Rialto is a city in San Bernardino County, United States. The population was 99,171 with the 2010 Census. Rialto is home to four major regional distribution centers: Staples Inc. which serves stores across the entire West Coast of the United States, Toys "R" Us, Under Armour and Target in the northern region of the city, in the Las Colinas community. One of the United States' largest fireworks companies, Pyro Spectaculars, is headquartered in Rialto. Rialto known as "Bridge City" features a somewhat cooler version of a Mediterranean climate which may be characterized as a Mediterranean climate, known for wet, cool to chilly winters with hot, dry summers; the arid climate during the summer prevents tropospheric clouds from forming, meaning temperatures rise to what is considered Class Orange by NOAA. Rialto gets an average of 16 inches of rain, maybe hail most of this rainfall precipitates in winter. During winter, Rialto's northern-most neighborhood gets snow at times as a result of its elevation of about 3,000 feet above sea level.
However, most of the city is out of snowfall's path. The seasonal Santa Ana winds are felt strongly in not only Rialto but the greater San Bernardino area as warm and dry air is channeled through nearby Cajon Pass at times during the autumn months; this phenomenon markedly increases the wildfire danger in the foothill and mountain communities that the cycle of cold, wet winters and dry summers helps create. Rialto is located at 34°6′41″N 117°22′57″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.4 square miles. 22.4 square miles of it is land and 0.06% is water. As of the census of 2000, there are 91,873 people, 24,659 households, 20,516 families residing in the city; the population density is 1,622.0/km². There are 26,045 housing units at an average density of 459.8/km². The racial makeup of the city is 39.37% White, 22.27% African American, 1.05% Native American, 2.47% Asian, 0.43% Pacific Islander, 29.20% from other races, 5.21% from two or more races. 51.21% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 24,659 households out of which 52.8% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.6% are married couples living together, 18.6% have a female householder with no husband present, 16.8% are non-families. 13.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 5.4% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.69 and the average family size is 4.01. In the city, the population is spread out with 37.7% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 16.4% from 45 to 64, 6.4% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 26 years. For every 100 females, there are 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 90.7 males. The median income for a household in the city is $41,254, the median income for a family is $42,638. Males have a median income of $34,110 versus $26,640 for females; the per capita income for the city is $13,375. 17.4% of the population and 13.8% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 21.7% of those under the age of 18 and 9.7% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Rialto had a population of 99,171. The population density was 4,434.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Rialto was 43,592 White, 16,236 African American, 1,062 Native American, 2,258 Asian, 361 Pacific Islander, 30,993 from other races, 4,669 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 67,038 persons; the Census reported that 98,724 people lived in households, 254 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 193 were institutionalized. There were 25,202 households, out of which 14,384 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,811 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 5,175 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,191 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,780 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 150 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,141 households were made up of individuals and 1,283 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.92.
There were 21,177 families. The population was spread out with 32,604 people under the age of 18, 12,204 people aged 18 to 24, 26,802 people aged 25 to 44, 20,655 people aged 45 to 64, 6,906 people who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 28.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. There were 27,203 housing units at an average density of 1,216.3 per square mile, of which 16,294 were owner-occupied, 8,908 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.1%. 64,148 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 34,576 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, Rialto had a median household income of $49,428, with 19.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line. Rialto's crime rate was above the national average every year from 1999 to 2007. From 2008 to 2016, the crime rate in Rialto was below the national average. In 2006, Rialto fielded 0.89 police officers per 1,000 residents, less than one-third the national average.
Rialto was the first city in
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
California State Route 138
State Route 138 is an east–west state highway following the northern foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains and the western Mojave Desert of southern California. The scenic highway begins in the west at its junction with Interstate 5 located south of Gorman in the Sierra Pelona Mountains, continues eastward through the Antelope Valley and Cajon Pass, to its junction with State Route 18 in the east, located in the San Bernardino Mountains south of Crestline. Except for the western two miles of the route between Interstate 5 and just east of Gorman Post Road and a segment shared with State Route 14 between Avenue D in Lancaster and Palmdale Boulevard in Palmdale, it is all a undivided two-lane surface road; the remaining section of the Ridge Route, California's first highway connecting the San Joaquin Valley to the Los Angeles Basin, ends at Route 138 near Gorman. The western leg of State Route 138 traverses the Lancaster Freeway from Interstate 5 to Gorman Post Road, Lancaster Road from Gorman Post Road to 245th Street West near Neenach School, Avenue D from 245th Street West to Route 138's north junction with State Route 14.
The Lancaster Freeway has two for each direction of travel. Both Lancaster Road and Avenue D are 2-lane conventional roads. After its co-routing with the Antelope Valley Freeway for 14 miles through Lancaster and Palmdale, it passes through Palmdale's eastside as four-lane Palmdale Boulevard, 47th Street East, Fort Tejon Road to Avenue T. At Avenue T it tapers to two lanes and continues straight ahead on Pearblossom Highway through Littlerock and Llano to its west junction with State Route 18. Route 18's western terminus siphons off Las Vegas-bound travelers from 138. At its west junction with State Route 18, State Route 138 turns southeast on Antelope Highway to the Los Angeles/San Bernardino County line where it loses its alternative name, Antelope Highway. Between the county line and Interstate 15, State Route 138 traverses mountainous and scenic terrain and it connects with State Route 2 that leads to winter resort areas in the San Gabriel Mountains used by residents of the Los Angeles metropolitan area.
State Route 138 descends through the West Cajon Valley and crosses Interstate 15 in the Cajon Pass. From Interstate 15 to State Route 173, near the northwest corner of Silverwood Lake, traffic on State Route 138 is rather sparse; the remaining road past Silverwood Lake is mountainous and twisting, not a prime mountain route to the San Bernardino Mountain resorts. The entire segment from Interstate 15 to the eastern terminus of State Route 138 at Mount Anderson Junction is known as the El Cajon-Skyline Forest Highway. State Route 138 and 18 overlap each other in opposing termini, as SR 18's northwest most endpoint is in Llano with SR 138, while SR 138's southmost point is in Crestline with SR 18; because of its twisting, mountainous segments and overloaded traffic conditions on its eastern leg, State Route 138 east of Palmdale and west of Interstate 15 is the site of numerous serious auto accidents as of 2004, according to CHP data. One of the chief contributors to accidents on Route 138 of late is drivers passing on the two-lane highway in unsafe conditions.
A notable accident in 2003 involved a pickup truck driven by an unlicensed driver leaving the roadway and plunging into the California Aqueduct, killing four occupants of the vehicle and leaving the sole survivor quadriplegic. The State of California paid a $10 million settlement to the victims' family; the area surrounding the highway is prone to brush fires and flash floods. SR 138 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, west of the western junction of SR 18 is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 138 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation. A project to widen the highway to four lanes and add shoulders between Avenue T in Palmdale and Highway 18 in Llano was announced by the California Department of Transportation in 2009. Work was projected to be completed by Spring 2012.
However, as of December 2012, work on the project was still ongoing and several portions remain two lanes. Improvements to the six-mile stretch between Highway 18 and the Los Angeles/San Bernardino County Line, including widening the shoulders and installing rumble strips, were proposed in February 2013, with no timeline for completion being given. A proposed bypass to the north of downtown Palmdale has been studied by Caltrans; the bypass would be located east of the Antelope Valley Freeway and south of LA/Palmdale Regional Airport along Avenue P-8, reconnecting with the current SR 138 east of Palmdale. Caltrans plans to build a 63-mile freeway and transit corridor parallel to State Route 138 and State Route 18, known as the "High Desert Corridor"; the $8 billion project would include an eight-lane freeway between Lancaster and Victorville, along with a bikeway, rapid transit, part of XpressWest, a proposed high-speed rail line linking Los Angeles to Las Vegas. Parts of the distinctive highway were used in the filming of the movie The Long, Long Trailer, a 1954 comedy with Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz.
Despite the rapid growth of Southern California in the ensuing fifty years, the segment shown in the movie is little changed since the movie was filmed. David Hockney composed the picturesque photographic collage Pearblossom Highway in 1986 off the segment of Route 138 bearing
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad is a freight hauling railroad that operates 8,500 locomotives over 32,100 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago and New Orleans. The Union Pacific Railroad system is the second largest in the United States after the BNSF Railway and is one of the world's largest transportation companies; the Union Pacific Railroad is the principal operating company of the Union Pacific Corporation. Union Pacific is known for pioneering multiple innovative locomotives the most powerful of their era; these include members of the Challenger-type, the Northern-type, as well as the famous Big Boy steam locomotives. Union Pacific ordered the first streamliner, the largest fleet of turbine-electric locomotives in the world, still owns the largest operational diesel locomotive; the Union Pacific legacy began in 1862 with the original company, called the Union Pacific Rail Road, part of the First Transcontinental Railroad project known as the Overland Route. The railroad would subsequently be reorganized thrice: as the Union Pacific Railway, as the Union Pacific "Railroad", as a renamed Southern Pacific Transportation Company.
The current Union Pacific corporation began in 1969 as the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, itself created in a reorganization of a railroad whose legacy dated to 1865. Over the years it would grow to include the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, in addition to its eponymous railroad; the 1998 Union Pacific-Southern Pacific merger was not UP's first: Union Pacific had merged with Missouri Pacific Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company, the Western Pacific Railroad and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. However, because the merger with Southern Pacific changed the scope of the Union Pacific railroad, this article will refer to the unmerged system as Union Pacific, the merged system as Union Pacific. Union Pacific's main competitor is the BNSF Railway, the nation's largest freight railroad by volume, which primarily services the Continental U. S. west of the Mississippi River. Together, the two railroads have a duopoly on all transcontinental freight rail lines in the U.
S. The original company, the Union Pacific Rail Road was incorporated on July 1, 1862, under an act of Congress entitled Pacific Railroad Act of 1862; the act was approved by President Abraham Lincoln, it provided for the construction of railroads from the Missouri River to the Pacific as a war measure for the preservation of the Union. It was constructed westward from Council Bluffs, Iowa to meet the Central Pacific Railroad line, constructed eastward from Sacramento, CA; the combined Union Pacific-Central Pacific line became known as the First Transcontinental Railroad and the Overland Route. The line was constructed by Irish labor who had learned their craft during the recent Civil War. Under the guidance of its dominant stockholder Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, the namesake of the city of Durant, the first rails were laid in Omaha; the two lines were joined together at Promontory Summit, Utah, 53 miles west of Ogden on May 10, 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America.
Subsequently, the UP purchased three Mormon-built roads: the Utah Central Railroad extending south from Ogden to Salt Lake City, the Utah Southern Railroad extending south from Salt Lake City into the Utah Valley, the Utah Northern Railroad extending north from Ogden into Idaho. The original UP was entangled in the Crédit Mobilier scandal, exposed in 1872; as detailed by The Sun, Union Pacific's largest construction company, Crédit Mobilier, had overcharged Union Pacific. In order to convince the federal government to accept the increased costs, Crédit Mobilier had bribed congressmen. Although the UP corporation itself was not guilty of any misdeeds, prominent UP board members had been involved in the scheme; the ensuing financial crisis of 1873 led to a credit crunch, but not bankruptcy. As boom followed bust, the Union Pacific continued to expand; the original company was purchased by a new company on January 24, 1880, with dominant stockholder Jay Gould. Gould owned the Kansas Pacific, sought to merge it with UP.
Thusly was the original "Union Pacific Rail Road" transformed into "Union Pacific Railway."Extending towards the Pacific Northwest, Union Pacific built or purchased local lines that gave it access to Portland, Oregon. Towards Colorado, it built the Union Pacific and Gulf Railway: both narrow gauge trackage into the heart of the Rockies and a standard gauge line that ran south from Denver, across New Mexico, into Texas; the Union Pacific Railway would declare bankruptcy during the Panic of 1893. Again, a new Union Pacific "Railroad" was formed and Union Pacific "Railway" merged into the new corporation. In the early 20th century, Union Pacific's focus shifted from expansion to internal improvement. Recognizing that farmers in the Central and Salinas Valleys of California grew produce far in excess of local markets, Union Pacific worked with its rival Southern Pacific to develop a rail-based transport system, not vulnerable to spoilage; these efforts came culminated in the 1906 founding of
San Bernardino train disaster
The San Bernardino train disaster, sometimes known as the Duffy Street incident, was a combination of two separate but related incidents that occurred in San Bernardino, United States: a runaway train derailment on May 12, 1989. On May 12, 1989, at 7:36 a.m. a 6-locomotive/69-car Southern Pacific freight train, transporting trona, lost control while descending Cajon Pass, derailed on an elevated curve and plowed into a residential area on Duffy Street. The location is just northeast of; the conductor, head-end brakeman, two residents were killed in the wreck. Seven houses on the street next to the tracks were demolished by the wreck, as were the lead locomotives and all of the freight cars. Clerks in Mojave had miscalculated the weight of the train, while the engineer and crew at the head end were unaware that one of the rear helper engines had inoperative dynamic brakes. Hence there was not enough dynamic braking force available to maintain control of train speed during the descent; when the helper engineer realized that the train speed was not being adequately controlled, he made an emergency brake application, which deactivated dynamic braking, resulting in a runaway condition.
The train reached a speed of about 100 miles per hour before derailing on an elevated 35 mph curve next to Duffy Street, sending the head end locomotives and several cars off the high railroad bed and into houses on the street below demolishing them. Upon retrieving the locomotives' "black boxes" and the recorded data therein, it was discovered that the third head end locomotive's dynamic brakes were not functioning at all, although the sound of the cooling fans misled crews into believing dynamic braking was functional, it was determined after the wreck that the engineer operating the helper locomotives knew of the faulty dynamic brakes on one of his units, but did not communicate that information to the head end crew. The combination of weight miscalculation, poor communication and faulty brake equipment resulted in a total train weight, too great to adequately control on the down grade. Once dynamic braking had been defeated by the helper engineer's emergency brake application the enormous weight of the loaded cars caused rapid acceleration that could not be resisted by mechanical braking.
The train catapulted from the 35 mph curve next to Duffy Street, scattering locomotives and cars, as well as lading. The crew, called for train 7551 East were as follows: Frank Holland, Engineer Everett Crown,† Conductor Allan Riess,† Brakeman on 3rd locomotive Lawrence Hill, Engineer on helper unit 7443 Robert Waterbury, Brakeman on helper unit 7443 Killed in the wreck were Conductor Crown and Brakeman Riess, along with two young boys, Jason Thompson and Tyson White, who were crushed and asphyxiated when the train destroyed one of the houses on Duffy Street. Engineer Holland remained in his seat at the control stand in unit SP 8278 at the head of the train, suffered several cracked ribs and a punctured lung. However, he was able to crawl out of his wrecked locomotive and was helped down by eyewitnesses on the scene. Engineer Hill and Brakeman Waterbury, who were in the helper locomotives, received minor injuries. Buried six feet underground alongside the railroad right-of-way is a 14-inch high-pressure petroleum transit pipeline operated by Calnev Pipeline.
The pipeline was marked with stakes during cleanup to avoid the risk of it being accidentally damaged. Service on the track where the derailment happened was restored four days after the crash. Thirteen days after the train wreck on May 25, 1989, at 8:05 a.m. shortly after eyewitnesses heard a train pass through the derailment site, the pipeline burst at a point on the curve where the derailment happened, showering the neighborhood with what appeared to be a peculiar vapor, which ignited into a large fire that burned for close to seven hours and emitted a plume of smoke three hundred feet into the air. By the time the fire was out, it had fatally burned two people alive, destroyed eleven more houses and 21 cars. Of the houses destroyed, five were directly across the street from houses, destroyed in the derailment, while another was the only house on the track side of Duffy Street to have been spared damage during the derailment. Four more houses received moderate fire damage, while three others had only smoke damage.
The total property damage was $14.3 million, with more of this damage resulting from the fire than from the train derailment, although there were more fatalities from the derailment. 1989 attempts to have the Calnev pipeline kept shut off. Many residents received settlements from Southern Pacific and/or Calnev and moved after this disaster, never to return; the plots on the south side of Duffy Street closest to the rail line were rezoned as open space by the city so they would not be rebuilt. Other nearby plots which could be redeveloped sat empty for years, though as of 2016, at least three houses have been rebuilt there. Southern Pacific changed its cargo weight procedures, which required that the clerks assume that every freight car on every train was carrying the maximum load it was designed to carry if the submitted paperwork did not indicate a weight. By assuming the maximum weight of the train, that would
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is an American four-seat, single-engine, high wing, fixed-wing aircraft made by the Cessna Aircraft Company. First flown in 1955, more 172s have been built than any other aircraft. Measured by its longevity and popularity, the Cessna 172 is the most successful aircraft in history. Cessna delivered the first production model in 1956 and as of 2015, the company and its partners had built more than 44,000; the aircraft remains in production today. The Skyhawk's main competitors have been the Beechcraft Musketeer and Grumman AA-5 series, the Piper Cherokee, more the Diamond DA40 and Cirrus SR20; the Cessna 172 started life as a tricycle landing gear variant of the taildragger Cessna 170, with a basic level of standard equipment. In January 1955, Cessna flew an improved variant of the Cessna 170, a Continental O-300-A-powered Cessna 170C with larger elevators and a more angular tailfin. Although the variant was tested and certified, Cessna decided to modify it with a tricycle landing gear, the modified Cessna 170C flew again on 12 June 1955.
To reduce the time and cost of certification, the type was added to the Cessna 170 type certificate as the Model 172. The 172 was given its own type certificate, 3A12; the 172 became an overnight sales success, over 1,400 were built in 1956, its first full year of production. Early 172s were similar in appearance to the 170s, with the same straight aft fuselage and tall landing gear legs, although the 172 had a straight tailfin while the 170 had a rounded fin and rudder. In 1960, the 172A incorporated revised landing gear and the swept-back tailfin, still in use today; the final aesthetic development, found in the 1963 172D and all 172 models, was a lowered rear deck allowing an aft window. Cessna advertised this added rear visibility as "Omni-Vision."Production halted in the mid-1980s, but resumed in 1996 with the 160 hp Cessna 172R Skyhawk. Cessna supplemented this in 1998 with the 180 hp Cessna 172S Skyhawk SP; the Cessna 172 may be modified via a wide array of supplemental type certificates, including increased engine power and higher gross weights.
Available STC engine modifications increase power from 180 to 210 hp, add constant-speed propellers, or allow the use of automobile gasoline. Other modifications include additional fuel tank capacity in the wing tips, added baggage compartment tanks, added wheel pants to reduce drag, or enhanced landing and takeoff performance and safety with a STOL kit; the 172 has been equipped with the 180 hp fuel injected Superior Air Parts Vantage engine. A Cessna 172 was used in 1958 to set the world record for flight endurance. On December 4, 1958, Robert Timm and John Cook took off from McCarran Airfield in Las Vegas, Nevada, in a used Cessna 172, registration number N9172B, they landed back at McCarran Airfield on February 7, 1959, after 64 days, 22 hours, 19 minutes and 5 seconds in flight. The flight was part of a fund-raising effort for the Damon Runyon Cancer Fund. Food and water were transferred by matching speeds with a chase car on a straight stretch of road in the desert and hoisting the supplies aboard with a rope and bucket.
Fuel was taken on by hoisting a hose from a fuel truck up to the aircraft, filling an auxiliary belly tank installed for the flight, pumping that fuel into the aircraft's regular tanks and filling the belly tank again. The drivers steered while a second person matched speeds with the aircraft with his foot on the vehicle's accelerator pedal. Engine oil was added by means of a tube from the cabin, fitted to pass through the firewall. Only the pilot's seat was installed; the remaining space was used for a pad. The right cabin door was replaced with an easy-opening, accordion-type door to allow supplies and fuel to be hoisted aboard. Early in the flight, the engine-driven electric generator failed. A Champion wind-driven generator was hoisted aboard, taped to the wing support strut, plugged into the cigarette lighter socket; the pilots decided to end the marathon flight because with 1,558 hours of continuously running the engine during the record-setting flight, plus several hundred hours on the engine beforehand, the engine's power output had deteriorated to the point at which they were able to climb away after refueling.
The aircraft is on display in the passenger terminal at McCarran International Airport. Photos and details of the record flight can be seen in a small museum on the upper level of the baggage claim area. After the flight, Cook said: Next time I feel in the mood to fly endurance, I'm going to lock myself in our garbage can with the vacuum cleaner running; that is. 172The basic 172 appeared in November 1955 as the 1956 model and remained in production until replaced by the 172A in early 1960. It was equipped with a Continental O-300 145 hp six-cylinder, air-cooled engine and had a maximum gross weight of 2,200 lb. Introductory base price was US$8,995 and a total of 4,195 were constructed over the five years. 172AThe 1960 model 172A introduced a swept-back rudder, as well as float fittings. The price was US$9,450 and 1,015 were built. 172BThe 172B was introduced in late 1960 as the 1961 model and featured a shorter landing gear, engine mounts lengthened three inches, a reshaped cowling, a pointed propeller spinner.
For the first time, the "Skyhawk" name was applied to an available deluxe option package. This added optional equipment included full exteri