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Calamansi known as calamondin or Philippine lime, is an economically important citrus hybrid predominantly cultivated in the Philippines. It is native to the Philippines and surrounding areas in southern China, Taiwan and Sulawesi. Calamansi is ubiquitous in traditional Filipino cuisine, it is used in various condiments, dishes and preserves. Calamansi is used as an ingredient in the cuisines of Malaysia and Indonesia. Calamansi is another species of Citrus. Calamansi is the Philippine English spelling of Tagalog kalamansi, is the name by which it is most known in the Philippines. In parts of the United States, calamansi is known as "calamondin", an old name from the American period of the Philippines, it is an anglicized form of the alternate Tagalog name kalamunding. Other English common names of calamansi include: Philippine lime, calamondin orange, golden lime, Panama orange, musk orange, bitter-sweets and acid orange. Calamansi was identified as Citrus mitis Blanco, C. microcarpa Bunge or C. madurensis Lour. all those referred to it as a citrus.

Swingle's system of citrus classification would put kumquats into a separate genus, making the calamansi an intergeneric hybrid, in 1975 it was given the hybrid name × Citrofortunella mitis by John Ingram & Harold E. Moore based on Blanco's species name, but in 1984, D. Onno Wijnands pointed out that Bunge's species name, C. microcarpa, predated Blanco's Citrus mitis, making × Citrofortunella microcarpa the proper name. Phylogenetic analysis now places the kumquat within the same genus as other citrus, meaning that its hybrids, including those named as × Citrofortunella belong in Citrus. Calamansi is most cultivated in the Philippines, where it is called kalamansî or kalamunding by the Tagalog and Pangasinan people. In Malaysia it is known as limau kasturi. Calamansi grows in the northern parts of Indonesia and southern China, it is available year-round in the Philippines and is seen in its unripened green state. When left to ripen it turns a tangerine orange. Calamansi, Citrus x microcarpa, is a shrub or small tree growing to 3–6 m.

The plant is characterized by wing-like appendages on the leaf petioles and white or purplish flowers. The fruit of the calamansi resembles a small, round lime 25–35 mm in diameter, but sometimes up to 45 mm; the center pulp and juice is the orange color of a tangerine with a thin orange peel when ripe. Each fruit contains 8 to 12 seeds. There is a variegated mutation of the regular calamansi, showing green stripes on yellow fruit; the fruits are sour and are used for preserves or cooking. The calamansi bears a small citrus fruit, used to flavor foods and drinks. Despite its outer appearance and its aroma, the taste of the fruit itself is quite sour, although the peel is sweet. Calamansi marmalade can be made in the same way as orange marmalade. Like other citrus fruits, the calamansi is high in vitamin C; the fruit can be frozen whole and used as ice cubes in beverages such as tea, soft drinks and cocktails. The juice can be used in place of that of the common Persian lime; the juice is extracted by crushing the whole fruit, makes a flavorful drink similar to lemonade.

A liqueur can be made in combination with vodka and sugar. In Filipino cuisines, the juice is used to marinate and season fish and pork, it is commonly used as a condiment in dishes like pancit or lugaw, or in the basic sawsawan of calamansi juice and soy sauce/fish sauce used for fish, spring rolls and various savoury dishes. It is used in various beverages, notably as calamansi juice, a Filipino drink similar to lemonade; the fruit is used in local recipes in northern Indonesia around the North Sulawesi region. Fish are marinated with the juice prior to cooking to eliminate the "fishy" smell. Kuah asam is a regional clear fish broth made with calamansi juice. In Florida, the fruit is used in its ripe form with a more mature flavor profile than the unripe version. Tasters note elements of apricot, lemon and guava; the peel is so thin. The entire fruit minus the stems and seeds can be used, it is hand processed and pureed or juiced and used in various products such as calamondin cake, coulis and jam.

The peels can be used as gourmet flavoring with salt and sugar. The fruit was popular with Florida cooks in cake form from the 1920s to 1950s. Floridians who have a calamansi in the yard use the juice in a summer variation of lemonade or limeade, as mentioned above, left a bit sour, it cuts thirst with the distinctive flavor; the Philippines is the only major producer of calamansi. It is grown for its juice extracts which are exported to the United States, South Korea and Hong Kong, among others; the Philippines exports between 190,000 metric tons of calamansi juice each year. Major production centers include the Southwestern Tagalog Region, Central Luzon, the Zamboanga Peninsula, its cultivation has spread from the Philippines throughout Southeast Asia, Hawaii, the West Indies, Central and N

Gipsy Daniels

William "Gipsy" Daniels, was a Welsh Light-heavyweight boxing champion of Britain who, in an eighteen-year career, took in 141 contests, including eight fights in New York City, notably knocked out Max Schmeling in the first round of a 1928 encounter. There is some confusion as to place of birth. Though a definitive answer was given in Tony Lee's 2009 publication which printed a copy of his birth certificate. Daniels was born in Llanelli on 9 February 1903 as William Daniel to David John Daniel and Francis Ann Roberts, his father was a rugby player of some note who played for the Wales international team. Daniels began his career boxing in contests in his home area of South Wales, as an eighteen-year-old he fought under the name "Young Daniel" as a middleweight. By the end of 1920 he was boxing in Kent, managed to win a couple of fights against inexperienced opposition. On 24 February 1921, Daniels fought his first veteran boxer when he was carded to face Belgian Rene DeVos at The Ring in Blackfriars, London.

DeVos had 58 bouts under his belt, 37 of them wins, including a defeat over Daniels' fellow countryman Frank Moody. Daniels lost the 20 round fight on points. By the end of 1921, Daniels had amassed a fighting record of eleven wins, six losses and two draws. In March 1922 he won a heavyweight competition at Blackfriars, in October of that year he was fighting at the Pioneer Sporting Club in New York, it was around this time that Daniels was introduced to a local boxing promoter. Johnston decided that Daniels needed a gimmick to sell himself to the public, decided that he looked "like a gypsy". Johnston took Daniels to a Woolworths five-and-ten-cent store and dressed him in cheap bandanna headscarves and hooped earrings. Johnston dubbed him'Gypsey Daniels', though the most used spelling of his nickname was'Gipsy'. Daniels fought eight times in New York, including two contests at Madison Square Garden, before returning to Great Britain. Daniels continued fighting in Wales and England, but in September 1925 he travelled to mainland Europe for the first time in his career, to face Swedish boxer Harry Persson at the Cirkus in Stockholm.

Although Daniels lost the bout on points, on his return to Britain he began his most successful period of boxing, remaining undefeated for the next 18 fights. After a win over Frank Moody in April 1927 which earned him the Welsh Light Heavyweight belt, Daniels faced Tom Berry for the British Light-Heavyweight Championship Belt. Daniels won the 20 round bout on points, but he faced a dilemma as to whether to defend the title as the National Sporting Club, who controlled boxing in Great Britain, offered far lower purses than outside promoters. Daniels chose to fight for a non-NSC affiliated promoter to maximise his income, giving up his newly acquired title. In January 1928, Daniels lost a bout to German, Max Schmeling followed by a defeat to Len Johnson, but in a rematch with Schmeling on 25 February he knocked out the German in the first round. Daniels career continued without the success of his earlier years, losing twice to Walter Neusel in Germany, but beating and drawing with Jack London before London became British and Commonwealth Champion.

List of British light-heavyweight boxing champions Lee, Tony. All in My Corner: A tribute to some forgotten Welsh boxing heroes. Ammanford: TL Associates. ISBN 978-0-9564456-0-5. Professional boxing record for Gipsy Daniels from BoxRec

Tendoy, Idaho

Tendoy is an unincorporated community in Lemhi County, United States. It is located at an altitude of 4,842 feet, it was named for a prominent Lemhi Shoshone chief in the mid-19th century. It is the nearest location to Lemhi Pass over the Bitterroot Range, where the Lewis and Clark Expedition first crossed the Continental Divide in 1805. Sacagawea, the Shoshoni woman who guided the Expedition, was born near Tendoy. Lemhi Pass is a National Historic Landmark; the site of Fort Lemhi is 2 miles north of Tendoy


Giwan is a village in the municipality of Dapa, in Surigao del Norte province in the Philippines. This village is located at the south shore of Siargao Island. Giwan is synonymous with the Don Paulino Barangay, which the Philippine National Statistical Coordination Board says had a population of 625 persons as of August 1, 2007. Sometimes Giwan is labeled as such on at least one map. Giwan is 2.5 km east of Dapa township and about the same distance west of the village of Union. The entire population of Giwan is Filipino. Most, if not all, of the population of the village is Catholic. Electrical service is available and most residences and other buildings have electricity, although none have air conditioning. There is no telephone, television or internet service, but many residents use mobile phones, as cell service is available from Dapa township. All houses in Giwan appear rudimentary with few or no amenities; the residential part of the village, where about 90% of the population lives, is two blocks wide and two blocks long.

A few houses border the beach area and a few are scattered along the highway running through town or north of the highway. Giwan does not have any large shops, but has a number of sari sari stores scattered through the village; the highway has a shelterhouse for persons waiting to ride tricycles traveling from Union. The entire west side of Giwan is occupied by a petroleum storage site run by Petron Corporation. Petron is one of the largest companies operating gasoline service stations in the Philippines; the site has three large storage tanks. Some small fishing boats are kept by residents at the beach on Giwan's south side. Giwan is along the highway; the main street, the highway, is paved. All the other roads are sand, although all roads in Giwan are reasonably well maintained. Giwan can be reached by walking; the highway is the only road accessing Giwan. Giwan does not have a marina, but can be accessed by boat, as one village street extends to the shore's edge

Gish Bar Patera

Gish Bar Patera is a patera, or a complex crater with scalloped edges, on Jupiter's moon Io. It is 9,600 km2 in area, it is located at 16.18°N 90.26°W / 16.18. It is named after the Babylonian sun god Gish Bar, its name was approved by the International Astronomical Union in 1997. It is located at the southern base of an 11-kilometer-high mountain. To the northeast is Skythia Mons, to the east is Monan Mons, at the north and south ends of which are Monan Patera and Ah Peku Patera; the NASA spacecraft Galileo has detected volcanic activity in Gish Bar Patera's past in 1996, a new eruption was detected by Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer in August 2001. The western section of the patera is green, with a few bright spots, whereas the eastern section is orange; the active northwestern region of Gish Bar Patera has a mottled floor from several eruptions. The patera's flows may be composed of silicates

Moorina, Queensland

Moorina is a rural locality in the Moreton Bay Region, Australia. In the 2016 census, Moorina had a population of 413 people. Moorina is 39 kilometres north of Brisbane. Part of the western boundary of Moorina follows Gregors Creek; the locality name was a property name owned by J. W. Carseldine; the name is thought to be from Tasmania. Moorina State School opened on 1918 and closed on 1954. In the 2011 census, Moorina recorded a population of 354 people, 52.8 % male. The median age of the Moorina population was 45 years, 8 years above the national median of 37. 80.3% of people living in Moorina were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were England 6.2%, New Zealand 2.8%, Scotland 1.1%, Papua New Guinea 1.1%, Italy 0.8%. 92.1% of people spoke only English at home.