Galium odoratum, the sweetscented bedstraw, is a flowering perennial plant in the family Rubiaceae, native to much of Europe from Spain and Ireland to Russia, as well as Western Siberia, Iran, the Caucasus and Japan. It is sparingly naturalized in scattered locations in the United States and Canada, it is cultivated for its flowers and its sweet-smelling foliage. A herbaceous plant, it grows to 30–50 cm long lying flat on the ground or supported by other plants, its vernacular names include woodruff, sweet woodruff, wild baby's breath. It is sometimes confused with Galium verum, it owes its sweet smell to the odiferous agent coumarin, is sometimes used as a flavoring agent due to its chemical content. The leaves are simple, glabrous, 2–5 cm long, borne in whorls of 6–9; the small flowers are produced in cymes, each white with four petals joined together at the base. The fruits are 2–4 mm diameter, produced singly, each is covered in tiny hooked bristles which help disperse them by sticking temporarily to clothing and animal fur.
This plant prefers partial to full shade in rich soils. In dry summers it needs frequent watering. Propagation is by crown division, separation of the rooted stems, or digging up of the submerged perimeter stolons, it is ideal as a ground cover or border accent in woody, acidic gardens where other shade plants fail to thrive. Deer avoid eating it; as the epithet odoratum suggests, the plant is scented, the sweet scent being derived from coumarin. This scent increases on wilting and persists on drying, the dried plant is used in potpourri and as a moth deterrent, it is used in Germany, to flavour May wine, sweet juice punch, syrup for beer, jelly, jam, a soft drink, ice cream, herbal tea. Popular are Waldmeister flavoured jellies and without alcohol. In Germany it is used to flavour sherbet powder, which features prominently in Günter Grass' novel The Tin Drum. Plants for a Future USDA plants profile Missouri Botanical Gardens Plant Finder
May Day is a public holiday celebrated on 1 May. It is an ancient Northern Hemisphere spring festival and a traditional spring holiday in many cultures. Dances and cake are part of the festivities. In the late 19th century, May Day was chosen as the date for International Workers' Day by the Socialists and Communists of the Second International to commemorate the Haymarket affair in Chicago. International Workers' Day can be referred to as "May Day", but it is a different celebration from the traditional May Day; the earliest known May celebrations appeared with the Floralia, festival of Flora, the Roman goddess of flowers, held on 27 April during the Roman Republic era, the Maiouma or Maiuma, a festival celebrating Dionysus and Aphrodite on an unknown date in May every three years. The Floralia opened with theatrical performances. In the Floralia, Ovid says that goats were released as part of the festivities. Persius writes that crowds were pelted with vetches and lupins. A ritual called the Florifertum was performed on either April 27 or May 3, during which a bundle of wheat ears was carried into a shrine, though it is not clear if this devotion was made to Flora or Ceres.
Floralia concluded with competitive events and spectacles, a sacrifice to Flora. According to the 6th century chronicles of John Malalas, the Maiouma was a "nocturnal dramatic festival, held every three years and known as Orgies, that is, the Mysteries of Dionysus and Aphrodite" and that it was "known as the Maioumas because it is celebrated in the month of May-Artemisios". During this time, enough money was set aside by the government for torches and other expenses to cover a thirty-day festival of "all-night revels." The Maiouma was celebrated with splendorous offerings. Its reputation for licentiousness caused it to be suppressed during the reign of Emperor Constantine, though a less debauched version of it was restored during the reigns of Arcadius and Honorius, only to be suppressed again during the same period. A May festival celebrated in Germanic countries, Walpurgis Night, commemorates the official canonization of Saint Walpurga on May 1st, 870.. In Gaelic culture, the evening of April 30th was the celebration of Beltane, the start of the summer season.
First attested in 900 AD, the celebration focused on the symbolic use of fire to bless cattle and other livestock as they were moved to summer pastures. This custom continued into the early 19th century, during which time cattle would be made to jump over fires to protect their milk from being stolen by fairies. People would leap over the fires for luck. Since the 18th century, many Roman Catholics have observed May – and May Day – with various May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary In works of art, school skits, so forth, Mary's head will be adorned with flowers in a May crowning. 1 May is one of two feast days of the Catholic patron saint of workers St Joseph the Worker, a carpenter, husband to Mother Mary, surrogate father of Jesus. Replacing another feast to St. Joseph, this date was chosen by Pope Pius XII in 1955 as a counterpoint to the communist International Workers Day celebrations on May Day; the best known modern May Day traditions, observed both in Europe and North America, include dancing around the maypole and crowning the Queen of May.
Fading in popularity since the late 20th century is the tradition of giving of "May baskets," small baskets of sweets or flowers left anonymously on neighbours' doorsteps. In the late 20th century, many neopagans began reconstructing some of the older pagan festivals and combining them with more developed European secular and Catholic traditions, celebrating May Day as a pagan religious festival. Traditional English May Day rites and celebrations include crowning a May Queen and celebrations involving a maypole, around which dancers circle with ribbons. Morris dancing has been linked to May Day celebrations; the earliest records of maypole celebrations date to the 14th century, by the 15th century the maypole tradition was well established in southern Britain. The spring bank holiday on the first Monday in May was created in 1978. In February 2011, the UK Parliament was reported to be considering scrapping the bank holiday associated with May Day, replacing it with a bank holiday in October coinciding with Trafalgar Day, to create a "United Kingdom Day".
Unlike the other Bank Holidays and common law holidays, the first Monday in May is taken off from schools by itself, not as part of a half term or end of term holiday. This is because it has no Christian significance and does not otherwise fit into the usual school holiday pattern. May Day was abolished and its celebration banned by Puritan parliaments during the Interregnum, but reinstated with the restoration of Charles II in 1660. 1 May 1707, was the day the Act of Union came into effect, joining England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In Oxford, it is a centuries-old tradition for May Morning revellers to gather below the Great Tower of Magdalen College at 6 am to listen to the college choir sing traditional madrigals as a conclusion to the previous night's celebrations. Since the 1980s some people jump off Magdalen Bridge into the River Cherwell. For some years, the bridge has been closed on 1 Ma
A holiday is a day set aside by custom or by law on which normal activities business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Holidays are intended to allow individuals to celebrate or commemorate an event or tradition of cultural or religious significance. Holidays may be designated by religious institutions, or other groups or organizations; the degree to which normal activities are reduced by a holiday may depend on local laws, the type of job held or personal choices. The concept of holidays originated in connection with religious observances; the intention of a holiday was to allow individuals to tend to religious duties associated with important dates on the calendar. In most modern societies, holidays serve as much of a recreational function as any other weekend days or activities. In many societies there are important distinctions between holidays designated by governments and holidays designated by religious institutions. For example, in many predominantly Christian nations, government-designed holidays may center on Christian holidays, though non-Christians may instead observe religious holidays associated with their faith.
In some cases, a holiday may only be nominally observed. For example, many Jews in the Americas and Europe treat the minor Jewish holiday of Hanukkah as a "working holiday", changing little of their daily routines for this day; the word holiday has differing connotations in different regions. In the United States the word is used to refer to the nationally, religiously or culturally observed day of rest or celebration, or the events themselves, whereas in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth nations, the word may refer to the period of time where leave from one’s duties has been agreed, is used as a synonym to the US preferred vacation; this time is set aside for rest, travel or the participation in recreational activities, with entire industries targeted to coincide or enhance these experiences. The days of leave may not coincide with any specific laws. Employers and educational institutes may designate ‘holidays’ themselves which may or may not overlap nationally or culturally relevant dates, which again comes under this connotation, but it is the first implication detailed that this article is concerned with.
The word holiday comes from the Old English word hāligdæg. The word referred only to special religious days. In modern use, it means any special day of rest or relaxation, as opposed to normal days away from work or school. Winter in the Northern Hemisphere features many holidays that involve feasts; the Christmas and holiday season surrounds the Christmas and other holidays, is celebrated by many religions and cultures. This period begins near the start of November and ends with New Year's Day. Holiday season in the US corresponds to the period that begins with Thanksgiving and ends with New Year's Eve; some Christian countries consider the end of the festive season to be after the feast of Epiphany. Sovereign nations and territories observe holidays based on events of significance to their history. For example, Americans celebrate Independence Day, celebrating the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Other secular holidays are observed nationally and across multi-country regions.
The United Nations Calendar of Observances dedicates decades to a specific topic, but a complete year, month and days. Holidays dedicated to an observance such as the commemoration of the ending of World War II, or the Shoah, can be part of the reparation obligation as per UN OHCHR Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law. Another example of a major secular holiday is the Lunar New Year, celebrated across Asia. Many other days are marked to celebrate events or people, but are not holidays as time off work is given; these are holidays. These holidays are celebrated by various individuals; some promote a cause, others recognize historical events not recognized, others are "funny" holidays celebrated with humorous intent. For example, Monkey Day is celebrated on December 14, International Talk Like a Pirate Day is observed on September 19, Blasphemy Day is held on September 30.
Other examples are April Fool's Day on April 1 and Liberation Day on May 31. Various community organizers and marketers promote odd social media holidays. Many holidays are linked to religions. Christian holidays are defined as part of the liturgical year, the chief ones being Easter and Christmas; the Orthodox Christian and Western-Roman Catholic patronal feast day or "name day" are celebrated in each place's patron saint's day, according to the Calendar of saints. Jehovah's Witnesses annually commemorate "The Memorial of Jesus Christ's Death", but do not celebrate other holidays with any religious significance such as Easter, Christmas or New Year's; this holds true for those holidays that have combined and absorbed rituals, overtones or practices from non-Christian beliefs into the celebration, as well as those holidays that distract from or replace the worship of Jehovah. In Islam, the largest holidays are Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha
Crataegus called hawthorn, thornapple, May-tree, whitethorn, or hawberry, is a genus of several hundred species of shrubs and trees in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe and North America. The name "hawthorn" was applied to the species native to northern Europe the common hawthorn C. monogyna, the unmodified name is so used in Britain and Ireland. The name is now applied to the entire genus and to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis; the generic epithet, Crataegus, is derived from the Greek kratos "strength" because of the great strength of the wood and akis "sharp", referring to the thorns of some species. The name haw an Old English term for hedge applies to the fruit. Crataegus species are shrubs or small trees growing to 5–15 m tall, with small pome fruit and thorny branches; the most common type of bark is smooth grey in young individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. The thorns are small sharp-tipped branches that arise either from other branches or from the trunk, are 1–3 cm long.
The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, in clusters on spur shoots on the branches or twigs. The leaves of most species are somewhat variable in shape; the fruit, sometimes known as a "haw", is berry-like but structurally a pome containing from one to five pyrenes that resemble the "stones" of plums, etc. which are drupaceous fruit in the same subfamily. Hawthorns provide food and shelter for many species of birds and mammals, the flowers are important for many nectar-feeding insects. Hawthorns are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species, such as the small eggar moth, E. lanestris. Haws are important for wildlife in winter thrushes and waxwings; the "haws" or fruits of the common hawthorn, C. monogyna, are edible, but the flavor has been compared to over-ripe apples. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes used to make a homemade wine; the leaves are edible, if picked in spring when still young, are tender enough to be used in salads. The young leaves and flower buds, which are edible, are known as "bread and cheese" in rural England.
In the southern United States, fruits of three native species are collectively known as mayhaws and are made into jellies which are considered a delicacy. The Kutenai people of northwestern North America used black hawthorn fruit for food. On Manitoulin Island, some red-fruited species are called hawberries. During the pioneer days, white settlers ate these fruits during the winter as the only remaining food supply. People born on the island are now called "haweaters"; the fruits of Crataegus mexicana are known in Mexico as tejocotes and are eaten raw, cooked, or in jam during the winter. They are stuffed in the piñatas broken during the traditional pre-Christmas celebration known as Las Posadas, they are cooked with other fruits to prepare a Christmas punch. The mixture of tejocote paste and chili powder produces a popular Mexican candy called rielitos, manufactured by several brands; the fruits of the species Crataegus pinnatifida are tart, bright red, resemble small crabapple fruits. They are used to make many kinds of Chinese snacks, including haw tanghulu.
The fruits, which are called 山楂 shān zhā in Chinese, are used to produce jams, juices, alcoholic beverages, other drinks. In South Korea, a liquor called. In Iran, the fruits of Crataegus are known as zâlzâlak and eaten raw as a snack, or made into a jam known by the same name. A 2008 Cochrane Collaboration meta-analysis of previous studies concluded that evidence exists of "a significant benefit in symptom control and physiologic outcomes" for an extract of hawthorn used as an adjuvant in treating chronic heart failure. A 2010 review concluded that "Crataegus preparations hold significant potential as a useful remedy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease"; the review indicated the need for further study of the best dosages and concluded that although "many different theoretical interactions between Crataegus and orthodox medications have been postulated... none have been substantiated. Phytochemicals found in hawthorn include tannins, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids. Several species of hawthorn have been used in traditional medicine.
The products used are derived from C. monogyna, C. laevigata, or related Crataegus species, "collectively known as hawthorn", not distinguishing between these species. The dried fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida are used in traditional Chinese medicine as a digestive aid. A related species, Crataegus cuneata is used in a similar manner. Other species are used in herbal medicine where the plant is believed to strengthen cardiovascular function; the Kutenai people of northwestern North America used black hawthorn fruit for food, red hawthorn fruit in traditional medicine. Overdose can cause cardiac arrhythmia and
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Prunus spinosa, called blackthorn or sloe, is a species of flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae. It is native to Europe, western Asia, locally in northwest Africa, it is locally naturalised in New Zealand and eastern North America. Prunus spinosa is a large deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5 metres tall, with blackish bark and dense, spiny branches; the leaves are oval, with a serrated margin. The flowers are about 1.5 centimetres with five creamy-white petals. The fruit, called a "sloe", is a drupe 10–12 millimetres in diameter, black with a purple-blue waxy bloom, ripening in autumn and harvested – traditionally, at least in the UK – in October or November after the first frosts. Sloes are thin-fleshed, with a strongly astringent flavour when fresh. Blackthorn grows as a bush but can grow to become a tree to a height of 6 m, its branches grow forming a tangle. Prunus spinosa is confused with the related P. cerasifera in early spring when the latter starts flowering somewhat earlier than P. spinosa.
They can be distinguished by flower creamy white in P. spinosa, pure white in P. cerasifera. They can be distinguished in winter by the more shrubby habit with stiffer, wider-angled branches of P. spinosa. Prunus spinosa has a tetraploid set of chromosomes; the specific name spinosa is a Latin term indicating the pointed and thornlike spur shoots characteristic of this species. The common name "blackthorn" is due to the thorny nature of the shrub, its dark bark; the word used for the fruit, "sloe", comes from Old English slāh. The same word is noted in Middle Low German spoken in Lower Saxony, Middle Dutch sleeuwe or, contracted form, slē, from which come Modern Low German words: slē, slī, Modern Dutch slee, Old High German slēha, slēwa, from which come Modern German Schlehe and Danish slå; the names related to'sloe' come from the common Germanic root slaihwō. Confer West Slavic / Polish śliwa; the expression "sloe-eyed" for a person with dark eyes comes from the fruit, is first attested in A. J. Wilson's 1867 novel Vashti.
The foliage is sometimes eaten by the larvae of Lepidoptera, including the small eggar moth, emperor moth, willow beauty, white-pinion spotted, common emerald, November moth, pale November moth, mottled pug, green pug, brimstone moth, feathered thorn, brown-tail, yellow-tail, short-cloaked moth, lesser yellow underwing, lesser broad-bordered yellow underwing, double square-spot and brown hairstreaks, hawthorn moth and the case-bearer moth Coleophora anatipennella. Dead blackthorn wood provides food for the caterpillars of the concealer moth Esperia oliviella; the pocket plum gall of the fruit caused by the fungus Taphrina pruni produces an elongated and flattened gall, devoid of a stone. The shrub, with its savage thorns, is traditionally used in Britain and other parts of northern Europe to make a cattle-proof hedge; the fruit is similar to a small damson or plum, suitable for preserves, but rather tart and astringent for eating, unless it is picked after the first few days of autumn frost.
This effect can be reproduced by freezing harvested sloes. The juice is used in the manufacture of fake port wine, used as an adulterant to impart roughness to genuine port. In rural Britain a liqueur, sloe gin, is made by infusing gin with sloes and sugar. Vodka can be infused with sloes. In Navarre, Spain, a popular liqueur called. In France a similar liqueur called épine or épinette or troussepinette is made from the young shoots in spring. In Italy, the infusion of spirit with the fruits and sugar produces a liqueur called bargnolino —as well as in France where it is called prunelle or veine d'épine noire. Wine made from fermented sloes is made in Britain, in Germany and other central European countries. Sloes can be made into jam and used in fruit pies. Sloes preserved in vinegar are similar in taste to Japanese umeboshi; the juice of the fruits dyes linen a reddish colour. Blackthorn makes an excellent fire wood that burns with a good heat and little smoke; the wood is used for tool handles and canes.
Straight blackthorn stems have traditionally been made into walking clubs. In the British Army, blackthorn sticks are carried by commissioned officers of the Royal Irish Regiment; the leaves resemble tea leaves, were used as an adulterant of tea. Shlomo Yitzhaki, a Talmudist and Tanakh commentator of the High Middle Ages, writes that the sap of P. spinosa was used as an ingredient in the making of some inks used for manuscripts. The fruit stones have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. Evidence of the early use of sloes by man is found in the famous case of a 5,300-year-old human mummy discovered in 1991 in the Ötztal Alps along the Austrian-Italian border: among the stomach contents were sloes. A "sloe-thorn worm" used as fishing bait is mentioned in the 1
A bonfire is a large but controlled outdoor fire, used either for informal disposal of burnable waste material or as part of a celebration. In many regions of continental Europe, bonfires are made traditionally on 16 January, the solemnity of John the Baptist, as well as on Saturday night before Easter. Bonfires are a feature of Walpurgis Night in central and northern Europe, the celebrations on the eve of St. John's Day in Spain. In Finland and Sweden bonfires are tradition on Midsummer Eve, to a lesser degree in Easter in midst of May celebrations. Bonfire traditions of early spring, lit on the Sunday following Ash Wednesday, are widespread throughout the Alemannic German speaking regions of Europe and in parts of France; the burning of "winter in effigy" at the Sechseläuten in Zürich is inspired by this Alemannic tradition. In Austria "Osterfeuer", Easter fires, are widespread, but regulated in some cities and countries to hold down the resulting annual peak of PM10-dust immission. There are "Sonnwendfeuer" ignited on the evening of 21 June.
Since 1988 "Feuer in den Alpen" have been lit on a day in August on mountains so they can be seen from afar as an appeal for sustainable development of mountain regions. In the Czech Republic, the festival called "Burning the Witches" takes place on the night between 30 April and 1 May; this is a old and still observed folk custom and special holiday. On that night, people gather together, light bonfires, celebrate the coming of spring. In many places people erect maypoles; the night between 30 April and 1 May was considered magical. The festival was originally celebrated when the moon was full closest to the day between the spring equinox and summer solstice. People believed that on this night witches fly on the Sabbath, indeed this is one of the biggest pagan holidays. People believed, for example, in the opening of various caves treasures were hidden; the main purpose of this old folk custom was a celebration of fertility. To protect themselves against witches, people lit bonfires in high places, calling these fires "Burning the Witches".
Some people took to jumping over the fire in order to ensure fertility. The ash from these fires had a special power to raise crops, people walked the cattle through the ashes to ensure fertility. In Australia, bonfires are allowed in the warmer months due to fire danger. Legislation about bonfires varies between states and rural regions, local government areas, property types. For example, in urban areas of Canberra bonfires may be lit around the Queen's Official Birthday if local fire authorities are notified. Smaller fires such as campfires and outdoor barbecues are permitted outside of fire restriction periods. In the state of Queensland, the rural town of Killarney hosts an annual Bonfire night for the greater community. Due to their historic connection to Britain, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador have many communities that celebrate Bonfire night. In the province of Quebec, many communities light up bonfires on 24 June to celebrate Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. In France, the bonfire celebrates Jean le Baptiste during the Fête de la Saint-Jean, first Saturday after the solstice, about 24 June.
Like the other countries, it was a pagan celebration of the solstice, or midsummer, but Christianisation transformed it into a catholic celebration. Bonfire in Nepal is taken synonymous with camp-fire. During winter months its quite common to have a bonfire in hotels, residential area as well as private properties. Bonfire is done during Siva ratri in the evening, it is based on lunar calendar falls during month of February In India in Punjab, people gather around a bonfire and eat peanuts and sweets during the festival of Lohri to celebrate the winter solstice which occurred during the Indian month of Magh. People have bonfires on communal land. If there has been a recent wedding or a new born in the family, people will have a bonfire outside their house to celebrate this event; the festival falls in the second week of January every year. In Assam in the northeastern part of India, a harvest festival called Bhogali Bihu is celebrated to mark the end of the harvest season in mid-January. In southern parts of India in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Mumbai, the Bhogi festival is celebrated on the last day of'Maarkali', the first day of the farmer festival Pongal.
People set them on fire in a bonfire to celebrate. During the ten days of Vijayadashami, effigies of Ravana, his brother Kumbhakarna and son Meghanad are erected and burnt by enthusiastic youths at sunset. Traditionally a bonfire on the day of Holi marks the symbolic annihilation of Holika the demoness as described above. Chaharshanbe Suri is a fire jumping festival celebrated by Persian people, Kurdish people and some other people in the world; the event takes place on the eve of the last Wednesday before Nowruz. Loosely translated as Wednesday Light, from the word sur which means light in Persian, or more plausibly, consider sur to be a variant of sorkh and take it to refer either to the fire itself or to the ruddiness, meaning good health or ripeness obtained by jumping over it, is an ancient Iranian festival dating back to at least 1700 BCE of the early Zoroastrian era. Called the Festival of Fire, it is a prelude to Nowruz, which marks