Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
The quijada, charrasca, or jawbone, is an idiophone percussion instrument made from the jawbone of a donkey, horse or mule cattle, producing a powerful buzzing sound. The jawbone dried to make the teeth loose and act as a rattle, it is used in music in most of Latin America, including Mexico, Peru, El Salvador and Cuba. To play it, a musician holds one end in one hand and strikes the other with either a stick or their hand; the stick can be pulled along the teeth which act as a rasp. These ingredients provide the basis for a wide variety of rhythms. While it is used in most of Latin America, the quijada originated from the Africans that were brought to the Americas during the colonial era, it is believed that it was first introduced in Peru. It is a mix of African and indigenous cultures that created an instrument that gained value from the people of Latin America, it is one of the main instruments used by Afro-Peruvian musical ensembles and is used in many other Latin American cultures, like the candombe of Argentina, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, as well as Mexican music by son jarocho and "Costa Chica" ensembles.
An example is a song played in Mexico in which the quijada keeps the beat. The quijada de burro is most used at carnivals and religious festivals. Latin American music Vibraslap Beck, John. Encyclopedia of Percussion. Garland. ISBN 978-0-8240-4788-7. A quijada
Leon Mobley is a percussionist and drummer and artistic and musical director of Da Lion and Djimbe West African Drummers and Dancers and a member of the Innocent Criminals, Ben Harper's band. He worked with Damian Nas on a collaborative album titled Distant Relatives. Leon Mobley began as a child actor on PBS Television show Zoom, has toured the globe as drummer/percussionist with Ben Harper and the Innocent Criminals. Mobley began playing African drums in 1967, studying for 10 years under the tutelage of Nigerian master drummer Babatunde Olatunji at the Elma Lewis School of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1977 Mobley studied under the directorship of Senegalese master drummer Ibrahim Camara while a member of the Bokan-Deye Dance Company. Mobley was invited to South Africa in 1991 to perform with returning exiles Letta Mbulu, Caiphus Semenya, Hugh Masekela. Mobley studied and performed from 1979 to 1981 in Surinam, South America, Trinidad & Tobago and throughout the West Indies, he continued his studies during 1982 in Gambia.
In 1987 and 1992 he traveled to Japan, where he taught and performed West African Drumming and Dancing. While in Japan he visited Sado Island, home of Kodo, the percussion group, in a cultural exchange program, he has performed and lectured throughout the US and toured Germany and Israel producing, conducting clinics and performing with his group Da Lion. Like his mentor Olatunji, Mobley has succeeded in bringing African drumming into contemporary mainstream music and has performed and recorded with many major artists in all genres. Among the many artists Mobley has worked with are: Dave Matthews Band, Jack Johnson, Peter Wolf, Mick Jagger, Quincy Jones, Michael Jackson, Macy Gray, Trevor Hall, Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Blind Boys of Alabama, Damian Marley, Jason Mraz, The Fugees, Stevie Wonder, Gov't Mule, Michael Franti & Spearhead, Tom Morello of Rage Against the Machine, Pierce Fucinni and Flora Purim, more. Mobley performed for a Gucci sponsored event at the United Nations which raised $5.5 million for UNICEF and Madonna's charity Raising Malawi.
Mobley has been a signature series artist with Remo who has manufactured and marketed the Leon Mobley custom-designed African drums since 1983. While in Boston he taught at community centers, conducted school tours with the Art of Black Dance and Music, conducted workshops at Berklee College of Music, he served as musical director at Paige Academy, a private school in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Mobley continued teaching after moving to Los Angeles in 1986, conducting weekly classes at UCLA, Los Angeles Contemporary Dance Theater and Recreation, the Los Angeles High School for the Arts on the campus of Cal State. Mobley is the founder and artistic and musical director of Da Lion and Djimbe West African Drummers and Dancers, he founded these two groups in order to help preserve African cultures, present authentic traditional West African-American dance and music to North American audiences. Through these groups, Mobley educates others about the West African people, their customs and cultural arts and about the influence of Traditional African drumming and music on African American art and culture.
Leon Mobley on IMDb
El Cajon, California
El Cajon is a city in San Diego County, United States, 17 mi east of Downtown San Diego. The city, located in a valley surrounded by mountains, has acquired the nickname of "The Box." Its name originated from the Spanish phrase "el cajón," which means "the box" or "the drawer." El Cajon, Spanish for "the box," was first recorded on September 10, 1821, as an alternative name for sitio rancho Santa Mónica to describe the "boxed in" nature of the valley in which it sat. The name appeared on maps in 1873 and 1875, shortened to "Cajon," until the modern town developed in which the post office was named "El Cajon." In 1905, the name was once again expanded to "El Cajon" under the insistence of California banker and historian Zoeth Skinner Eldredge. El Cajon is located at 32°47′54″N 116°57′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.4 square miles, all land. It is bordered by San Diego and La Mesa on the west, Spring Valley on the south, Santee on the north, unincorporated San Diego County on the east.
It includes the neighborhoods of Fletcher Hills and Rancho San Diego. Under the Köppen climate classification system, El Cajon straddles areas of Mediterranean climate and semi-arid climate; as a result, it is described as "arid Mediterranean" and "semi-arid Steppe". Like most inland areas in Southern California, the climate varies within a short distance, known as microclimate. El Cajon's climate has greater extremes compared to coastal San Diego; the farther east from the coast, the more arid the climate gets, until one reaches the mountains, where precipitation increases due to orographic uplift. El Cajon's climate is warm during summer with mean temperatures averaging 70.1 °F or higher and cool during winter with mean temperatures averaging 55.4 °F or higher. The average high in the summer ranges from about 80 to 90 °F, with temperatures reaching as high as over 105 °F; the coldest month of the year is December with an average maximum temperature of 63 °F and an average minimum of 47 °F reaching below 39 °F.
Temperature variations between night and day tend to be moderate with an average difference of 24 °F during the summer, an average difference of 26 °F during the winter. The annual average precipitation at El Cajon is 19 inches, nearly twice the average of San Diego, similar to Pasadena and the San Francisco Bay Area. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the winter months, but rare in summer; the wettest month of the year is December with an average rainfall of 3.80 inches. The record high temperature was 113 °F on June 14, 1917; the record low temperature was 19 °F on January 8, 1913. The wettest year was 1941 with 28.14 inches and the dryest year was 1989 with 1.51 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 11.43 inches in January 1993. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 5.60 inches on January 27, 1916. A rare snowfall in November 1992 totaled 0.3 inches. Three inches of snow covered the ground in January 1882. During Spanish rule, the government encouraged settlement of territory now known as California by the establishment of large land grants called ranchos, from which the English word ranch is derived.
Land grants were made to the Roman Catholic Church which set up numerous missions throughout the region. In the early nineteenth century, mission padres' search for pasture land led them to the El Cajon Valley. Surrounding foothills served as a barrier to straying cattle and a watershed to gather the sparse rainfall. For years the pasture lands of El Cajon supported the cattle herds of the mission and its native Indian converts, it was not until the Mexican era. The original intent of the 1834 secularization legislation was to have church property divided among the former mission Indians. However, most of the grants were made to rich "Californios" of Spanish background who had long been casting envious eyes on the vast holdings of the Roman Catholic missions. In 1845 California Governor Pio Pico confiscated the lands of Mission San Diego de Alcala, he granted eleven square leagues of the El Cajon Valley to Dona Maria Antonio Estudillo, daughter of José Antonio Estudillo, alcalde of San Diego, to repay a $500 government obligation.
The grant was called Rancho Santa Monica and encompassed present day El Cajon, Santee, Flinn Springs, the eastern part of La Mesa. It contained the 28-acre Rancho Cañada de los Coches grant. Maria Estudillo was the wife of Don Miguel Pedrorena, a native of Madrid, who had come to California from Peru in 1838 to operate a trading business. With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican–American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored; as required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho El Cajon was filed by Thomas W. Sutherland, guardian of Pedrorena's heirs with the Public Land Commission in 1852, confirmed by the U. S. Supreme Court, the grant was patented in 1876. In 1868, Los Angeles land developer Isaac Lankershim bought the bulk of the Pedrorena's Rancho El Cajon holdings and employed Major Levi Chase, a former Union Army officer, as his agent. Chase received from Lankershim 7,624 acres known as the Chase Ranch.
Lankershim hired Amaziah Lord Knox, a New Englander whom he
Tondero is a dance and guitar rhythm from Peru that developed in the country's northern coastal region. The Tondero is a Peruvian dance and rhythm born in the north coast adjacent to the eastern valleys of the Sierra or "yungas" of Piura and Lambayeque; the oldest version is from the Morropón Province the center of Piura's region, below the highlands and inland from the coast. The classical version consists of a principal singer, a small chorus, two Criollo style guitar players, it may be accompanied by palms or an Afro-Peruvian instrument made of dried and flattened pumpkins called checo. It is played by trumpet and drum bands, it is composed of three parts: 1) glosa 2) dulce and 3) fuga. The glosa is the lyrical informative part of a tondero, it is characterized by a tragic melodic ballad type of singing called triste or cumanana whereby the principal voice is heard over the base line initial rhythm. The rhythm is accelerated; the sweet, or dulce, is the intermedial and reaffirmation of the head singer many times sung right off a rhythm spin and sung by a chorus that cuts between the head singer.
The runaway, or fuga, is the ending part. It is fast paced and sung passionately. In its choreography and its music, the tondero is similar to the marinera, Perú's national dance, the marinera norteña, the version of the marinera popular in the northern part of Perú—roughly the area around Trujillo and Piura. All of these dances stem from what had been cultivated in Perú by Spanish horsemen of Romani origin modified by African slaves; the terminology of "Tondero" derives from the terms Volandero, Volero yet it evolved into a "T", as to describe the tundete sound and base rhythm typical to it: "Bum Bum Bum". This base rhythm derives from trumpeting Csárdás yet scales on guitar and the dance handfigures and movements are primitive bulerías; the cock fight so popular among Gypsies worldwide is where the dance gets its choreography and inspiration. However, as the years went on, the significance of African influence added to its Romani origin and so did the mingling of these with the native Amerindians.
Unlike the Zamacueca, which directly derives from Zambrainas and Hispano-African influences without Andean addings, the Tondero maintains a stronger Romani origin in its tragic lyrics with visible addings of African and America, Indian influence as time went by. The dance expresses three themes, all inspired from the same emotion: the errant life of birds, cockfighting common among Peruvians and lastly, the falling in love; the prototype image of tondero and cumanana singers are the solitary mestizo or creole farmers who stop and sing about their tragic hard life, their errant ways. Themes are tragic and somewhat picaresque, where one makes fun of one's tragedy. Typical topics are the loss of cattle, crops or the lament due to unrequited love from his "china"; the use of the handkerchief, as a symbolic element that relates to the flying of errant birds, has a possible Romani inheritance that belongs to the weddings and is seen in coastal dances like Zamacueca Limeña, Canto de Jarana or Marinera Norteña.
All of the dances seem to have cajón instruments as their principal instruments. Figures of course represent cockfights and the stumps, body-waste movements and hand movements are done in gypsy musical style where flirting is done by the women, the stud acts, picaresque attitude called machismo, is done by the man. Tondero is played by all coastal regions of the North; the "chinganas" has the popular costume of putting a "White Flags" as synonymous invitations for newcomers or solitary bohemian northmen "Piajenos" to come refresh themselves from the northern heat and have a "Chicha de Jora" drink. It is of course a great chance to listen to an old "Piajeno" farmer sing and play tondero rhythms, most of northern Lambayeque and southern Piura; the cumananas and "Tristes" are somewhat like the tragic initial Zards or the Cante Jondo of Andalucia but in a mestizo flavour. After a few drinks of Pisco, Algarrobina or Chicha en poto come the "Cumanánas", they are rooted always in a sad theme. The cumananas all surround the Tondero.
Right before a tondero it is common to play cumanana and tristes. You can hear the resemblance to the yaraví mestizo in the guitar, gypsy Romani balads of eastern Europe or Spain in the form of song and the explosive finish line or "tundete" of guitar: the rhythm of Tondero itself; the most probable is that the term tondero derives from the term volero or bolero and after years of changes to Tondero as faster version based on Zards and Flamenco. The musical composition of guitarra has a resemblance to the order of those trumpet gypsy bands found in Romania or Hungary whom
Irish traditional music
Irish traditional music is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland. In A History of Irish Music, W. H. Grattan Flood wrote that, in Gaelic Ireland, there were at least ten instruments in general use; these were the cruit and clairseach, the timpan, the feadan, the buinne, the guthbuinne, the bennbuabhal and corn, the cuislenna, the stoc and sturgan, the cnamha. There is evidence of the fiddle being used in the 8th century. There are several collections of Irish folk music from the 18th century, but it was not until the 19th century that ballad printers became established in Dublin. Important collectors include Colm Ó Lochlainn, George Petrie, Edward Bunting, Francis O'Neill, James Goodman and many others. Though solo performance is preferred in the folk tradition, bands or at least small ensembles have been a part of Irish music since at least the mid-19th century, although this is a point of much contention among ethnomusicologists. Irish traditional music has endured more against the forces of cinema and the mass media than the indigenous folk music of most European countries.
This was because the country was not a geographical battleground in either of the two world wars. Another potential factor was that the economy was agricultural, where oral tradition thrives. From the end of the second world war until the late fifties folk music was held in low regard. Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann and the popularity of the Fleadh Cheoil helped lead the revival of the music; the English Folk music scene encouraged and gave self-confidence to many Irish musicians. Following the success of The Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem in the US in 1959, Irish folk music became fashionable again; the lush sentimental style of singers such as Delia Murphy was replaced by guitar-driven male groups such as The Dubliners. Irish showbands presented a mixture of pop music and folk dance tunes, though these died out during the seventies; the international success of The Chieftains and subsequent musicians and groups has made Irish folk music a global brand. Much old-time music of the USA grew out of the music of Ireland and Scotland, as a result of cultural diffusion.
By the 1970s Irish traditional music was again influencing music in the US and further afield in Australia and Europe. It has been fused with rock and roll, punk rock and other genres. Irish dance music is isometric and is built around patterns of bar-long melodic phrases akin to call and response. A common pattern is A Phrase, B Phrase, A Phrase, Partial Resolution, A Phrase, B Phrase, A Phrase, Final Resolution, though this is not universal. Many tunes have pickup notes which lead in to the beginning of the B parts. Mazurkas and hornpipes have a swing feel. Tunes are binary in form, divided into two parts, each with four to eight bars; the parts are referred to as the A-part, B-part, so on. Each part is played twice, the entire tune is played three times. Many tunes have similar ending phrases for both B parts. Additionally, hornpipes have three quavers or quarternotes at the end of each part, followed by pickup notes to lead back to the beginning of the A part of onto the B part. Many airs have an AABA form.
While airs are played singly, dance tunes are played in medleys of 2-4 tunes called sets. Irish music is modal, using ionian, aeolian and mixolydian modes, as well as hexatonic and pentatonic versions of those scales; some tunes do feature accidentals. Singers and instrumentalists embellish melodies through ornamentation, using grace notes, cuts, crans, or slides. While uilleann pipes may use their drones and chanters to provide harmonic backup, fiddlers use double stops in their playing, due to the importance placed on the melody in Irish music, harmony is kept simple or absent. Instruments are played in strict unison, always following the leading player. True counterpoint is unknown to traditional music, although a form of improvised "countermelody" is used in the accompaniments of bouzouki and guitar players. In contrast to many kinds of western folk music, there are no set chord progressions to tunes. Many guitarists use DADGAD tuning because it offers flexibility in using these approaches, as does the GDAD tuning for bouzouki.
Like all traditional music, Irish folk music has changed slowly. Most folk songs are less than 200 years old. One measure of its age is the language used. Modern Irish songs are written in Irish. Most of the oldest songs and tunes are rural in origin and come from the older Irish language tradition. Modern songs and tunes come from cities and towns, Irish songs went from the Irish language to the English language. Unaccompanied vocals are called sean nós and are considered the ultimate expression of traditional singing; this is performed solo. Sean-nós singing is ornamented and the voice is pl
The Antilles is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east. The Antillean islands are divided into two smaller groupings: the Greater Antilles and the Lesser Antilles; the Greater Antilles includes the larger islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Cayman Islands. The Lesser Antilles contains the northerly Leeward Islands, the southeasterly Windward Islands, the Leeward Antilles just north of Venezuela; the Lucayan Archipelago, though part of the West Indies, are not included among the Antillean islands. Geographically, the Antillean islands are considered a subregion of North America. Culturally speaking, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico – and sometimes the whole of the Antilles – are included in Latin America, although some sources avoid this socio-economic oversimplification by using the phrase "Latin America and the Caribbean" instead. In terms of geology, the Greater Antilles are made up of continental rock, as distinct from the Lesser Antilles, which are young volcanic or coral islands.
The word Antilles originated in the period before the European colonization of the Americas, Antilia being one of those mysterious lands which figured on the medieval charts, sometimes as an archipelago, sometimes as continuous land of greater or lesser extent, its location fluctuating in mid-ocean between the Canary Islands and India. After the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus's expedition in what was called the West Indies, the European powers realized that the dispersed lands constituted an extensive archipelago inhabiting the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico; the Antilles were called multiple names. Early Spanish visitors called them the Windward Islands, they were called the Forward Islands by 18th-century British. Thereafter, the term Antilles was assigned to the formation, "Sea of the Antilles" became a common alternative name for the Caribbean Sea in various European languages; the Antilles were described in 1778 by Thomas Kitchin as once being called the Caribbee Isles in homage to the Carib people who were the islands' first inhabitants.
Bahamas Turks and Caicos Islands Cuba Hispaniola Haiti Dominican Republic Jamaica Puerto Rico Cayman Islands Aruba Bonaire Curaçao Federal Dependencies of Venezuela Los Monjes Archipelago La Tortuga Island La Sola Island Los Testigos Islands Los Frailes Islands Patos Island Los Roques Archipelago Blanquilla Island Los Hermanos Archipelago Orchila Island Las Aves Archipelago Aves Island Nueva Esparta State Margarita Island Coche Cubagua Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Antigua Barbuda Redonda British Virgin Islands Guadeloupe La Désirade Marie-Galante Les Saintes Montserrat Saba Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Collectivity of Saint Martin Sint Maarten Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts Nevis Sint Eustatius U. S. Virgin Islands Saint Croix Saint Thomas Saint John Dominica Grenada Martinique Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Barbados Trinidad and Tobago Tobago Trinidad Antillia