Echinacea tennesseensis known as the Tennessee coneflower or Tennessee purple coneflower, is a flowering plant in the sunflower family, endemic to the cedar glades of the central portion of the U. S. state of Tennessee. Echinacea tennesseensis is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 75 centimetres tall; the leaves are hairy and arranged in a basal whorl with only a few small leaves on the flower stems. The flowers are produced in a capitulum up to 8 cm broad, with a ring of purple ray florets surrounding the brown disc florets. A noticeable characteristic is its erect ray flowers, in contrast to the more drooping rays of its most similar congener, E. angustifolia and other common Echinacea species such as E. purpurea. Echinacea tennesseensis is a rare species, found in fewer than 10 locations in Davidson and Rutherford Counties, it has been hypothesized that an ancestral Echinacea species spread into middle Tennessee during the hypsothermal period following the last ice age, when conditions were drier and prairies extended into much of the central eastern U.
S., now forested. As conditions became wetter, the Echinacea populations became isolated on the prairie-like habitat of the cedar glades which were surrounded by forest; this isolation resulted in speciation of E. tennesseensis. The Tennessee coneflower was once a federally listed endangered plant species and its recovery has been aided by the purchase of habitat by the Nature Conservancy and the State of Tennessee; the United States Fish and Wildlife Service proposed that this plant be removed from the endangered species list because all the former threats to the species are eliminated or reduced. The Tennessee coneflower was delisted effective September 2, 2011. Vanderbilt University: Echinacea tennesseensis images Wildflowers of the Southeastern United States: Echinacea tennesseensis
Phemeranthus calcaricus, the limestone fameflower, is a species of flowering plant in the family Montiaceae. It is native to limestone glades of the Interior Low Plateaus of Tennessee and Alabama, in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas; the majority populations are found in the Nashville Basin of Tennessee, where it can be locally abundant on exposed limestone in high quality glades. Phemeranthus calcaricus is a small, succulent perennial, uncommon throughout its range
Simpson County, Kentucky
Simpson County is a county located in the Pennyroyal Plateau region the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,327, its county seat is Franklin. Simpson County was established in 1819 from Allen and Warren Counties; the county is named for Captain John Simpson, a Kentucky militia officer who fought in Battle of Fallen Timbers in the Northwest Indian War, was killed during the War of 1812 in the Battle of River Raisin. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 236 square miles, of which 234 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. Warren County Allen County Sumner County, Tennessee Robertson County, Tennessee Logan County As of the census of 2000, there were 16,405 people, 6,415 households, 4,638 families residing in the county; the population density was 70 per square mile. There were 7,016 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.84% White, 10.22% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.55% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races.
0.91% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. There were 6,415 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.80% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 24.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.97. The age distribution was 26.20% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 29.20% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 13.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,432, the median income for a family was $42,525. Males had a median income of $32,160 versus $22,667 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,150. About 8.50% of families and 11.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.00% of those under age 18 and 15.90% of those age 65 or over.
Franklin Gold City Middleton Neosheo Prices Mill Providence Salmons In contrast to the Western Coalfield and the eastern part of the Pennyroyal Plateau, Simpson County was not pro-Union during the Civil War. Simpson was as reliably Democratic as the Jackson Purchase and Bluegrass during the following century: no Republican carried Simpson County until Richard Nixon’s 1972 landslide; as with all of rural Kentucky, the social liberalism of the Democratic Party – rejected overwhelmingly by southern whites – has made it solidly Republican at least a Presidential level since 2000. National Register of Historic Places listings in Simpson County, Kentucky Simpson County, Kentucky, KyGenWeb. Simpson County, Kentucky Atlas & Gazetteer
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s
The Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians called the Ridge and Valley Province or the Valley and Ridge Appalachians, are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division and are a belt within the Appalachian Mountains extending from southeastern New York through northwestern New Jersey, westward into Pennsylvania and southward into Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama. They form a broad arc between the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, they are characterized by long ridges, with long, continuous valleys in between. The ridge and valley system presents an important obstacle to east–west land travel with today's technology, it was a nearly insurmountable barrier to railroads crossing the range as well as to walking or horse-riding migrants traveling west to settle the Ohio Country, Northwest Territory and Oregon Country, before the days of motorized transportation. In the era when animal power dominated transportation there was no safe way to cross east–west in the middle of the range.
The eastern head of the Ridge and Valley region is marked by the Great Appalachian Valley, which lies just west of the Blue Ridge. The western side of the Ridge and Valley region is marked by steep escarpments such as the Allegheny Front, the Cumberland Mountains, Walden Ridge; these curious formations are the remnants of an ancient fold-and-thrust belt, west of the mountain core that formed in the Alleghenian orogeny. Here, strata have been folded westward, forced over massive thrust faults; the ridges represent the edges of the erosion-resistant strata, the valleys portray the absence of the more erodible strata. Smaller streams have developed their valleys following the lines of the more eroded strata, but a few major rivers, such as the Delaware River, the Susquehanna River, the New River, the Potomac River, are evidently older than the present mountains, having cut water gaps that are perpendicular to hard strata ridges. The evidence points to a wearing down of the entire region to a low level with little relief, so that major rivers were flowing in unconsolidated sediments that were unaffected by the underlying rock structure.
The region was uplifted enough that the rivers were able to maintain their course, cutting through the ridges as they developed. Valleys may be anticlinal valleys; these mountains are at their highest development in central Pennsylvania, a phenomenon termed the Pennsylvania climax. Geology of the Appalachians Allegheny Front Eastern Continental Divide Tennessee Valley Divide Stanley, Steven M. Earth System History. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1999. ISBN 0-7167-2882-6
Juniperus virginiana, known as red cedar, eastern redcedar, Virginian juniper, eastern juniper, red juniper, pencil cedar, aromatic cedar, is a species of juniper native to eastern North America from southeastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico and east of the Great Plains. Further west it is replaced by the related Juniperus scopulorum and to the southwest by Juniperus ashei. Juniperus virginiana is a dense slow-growing coniferous evergreen tree that may never become more than a bush on poor soil, but is ordinarily from 5–20 m or 16–66 ft tall, with a short trunk 30–100 cm or 12–39 inches in diameter (rarely to 27 m or 89 ft in height, 170 cm or 67 inches in diameter; the oldest tree reported, from West Virginia, was 940 years old. The bark is reddish-brown and peels off in narrow strips; the leaves are of two types. The juvenile leaves are found on young plants up to 3 years old, as scattered shoots on adult trees in shade; the seed cones are 3–7 mm long, berry-like, dark purple-blue with a white wax cover giving an overall sky-blue color.
The juniper berry is an important winter food for many birds. The pollen cones are 2 -- 3 1.5 mm broad, shedding pollen in late winter or early spring. The trees are dioecious, with pollen and seed cones on separate trees. There are two varieties, which intergrade where they meet: Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana is called eastern juniper / redcedar. It is found in eastern North America, from Maine, west to southern Ontario and South Dakota, south to northernmost Florida and southwest into the post oak savannah of east-central Texas. Cones are larger, 4–7 mm. Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola E. Murray is known as southern or sand juniper / redcedar, its variety name means "flint-dweller", from Latin - cola. Habitat is along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from the extreme southeastern corner of Virginia, south to central Florida and west to southeast Texas. Cones are 3 -- 4 mm, it is treated by some authors at the lower rank of variety, while others treat it as a distinct species. Eastern juniper is a pioneer species, which means that it is one of the first trees to repopulate cleared, eroded, or otherwise damaged land.
It is unusually long lived with the potential to live over 900 years. It is found in prairies or oak barrens, old pastures, or limestone hills along highways and near recent construction sites, it is an alternate host for cedar–apple rust, an economically significant fungal disease of apples, some management strategies recommend the removal of J. virginiana near apple orchardsIn many areas it is considered an invasive species if native. It is fire-intolerant, was controlled by periodic wildfires. Low branches near the ground provide a ladder that allows fire to engulf the whole tree. Grasses recover from low severity fires that are characteristic of prairies that kept the trees at bay. With the urbanization of prairies, the fires have been stopped with roads, plowed fields, other fire breaks, allowing J. virginiana and other trees to invade. Trees are destructive to grasslands if left unchecked, are being eliminated by cutting and prescribed burning; the trees burn readily, dense populations were blamed for the rapid spread of wildfires in drought stricken Oklahoma and Texas in 2005 and 2006.
Eastern juniper benefits unlike the grasses with which it competes. Many grasses are C4 plants that concentrate CO2 levels in their bundle sheaths to increase the efficiency of RuBisCO, the enzyme responsible for photosynthesis, while junipers are C3 plants that rely on the natural CO2 concentrations of the environment, although they are less efficient at fixing CO2 in general. Damage done by J. virginiana includes outcompeting forage species in pastureland. The low branches and wide base occupy a significant portion of land area; the thick foliage blocks out most light, so few plants can live under the canopy. The needles that fall raise the pH of the soil, making it alkaline, which holds nutrients such as phosphorus, making it harder for plants to absorb them. Juniperus virginiana has been shown to remove nitrogen from the soil after invading prairies, it has been found to reduce carbon stores in the soil. This reduction in soil nutrients reduces the amount and diversity of microbial activity in the soil.
Cedar waxwings are fond of the "berries" of these junipers. It takes about 12 minutes for their seeds to pass through the birds' guts, seeds that have been consumed by this bird have levels of germination three times higher than those of seeds the birds did not eat. Many other birds and many mammals consume them; the fine-grained, soft brittle pinkish- to brownish-red heartwood is fragrant light and durable in contact with soil. Because of its rot resistance, the wood is used for fence posts; the aromatic wood is avoided by moths, so it is in demand as lining for clothes chests and closets referred to as cedar closets and cedar chests. If prepared, it makes e
Sedum pulchellum is a species of flowering plant in the stonecrop family known by the common names widowscross and widow's cross. It is native to calcareous areas of the South-Central and Southeastern United States and where it is found on flat rock outcrops cedar glades. Most populations are in the Interior Low Plateau, Ozark and Ouachita Mountains, it produces pink-white flowers in late spring. It is a winter annual, germinating in the fall and dying in the summer