergne and Limousin are not considered part of the South of France; the term Midi derives from mi and di in Old French, comparable to the term Mezzogiorno from the south of Italy. The time of midday was synonymous with the direction of south because in France, as in all of the Northern Hemisphere north of the Tropic of Cancer, the sun is in the south at noon; the synonymy existed in Middle French as well, where meridien can refer to both south. The Midi is considered to start at Valence, hence the saying "à Valence le Midi commence".
To Catch a Thief Summer Holiday Pierrot le Fou Lacombe, Lucien French Connection II Under the Cherry Moon Jean de Florette Manon des Sources Dirty Rotten Scoundrels Happiness Is in the Field Taxi Chocolat Amer Swimming Pool Mr. Bean's Holiday Le Grand Voyage Priceless The Grocer's Son Magic in the Moonlight Occitania French Riviera Mezzogiorno Mirdita another named region of Albania, although it is instead in the Northern part of the country Northern Basque Country Northern Catalonia Southern Europe Vichy France
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
A barbican is a fortified outpost or gateway, such as an outer defence to a city or castle, or any tower situated over a gate or bridge, used for defensive purposes. Barbicans were situated outside the main line of defences and connected to the city walls with a walled road called the neck. In the 15th century, with the improvement in siege tactics and artillery, barbicans lost their significance. However, several barbicans were built in the 16th century. Fortified or mock-fortified gatehouses remained a feature of ambitious French and English residences into the 17th century. Fortifications in East Asia featured similar structures. In particular, gates in Chinese city walls were defended by an additional "archery tower" in front of the main gatehouse, with the two towers connected by walls extending out from the main fortification. Called "jar walls", they are referred to as "barbicans" in English. Barbican Estate, London Barbican, Plymouth Gatehouse Kraków barbican Warsaw Barbican Saint Laurence Gate, Drogheda http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-castles/parts-of-medieval-castles.htm https://www.britannica.com/technology/barbican-architecture Media related to Barbicans at Wikimedia Commons "Barbican".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. 1911. Http://www.medievalchronicles.com/medieval-castles/medieval-castle-parts/medieval-castle-barbican/ http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-castles/parts-of-medieval-castles.htm
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze, was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334. He was the second and longest-reigning Avignon Pope, elected by the Conclave of Cardinals, assembled in Lyon through the work of King Louis X's brother Philip, the Count of Poitiers King Philip V of France. Like his predecessor, Clement V, Pope John centralized power and income in the Papacy and lived a princely life in Avignon, he opposed the political policies of Louis IV of Bavaria as Holy Roman Emperor, which prompted Louis to invade Italy and set up an antipope, Nicholas V. Pope John XXII faced controversy in theology involving his views on the Beatific Vision, he opposed the Franciscan understanding of the poverty of Christ and his apostles, famously leading William of Ockham to write against unlimited papal power, he canonized St. Thomas Aquinas; the son of a shoemaker in Cahors, Jacques Duèze studied medicine in Montpellier and law in Paris, yet could not read a regal letter written to him in French.
Duèze taught civil law at Toulouse and Cahors. On the recommendation of Charles II of Naples he was made Bishop of Fréjus in 1300. In 1309 he was appointed chancellor of Charles II, in 1310 he was transferred to Avignon, he delivered legal opinions favorable to the suppression of the Templars, but he defended Boniface VIII and the Bull Unam Sanctam. On 23 December 1312, Clement V made him Cardinal-Bishop of Porto-Santa Rufina; the death of Pope Clement V in 1314 was followed by an interregnum of two years due to disagreements between the cardinals, who were split into two factions. After two years, Philip, in 1316 managed to arrange a papal conclave of twenty-three cardinals in Lyon; this conclave elected Duèze, crowned in Lyon. He set up his residence in Avignon rather than Rome, continuing the Avignon Papacy of his predecessor. John XXII involved himself in the politics and religious movements of many European countries in order to advance the interests of the Church, his close links with the French crown created widespread distrust of the papacy.
Pope John XXII was an excellent administrator and efficient at reorganizing the Church. He had sent a letter of thanks to the Muslim ruler Uzbeg Khan, tolerant of Christians and treated Christians kindly. John XXII has traditionally been credited with having composed the prayer "Anima Christi", which has become the English "Soul of Christ, sanctify me..." and the basis for the hymn Soul of Christ, Sanctify My Breast". On 27 March 1329, John XXII condemned many writings of Meister Eckhart as heretical in his papal bull In Agro Dominico. Prior to John XXII's election, a contest had begun for the Holy Roman Empire's crown between Louis IV of Bavaria and Frederick I of Austria. John XXII was neutral at first, but in 1323, when Louis IV became Holy Roman Emperor, the Guelph party and the Ghibelline party quarreled, provoked by John XXII's extreme claims of authority over the empire and by Louis IV's support of the spiritual Franciscans, whom John XXII condemned in the Papal bull Quorumdam exigit.
Louis IV was assisted in his doctrinal dispute with the papacy by Marsilius of Padua and by the English Franciscan friar and scholar William of Ockham. Louis IV invaded Italy, entered Rome and set up Pietro Rainalducci as Antipope Nicholas V in 1328; the project was a fiasco. Guelphic predominance at Rome was restored, Pope John excommunicated William of Ockham. However, Louis IV had silenced the papal claims and John XXII stayed the rest of his life in Avignon. Pope John XXII was determined to suppress what he considered to be the excesses of the Spirituals, who contended eagerly for the view that Christ and his apostles had possessed nothing, citing Exiit qui seminat in support of their view. In 1317, John XXII formally condemned the group of them known as the Fraticelli. On 26 March 1322, with Quia nonnunquam, he removed the ban on discussion of Pope Nicholas III's bull and commissioned experts to examine the idea of poverty based on belief that Christ and the apostles owned nothing; the experts disagreed among themselves, but the majority condemned the idea on the grounds that it would condemn the Church's right to have possessions.
The Franciscan chapter held in Perugia in May 1322 declared on the contrary: "To say or assert that Christ, in showing the way of perfection, the Apostles, in following that way and setting an example to others who wished to lead the perfect life, possessed nothing either severally or in common, either by right of ownership and dominium or by personal right, we corporately and unanimously declare to be not heretical, but true and catholic." By the bull Ad conditorem canonum of 8 December 1322, John XXII declared it ridiculous to pretend that every scrap of food given to the friars and eaten by them belonged to the pope, refused to accept ownership over the goods of the Franciscans in future and granted them exemption from the rule that forbade ownership of anything in common, thus forcing them to accept ownership. On 12 November 1323, he issued the bull Quum inter nonnullos, which declared "erroneous and heretical" the doctrine that Christ and his apostles had no possessions whatever. Influential members of the order protested, such as the minister general Michael of Cesena, the English provincial William of Ockham, Bonagratia of Bergamo.
In 1324, Louis the Bavarian accused the Pope of heresy. In reply to the argument of his opponents that Nicholas III's bull Exiit qui seminat was fixed and irrevocable, John XXII issued the bull Quia quorundam on 10 November 1324, in which he declared that it cannot be inferred from the words of the 1279 bull that Christ a
Devil's Bridge is a term applied to dozens of ancient bridges, found in Europe. Most of these bridges are stone or masonry arch bridges and represent a significant technological achievement; each of the Devil's Bridges has folktale. Local lore wrongly attributes these bridges to the Roman era, but in fact many of them are medieval, having been built between 1000 and 1600 AD. In medieval times some Roman roads were themselves considered beyond human capabilities and needs, therefore had to have been built by the devil; the bridges that fall into the Devil's Bridge category are so numerous that the legends about them form a special category in the Aarne-Thompson classification system for folktales. Some legends have elements of related folktale categories, for example Deceiving the Devil, The Devil's Contract, The Master Builder legends. One version of the tale presents the Devil as adversaries; this reflects the fact that such as in the case of the Teufelsbrücke at the St Gotthard Pass, these bridges were built under such challenging conditions that successful completion of the bridge required a heroic effort on the part of the builders and the community, ensuring its legendary status.
Other versions of the legend feature a simple herder who makes a pact with the Devil. In this version the devil agrees to build the bridge, in return he will receive the first soul to cross it. After building the bridge the devil is outwitted by his adversary, for example by throwing bread to lure a dog over the bridge first, is last seen descending into the water, bringing peace to the community. In the case of the Steinerne Brücke in Regensburg, the legend speaks of the devil helping in a race between the builders of the bridge and of the cathedral, a slight bump in the middle of the bridge is said to result from the devil's leaping with rage upon being tricked out of his prize. In the legend of Teufelsbrück in Hamburg, which only leads over a small stream, the carpenter had a pact with the devil, he promised him the first soul crossing the bridge. On the day of inauguration, while the priest and county councillor debated who should step on the bridge first, a rabbit crossed it and the disappointed devil disappeared.
A statue refers to the legend there. The legend of Ponte della Maddalena in Borgo a Mozzano, Province of Lucca, tells of a local saint Saint Julian, the Hospitaller, who made the pact with the devil. On the day of delivery, the saint sets fire to a dog or a pig that crosses the bridge and deceives the devil. Most of the bridges that have received the Devil's Bridge appellation are remarkable in some regard, most for the technological hurdles surpassed in building the bridge, but on occasion for its aesthetic grace as well, or for its economic or strategic importance to the community it serves. There are 49 Devil's Bridges in France, including: Pont du Diable – Aniane Pont du Diable – Villemagne-l'Argentière Pont du Diable – Beaugency Pont du Diable – Céret Pont du Diable – Foix Pont du Diable – Olargues Pont du Diable – Valentré Pont du Diable – Crouzet Migette Point du Diable – Ariège Rakotzbrücke and Rhododendron Park Kromlau – Saxony, Germany Bridge near Bamberg Cathedral, Germany Brickegickel – Frankfurt, Germany Teufelsbrück – Hamburg, Germany Steinerne Brücke – Regensburg, Germany Ponte del Diavolo – ruins of a Roman bridge along Via Traiana near Montecalvo Irpino, Campania Ponte del Diavolo – Ascoli Piceno, Marche Ponte del Diavolo – Blera, Lazio Ponte del Diavolo – Bobbio, Emilia Romagna Ponte del Diavolo – Borgo a Mozzano, Tuscany Ponte del Diavolo – Cavallara Ponte del Diavolo – Cividale, Friuli Ponte del Diavolo – Civita, Calabria Ponte del Diavolo – Decimomannu, Sardinia Ponte del Diavolo – Dronero, Province of Cuneo, Piedmont Ponte del Diavolo – Lanzo Torinese, Piedmont Ponticello del Diavolo – Torcello, Veneto Ponte da Mizarela – Braga District, Portugal Hudičev most – Bohinj, Slovenia Hudičev most – Tolmin, Slovenia Puente del Diablo – Cueto, Spain Pont del Diable – Martorell, Spain Aqüeducte de les Ferreres – Tarragona, Spain Pont du Diable – Gorges de l'Areuse Teufelsbrücke – St Gotthard Pass Teufelsbrücke – Hamlet of Egg, municipality of Einsiedeln, canton of Schwyz Devil's Bridge – Devil's Bridge, Wales Devil's Bridge – Kirkby Lonsdale, Cumbria Devil's Bridge – Horace Farm, Pennington Parish, Cumbria Devil's Bridge – Weston-super-Mare, North Somerset Devils Bridge – in the grounds of Weston Park, Staffordshire Devil's Bridge – Pontwalby, Wales Devil's Bridge – Mossley Hill, Liverpool Devil's Bridge – Worms Head, Pembrokeshire, Wales Devil's Bridge – Sedona, Arizona Chertov Most – bypass route around the Severomuysky Tunnel, Russia Devil's Bridge – Antigua, Caribbean Elen Skok – Reka, Macedonia Duivelsbrug – Breda, Netherlands Dyavolski most – near Ardino, Bulgaria Kuradisild – Tartu, Estonia Moara Dracului – Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Romania Puente del Diablo – Binangonan, Philippines Hudičev most, Slovenija Puente La Noria – Buenos Aires, Argentina