Caminho das Índias
Caminho das Índias is a Brazilian Emmy-winning television telenovela produced by Rede Globo. It was broadcast from 19 January to 11 September 2009, ranked within the top of the most watched shows on Brazilian television. Caminho das Índias storylines examine beliefs and values that differentiate the Eastern and Western world, the telenovela brings to the screen a story of contrasts. Telefutura aired an edited version of India from 5 October 2010 to 25 April 2011 at 10 pm central, removing episode previews and a custom-made intro and commercial bumpers were produced; the show starred Juliana Paes and Rodrigo Lombardi as the main protagonists and Letícia Sabatella as the main antagonist. It starred Tânia Khallil, Débora Bloch, Alexandre Borges and Bruno Gagliasso; the telenovela was screened as six one-hour chapters per week, from Monday to Saturday. It was one of the Brazil's highest-rated programs appearing at the top of the daily's ratings released by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics.
The average audience share for a chapter reached between 36 and 45 million, with each point equivalent to sixty thousand households tuned on Rede Globo in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. The title can be interpreted in two ways: it is Portuguese for "Route to the Indies" or "India's Way"; the plot spans a period during the transition of India into a modern democracy, parts during the 1970s, during modern period, where most of the complex plot begins to unravel. There are many flashbacks, but the story is divided between continents, as the story delves with characters in Rio de Janeiro and some elements in Dubai. Many themes are explored in the novella, including love, sanity and tradition versus modernity. With beliefs and values that separate the West and the East, the soap brings to the screen a story full of contrasts; the story is treated from a complex mesh of relationships, of families, their familiars and friends, who all circle in a "small world" where everyone has a relationship that connects to the other characters in some way.
One of the main plot points is a forbidden love between castes, as played by two characters with different origins and Bahuan. Maya is amazingly charming with dimples and enchanting eyes, she is cheerful, an employee of a call-center in Rajasthan and part of a traditional family of Vaishyas – the trader caste. Bahuan is finishing his studies in America, where he works, but could never forget the humiliation he had to go through as a child for being a dalit. Bahuan is the son of two servants untouchables, who were burned at the stake for accidentally touching their master while he bathed; as a young boy, the disorientated youth, walks by the River Ganges, where Opash Ananda is with his two sons: Amithab and Raj. Amithab out of curiosity, touches Bahuan, reaching for his necklace. Opash sees this and reprimands his son, since Bahuan is an untouchable and is not "clean". Shankar, a liberal Brahmin appears and defends Bahuan, beginning a fight with Opash that will prevail until the end of the narrative.
Opash leaves with his two children. Bahuan recounts his troubled life to the attentive Shankar, who reveals his lonely life and adopts the child, despite the prejudice he suffers from many people. Maya has reached the age to marry and her parents, the perfume maker Manu Meetha and Kochi, search all over for a suitable husband. Like every Indian girl, she had always believed they were the best suited people to find the right man. Moved by an overwhelming feeling, Maya is willing to impose her will to her family and doesn't understand why he seems so reticent. Only when the truth about his origins come to light she understands his fears. Between promises and risks, the couple keep being surprised by fate. On their way, are Raj Ananda, her parents' "golden dream". Raj is the middle child of Indira Ananda. Opash is a wealthy tradesman, who makes the agreement with Raj's marriage. Opash and Indira have three other children: Amithab and Shanti. Amithab, married to Surya, with whom he had a precocious daughter, Anusha.
Amitahab is the dutiful older son, but not having a male heir has diminished his status, a point of jealousy that drives the ambitious Surya. Ravi, the youngest boy, falls in love with a Brazilian girl, Camilla Motta, their relationship, which leads to marriage will bring the conflict between East and West to the forefront, as Camilla tries to adapt to the Hindu culture. Shanti, the youngest and the only girl, had been prepared for marriage since she was a small child, learning the "womanly arts" of the society: dancing, brewing chai, looking beautiful and serving members of the family, but she is uncomfortable in this role, with her friendship with Camilla she explores new possibilities beyond the home. She aspires to obtain a university education and be free to choose who she falls in love with, or if she marries; this is in the most dominant figure in the house. She is the vanguard of tradition in the Ananda home, quoting traditional proverbs, insinuating normative roles and an
Campinas is a Brazilian municipality in São Paulo State, part of the country's Southeast Region. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population is 1,080,999, making it the fourteenth most populous Brazilian city and the third most populous municipality in São Paulo state; the city's metropolitan area, Metropolitan Region of Campinas, contains twenty municipalities with a total population of 3,656,363 people. Campinas means grass fields in Portuguese and refers to its characteristic landscape, which comprised large stretches of dense subtropical forests along the many rivers, interspersed with rolling hills covered by low-lying vegetation. Campinas' official crest and flag has a picture of the mythical bird, the phoenix, because it was reborn after a devastating epidemic of yellow fever in the 1800s, which killed more than 25% of the city's inhabitants; the city was founded on July 1774, by Barreto Leme. It was a simple outpost on the way to Minas Gerais and Goiás serving the "Bandeirantes" who were in search of precious minerals and Indian slaves.
In the first half of the 19th century, Campinas became a growing population center, with many coffee and sugarcane farms. The construction of a railway linking the city of São Paulo to Santos' seaport, in 1867, was important for its growth. In the second half of the 19th century, with the abolition of slavery and industrialization attracted many foreign immigrants to replace the lost manpower from Italy. Coffee became the city became wealthy. In consequence, a large service sector was established to serve the growing population, in the first decades of the 20th century, Campinas could boast of an opera house, banks, movie theaters, radio stations, a philharmonic orchestra, two newspapers, a good public education system, hospitals, such as the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, and the Casa de Saúde de Campinas, the most important Brazilian research center in agricultural sciences, the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, founded by Emperor Pedro II. The construction of the first Brazilian highway in 1938, between Campinas and São Paulo, the Anhanguera Highway, was a turning point in the integration of Campinas into the rest of the state.
Campinas was the birthplace of opera composer Carlos Gomes and of the President of the Republic Campos Salles. It was home for 49 years to Hércules Florence, reputed as one of the early inventors of photography and the mimeograph; the area of the city, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, is 795.697 square kilometres. It is located at 22°54′21″S, 47°03′39″W and is at a distance of 96 kilometres northwest of São Paulo, its neighboring cities are Jaguariúna and Pedreira, north. Most of the original vegetation of the city was devastated. Like 13 other municipalities in the metropolitan region of Campinas, the city is subject to severe environmental stress, Campinas is considered one of the areas liable to flooding and silting. To try to reverse this situation, several projects have been and are being conducted and planned, such as building corridors, such as regulation of the Management Plan of Environmental Preservation Area in Campinas. There are several environmental projects to combat the destruction of riparian forests located on the river london, which has a high level of pollution.
Today, Campinas houses the area of relevant ecological interest Mata de Santa Genebra, 251 acres, established in 1985 and regulated by the Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, the city of Campinas, Fundação José Pedro de Oliveira. This is the now second largest urban forest of Brazil, behind only the Tijuca Forest, in Rio de Janeiro; the city has large forests, such as Jequitibás Wood, Forest Grove and the Germans of Guarantees. The city lies in a transition region between the tropical climates to the north and subtropical climates to the south, with many sources classifying it as having a humid subtropical climate, but others giving for it a tropical savanna climate. If it were not for the moderating effects of the city's altitude its climate would be tropical. Winters are dry and mild, summers rainy with warm to hot temperatures; the warmest month is February, with an average temperature of 24 °C, an average maximum of 29.1 °C and average minimum of 19.0 °C. The coldest month, sees respective temperatures of 17.8 °C, 24.2 °C and 11.4 °C average maximum and minimum.
Fall and spring are transitional seasons. The average annual rainfall is the driest month in August, when there is only 22.9 mm. In January, the rainiest month, the average is 280.3 mm. In recent years, the hot, dry days during the winter have been frequent surpassing 30 °C between July and September. In August 2010, for example, the rainfall in Campinas was only 0 mm. During the dry season and long dry
A telenovela is a type of limited-run television serial drama or soap opera produced in Latin America. The word combines tele, short for televisión or televisão, novela, a Spanish and Portuguese word for "novel". Similar genres around the world include teleserye, téléroman, or dramas. In Spain, they are called culebrones because of the convoluted plots. Described using the American colloquialism Spanish soap opera, many telenovelas share some stylistic and thematic similarities to the soap opera familiar to the English-speaking world; the significant difference is their series run length. This makes them shorter than most other television series, but still much longer than a miniseries; this planned run results in a faster-paced, more concise style of melodrama compared to a typical soap opera. Episodes of telenovelas last between 30 and 45 minutes, more than an hour, except for final episodes; the telenovela combines drama with the 19th-century feuilleton, evolved from the Latin American radionovela, according to Blanca de Lizaur.
The medium has been used by authorities in various countries to transmit sociocultural messages by incorporating them into storylines, which has decreased their credibility and audiences in the long run. By the 1970s and 1980s, Mexico became a world pioneer in using telenovelas to shape behavior successful in introducing the idea of family planning. Mexico and Brazil in the 1990s, played a key role in the international export of telenovelas, while Asia overtook the role in the 21st century, thus the so-called'Telenovela Craze' that spread in many regions in the world until today. Over time telenovelas evolved in the themes that they address. Couples who kiss each other in the first minutes of the first episode sometimes stay together for many episodes before the scriptwriter splits them up. Moreover taboo themes such as urban violence and homosexuality were incorporated into telenovelas. In the 2000s, Latin America and Asia altogether emerged as the biggest producers of telenovelas, which evolved out from soap operas to form another category of television drama, were one of the most common forms of popular entertainment in the world.
By 2018 some signs of fading popularity emerged. Telenovelas, which are sometimes called "tassels" or "comedias," are produced in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries and are shown during prime time; the first telenovelas were produced in Brazil and Mexico: Sua vida me pertence was shown twice a week, Senderos de amor and Ángeles de la calle were shown once a week. Between 1957 and 1958 Mexico produced its first drama serial in the modern telenovela format of Monday to Friday slots, Senda prohibida, written by Fernanda Villeli; the first global telenovela was Los ricos también lloran, exported to Russia, the United States and other countries. Countries that produce well-known telenovelas are Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Germany, the Philippines, Spain and the USA. Telenovelas tend to fall within these seven categories: Working-class melodrama, the most popular to date, easy to understand and contains less explicit content; this is reliant of the common rags-to-riches plot featuring a poor woman who falls in love with a rich man whose family spurns her, such as the Las Tres Marias.
Historical romance is set in the past, such as the colonial period, the restoration of the Republic, the late 19th Century the Mexican Revolution, the 20th-century military dictatorships Teen drama, which portrays the lives of high school teenagers and their issues with sex and other coming-of-age topics. This genre started with Quinceañera in 1987. Mystery/thriller is a category of telenovela, more cold-hearted than the other subgenres, it may portray a mysterious death or disappearance, which may tear couples families apart, such as Cuna de Lobos, La Casa al Final de la Calle, La Mujer de Judas, ¿Dónde está Elisa?, El Rostro de la Venganza or La Casa de al Lado. Chile has produced this genre. Romantic comedy, which portrays love stories with some or lots of comedy such as Las tontas no van al cielo "Fools Don't Go to Heaven" or Yo soy Betty, la fea. Pop band story portrays the lives of aspiring popstars such as in Alcanzar una estrella and its sequel Alcanzar una estrella II, as well as Rebelde, which spawned a multi-platinum pop group, RBD.
Some, though not all, of these type of telenovelas are geared towards a teenage and/or pre-teen audience. Narcotraffic Recently narcotrafficer telenovelas have become presented. Besides these, another category of serial that has become popular in recent
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
Abolitionism was the movement to end slavery. This term can be used both formally and informally. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain known as Emperor Charles V, was following the example of Louis X of France who had abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315, he passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, it was not enforced as a result. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church condemned the slave trade in response to a plea by Lourenço da Silva de Mendouça, it was vehemently condemned by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839; the abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, when English and American Quakers began to question the morality of slavery. James Oglethorpe was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery, banning it in the Province of Georgia on humanitarian grounds, arguing against it in Parliament, encouraging his friends Granville Sharp and Hannah More to vigorously pursue the cause.
Soon after his death in 1785, Sharp and More united with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. The Somersett Case in 1772, in which a fugitive slave was freed with the judgement that slavery did not exist under English common law, helped launch the British movement to abolish slavery. Though anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century, the colonies and emerging nations that used slave labour continued to do so: Dutch, British and Portuguese territories in the West Indies, South America, the Southern United States. After the American Revolution established the United States, northern states, beginning with Pennsylvania in 1780, passed legislation during the next two decades abolishing slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation. Massachusetts ratified a constitution. Vermont, which existed as an unrecognized state from 1777 to 1791, abolished adult slavery in 1777. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans and African Americans.
During the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, Congress regulated the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union. In 1787 the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed in London. Revolutionary France abolished slavery throughout its empire in 1794, although it was restored in 1802 by Napoleon as part of a program to ensure sovereignty over its colonies. Haiti formally declared independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory; the northern states in the U. S. all abolished slavery by 1804. The United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. Britain abolished slavery throughout its empire by the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, the French colonies re-abolished it in 1848 and the U. S. abolished slavery in 1865 with the 13th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution. In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia, to emancipate the serfs in Russia.
Slavery was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Mauritania was the last country to abolish slavery, with a presidential decree in 1981. Today and adult slavery and forced labour are illegal in all countries, as well as being against international law, but a high rate of human trafficking for labour and for sexual bondage continues to affect tens of millions of adults and children. In 1315, Louis X, king of France, published a decree proclaiming that "France signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed; this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. Some cases of African slaves freed by setting foot on the French soil were recorded such as this example of a Norman slave merchant who tried to sell slaves in Bordeaux in 1571, he was arrested and his slaves were freed according to a declaration of the Parlement of Guyenne which stated that slavery was intolerable in France. Born into slavery in Saint Domingue, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas became free when his father brought him to France in 1776.
As in other New World colonies, the French relied on the Atlantic slave trade for labour for their sugar cane plantations in their Caribbean colonies. In addition, French colonists in Louisiane in North America held slaves in the South around New Orleans, where they established sugarcane plantations. Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated the slave institution in the colonies, it gave unparalleled rights to slaves. It included the right to gather publicly, or take Sundays off. Although the Code Noir authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions, it forbade slave owners to torture them or to separate families, it demanded enslaved Africans receive instruction in the Catholic faith, implying that Africans were human beings endowed with a soul, a fact French law did not admit until then. It resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free in 1830, they were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses and slaves.
Other free people of colour, such as Julien Raimond, spo
Joia Rara is a Brazilian telenovela produced and broadcast by Rede Globo ran from 16 September 2013 to 4 April 2014. In November 2014, Joia Rara was prized as Best telenovela in the 42nd International Emmy Awards. In 1934, two supposed brothers survived an avalanche in the Himalayas: the millionaire Franz Hauser, saved by Buddhist monks, Manfred, rescued by a team of climbers. Manfred returns to Brazil with a terrible secret: he sabotaged Franz’s equipment in order to take his place in the family business. After an exhaustive search, Ernest Hauser gives his son up for dead and appoints his bastard son as the director of the Hauser Group. In the monastery, Franz becomes close friends with the spiritual leader Ananda and before his return home, the monk promises him that they will meet again in the future; the Franz family is thrilled with his return but Manfred, with his plans thwarted, begins scheming again to eliminate Franz once and for all. Through a twist of fate, Franz meets the worker Amélia.
The two fall in love and, despite family opposition and Manfred's schemes, they stay together and have a daughter, Perola. Framed in a plot, Amélia is sentenced to jail and so, the child ends up in the custody of her paternal family. With the death of the monk Ananda, his disciples set out to look for the person who they believe is to be his reincarnation. All signs point to Perola, upon receiving the news, she is eager to begin her studies at the monastery, it is she. For the Himalayan scenes, the Precious Pearl crew spent 20 days in Nepal shooting in the cities of Kathmandu and Bhaktapur, they shot in Bungamati, a 16th-century village, as well as at the Golden Temple, at the Shechen Monastery. The production crew used around 60 local extras. Many objects were acquired in Nepal incense stick holders, bed linens, prayer objects and wooden bowls used by monks, were used for the telenovela set design, at Globo's studios in Rio de Janeiro; the 1930s and 1940s were recreated at Globo's production center to allow audiences to dive into the atmosphere of Precious Pearl.
Two scenic cities were created, adding up to a total of 8,000 square meters, in addition to 60 studio scenarios. In the Lapa set, a cable car strolls through a 70-meter long rail, built for the telenovela. In Brazil, the telenovela had average ratings of 21 points and 46% share, reaching over 26 million viewers per day; the telenovela's official hashtag, #joiarara, was mentioned 80,000 times, which corresponds to 58% of the total volume of simultaneous online comments. Aired in Portugal, in the Globo basic channel, the plot is daily ranked among the 5 most watched paid TV shows in the country. Official website
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Two Gentlemen of Verona is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1589 and 1593. It is considered by some to be Shakespeare's first play, is seen as showing his first tentative steps in laying out some of the themes and motifs with which he would deal in more detail; the play deals with the themes of friendship and infidelity, the conflict between friendship and love, the foolish behaviour of people in love. The highlight of the play is considered by some to be Launce, the clownish servant of Proteus, his dog Crab, to whom "the most scene-stealing non-speaking role in the canon" has been attributed. Two Gentlemen is regarded as one of Shakespeare's weakest plays, it has the smallest named cast of any play by Shakespeare. As the play begins, Valentine is preparing to leave Verona for Milan so as to broaden his horizons, he begs his best friend, Proteus, to come with him, but Proteus is in love with Julia, refuses to leave. Disappointed, Valentine bids goes on alone.
Meanwhile, Julia is discussing Proteus with her maid, who tells Julia that she thinks Proteus is fond of her. Julia, acts coyly, embarrassed to admit that she likes him. Lucetta produces a letter. Julia, still unwilling to reveal her love in front of Lucetta, angrily tears up the letter, she sends Lucetta away, but realising her own rashness, she picks up the fragments of the letter and kisses them, trying to piece them back together. Meanwhile, Proteus' father has decided that Proteus should join Valentine, he orders that Proteus must leave the next day, prompting a tearful farewell with Julia, to whom Proteus swears eternal love. The two exchange rings and vows and Proteus promises to return as soon. In Milan, Proteus finds Valentine in love with Silvia. Despite being in love with Julia, Proteus falls in love with Silvia and vows to win her. Unaware of Proteus' feelings, Valentine tells him the Duke wants Silvia to marry the foppish but wealthy Thurio, against her wishes; because the Duke suspects that his daughter and Valentine are in love, he locks her nightly in a tower, to which he keeps the only key.
However, Valentine tells Proteus that he plans to free her by means of a corded ladder, together, they will elope. Proteus informs the Duke, who subsequently captures and banishes Valentine. While wandering outside Milan, Valentine runs afoul of a band of outlaws, who claim they are exiled gentlemen. Valentine lies, saying he was banished for killing a man in a fair fight, the outlaws elect him their leader. Meanwhile, in Verona, Julia decides to join her lover in Milan, she convinces Lucetta to dress her in boy's clothes and help her fix her hair so she will not be harmed on the journey. Once in Milan, Julia discovers Proteus' love for Silvia, watching him attempt to serenade her, she contrives to become his page boy -- Sebastian --. Proteus sends Sebastian to Silvia with a gift of the ring that Julia gave to him before he left Verona, but Julia learns that Silvia scorns Proteus' affections and is disgusted he would forget his love back home, i.e. Julia herself. Silvia mourns the loss of Valentine, who Proteus has told her is rumoured dead.
Not persuaded of Valentine's death, Silvia determines to flee the city with the help of Sir Eglamour. They escape into the forest but when they are confronted by the outlaws, Eglamour flees and Silvia is taken captive; the outlaws head to their leader. Proteus rescues Silvia, pursues her deeper into the forest. Secretly observed by Valentine, Proteus attempts to persuade Silvia that he loves her, but she rejects his advances. Proteus insinuates that he will rape her, but at this point, Valentine intervenes and denounces Proteus. Horrified at what has happened, Proteus vows that the hate Valentine feels for him is nothing compared to the hate he feels for himself. Convinced that Proteus' repentance is genuine, Valentine forgives him and seems to offer Silvia to him. At this point, Julia faints, revealing her true identity. Upon seeing her, Proteus remembers his love for her and vows fidelity to her once again; the Duke and Thurio are brought as prisoners by the outlaws. Seeing Silvia, Thurio claims her as his, but Valentine warns Thurio that if he makes one move toward her, he will kill him.
Terrified, Thurio renounces Silvia. The Duke, disgusted with Thurio's cowardice and impressed by Valentine's actions, approves his and Silvia's love, consents to their marriage; the two couples are united, the Duke pardons the outlaws, telling them they may return to Milan. In writing The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Shakespeare drew on the Spanish prose romance Los Siete Libros de la Diana by the Portuguese writer Jorge de Montemayor. In the second book of Diana, Don Felix, in love with Felismena, sends her a letter explaining his feelings. Like Julia, Felismena pretends to reject the letter, be annoyed with her maid for delivering it. Like Proteus, Felix is sent away by his father, is followed by Felismena, disguised as a boy, becomes his page, only to subsequently learn that Felix has fallen in love with Celia. Felismena is employed by Felix to act as his messenger in all communications with Celia, who scorns his love. Instead, Celia falls in love with the page. After a comb