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Calcium citrate

Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is used as a food additive as a preservative, but sometimes for flavor. In this sense, it is similar to sodium citrate. Calcium citrate is found in some dietary calcium supplements. Calcium makes up 21.1 % of calcium citrate by mass. The tetrahydrate occurs in nature as the mineral Earlandite. Calcium citrate is sparingly soluble in water. Needle-shaped crystals of tricalcium dicitrate tetrahydrate ·2H2O were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis; the crystal structure comprises a three-dimensional network in which eightfold coordinated Ca2+ cations are linked by citrate anions and hydrogen bonds between two non-coordinating crystal water molecules and two coordinating water molecules. Calcium citrate is an intermediate in the isolation of citric acid from the fermentation process by which citric acid is produced industrially; the citric acid in the broth solution is neutralized by calcium hydroxide, precipitating insoluble calcium citrate. This is filtered off from the rest of the broth and washed to give clean calcium citrate.

3 Ca2 + 2 C6H8O7 → Ca32 + 6 H2OThe calcium citrate thus produced may be sold as-is, or it may be converted to citric acid using dilute sulfuric acid. In many individuals, bioavailability of calcium citrate is found to be equal to that of the cheaper calcium carbonate. However, alterations to the digestive tract may change how calcium is absorbed. Unlike calcium carbonate, basic and neutralizes stomach acid, calcium citrate has no effect on stomach acid. Calcium carbonate is harder to digest than calcium citrate, calcium carbonate carries a risk of "acid rebound", so individuals who are sensitive to antacids or who have difficulty producing adequate stomach acid may choose calcium citrate over calcium carbonate for supplementation. According to recent research into calcium absorption after gastric bypass surgery, calcium citrate may have improved bioavailability over calcium carbonate in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients who are taking calcium citrate as a dietary supplement after surgery; this is due to the changes related to where calcium absorption occurs in the digestive tract of these individuals.

National Cancer Institute


MAZ-7912/MAZ-7917 is a Soviet and Russian army 14×12 Twelve-wheel drive transporter-erector-launcher designed and developed by the Minsk Automobile Plant in Belarus. Developed for use as a Topol ICBM mobile launcher, the 7912 model is similar in design to the MAZ-547A but has seven axles instead of six, including one dead axle. In the mid-1980s, the MAZ-7917 variant was introduced, with an additional length of 1 m and crew cabins similar to the MAZ-7916 - and at present, the 8-axle MZKT-79221 variant is used to carry the Topol M, Topol's replacement. MAZ-7310 MZKT-79221 KAMAZ 7850

Han Kyu-chul

Han Kyu-chul is a South Korean former swimmer, who specialized in freestyle and individual medley events. He is a two-time Olympian, an eight-time bronze medalist at the Asian Games. Han made his first South Korean team, as an eighteen-year-old junior, at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. There, he failed to reach the semifinals in any of his individual events, finishing nineteenth in the 200 m butterfly, thirty-third in the 200 m individual medley; when South Korea hosted the 2002 Asian Games in Busan, Han won a total of four medals, including two in the freestyle relays. He enjoyed his teammate Cho Sung-Mo by giving the Koreans a 2–3 finish in the 1500 m freestyle, earning him a bronze in 15:22.38. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Han shortened his program, swimming only in the men's 200 m freestyle, he cleared a FINA B-standard entry time of 1:50.54 from the World Championships in Spain. He challenged seven other swimmers in heat five, including three-time Olympian Jacob Carstensen of Denmark.

Han rounded out the field to last place by two hundredths of a second behind Hungary's Tamás Szűcs, outside his entry time of 1:52.28. Han failed to advance into the semifinals. At the 2006 Asian Games in Doha, Han added four more bronze medals to his collection for a total of eight, he helped out his South Korean team, including three-time champion Park Tae-Hwan, to defend their medals from Busan in the 400 and 800 m freestyle relays

Adam Drummond (surgeon)

Adam Drummond of Binend was a Scottish surgeon-apothecary, appointed, jointly, as the first Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh. He was the third son of Adam Drummond of Megginch, 9th of Lennoch, a Commissioner to the Scottish Parliament and a Privy Councillor of Scotland, his father, a prominent Scottish lawyer and politician, was appointed in 1692 as one of the commissioners into the enquiry into the massacre of Glencoe. His elder brother John Drummond 10th of Lennoch and 3rd of Megginch was Member of Parliament for Perthshire. Adam Drummond was born on the family estate at Megginch in Perthshire and went to the local school in Errol before matriculating at St. Andrews University at the age of sixteen. Three years he became surgical apprentice to Thomas Edgar, Deacon of the Incorporation of Surgeons of Edinburgh from 1685 to 1687. On completion of his apprenticeship he went, as was the custom of the day, for further education at a continental University. En route to the continent he took a course of anatomy in London from a fellow Scot Dr Robert Erskine of Alva, before further studies at the University of Leyden.

On his return to Edinburgh, Drummond was admitted to the Incorporation of Surgeons in 1707 and established a practice as a surgeon-apothecary in the Lawnmarket in Edinburgh. He was appointed as the joint Professor of Anatomy to the Town’s College to join Robert Eliot, appointed in 1705, was the first to hold that post and was the first Professor of Anatomy in Britain. In 1720 Drummond resigned "owing to the state of his health and his business", although it is that this was as a result of pressure from John Monro, who wished to advance the interests of his son Alexander. One week the University appointed Alexander Monro primus as his successor, paving the way for the famous dynasty of Anatomy professors. Drummond’s practice as a surgeon-apothecary flourished and he dispensed remedies prescribed by the most eminent physicians of the day; this successful practice attracted many apprentices. Drummond had been librarian to the Incorporation of Surgeons from 1746 and was Deacon of the Incorporation between 1748 and 1750.

The Drummond family were staunch Hanoverians. In the 1745 Jacobite uprising the Jacobite army under Prince Charles Edwart Stuart defeated a Government army under the command of General Sir John Cope at the Battle of Prestonpans. Among the surgeons from Edinburgh who came to attend the wounded was Colin Simpson, one of Drummond’s apprentices, whose loyalty to the Government was such that he was entrusted to secretly deliver 400 guineas to Drummond’s nephew, Captain Adam Drummond, paymaster to the 47th Regiment of Foot, captured after Prestonpans and was being held prisoner at Queensberry House in Edinburgh. Other surgeons who treated the wounded after the battle were Alexander Monro primus, Alexander Wood, John Rattray and George Lauder, he married Margaret Spittall in 1710. Their daughter Elizabeth married James Stuart who served three terms of office as Lord Provost of Edinburgh. Margaret was an ancestor of Lord Provost in the 19th century. Drummond bought a estate at Binend near Burntisland in Fife.

Known as Binnend the estate lies near Burntisland but its associated village went into decline from the 1890s and was abandoned in 1954. He died in November 1758 and was buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard, Edinburgh

David Christy

David "Dolly" Christy was an Australian rules footballer in the West Australian Football League. Christy was a successful ruckman and centre half-forward, one of the founders of football in Western Australia, he began his career with Ballarat, crossed to Melbourne in the VFA, playing from 1891 until 1896. He became a driving force in establishing football in Western Australia, playing sixteen of his twenty-six seasons there, he played with Fremantle and with Imperials, upon the latter club's dissolution, was a co-founder of East Fremantle Football Club in 1898. His career total of 345 matches in elite football remained a record until broken by Polly Farmer in 1971, his twenty-six seasons and ten career premierships are records for elite Australian rules football as of 2018. In 1996, Christy was inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame, in 2004 he was inducted to the WA Football Hall of Fame. David Christy at David Christy on Demonwiki

William Jolly Duncan

Prof William Jolly Duncan FRS was a 20th century Scottish physicist remembered as a pioneer of aeroelasticity and "air flutter" theory critical to modern aviation. He was born in Govan on 26 April 1894 the son of Robert Duncan, of Ross & Duncan engineers and boilermakers, his wife, Mary Ann Jolly, he was educated at Allan Glen's School in Glasgow when his father was elected MP for Govan, he was sent to boarding school in England, studying at Dulwich College before studying Engineering at University College, London under Prof J. D. Cormack. In 1914 he enlisted at the start of the First World War serving in France and Flanders before being returned to Britain in 1916 to use his talents at the Aeronautical Inspection Unit of the Ministry of Munitions. After the war he worked with his father's firm of Duncan. On the death oh his father, in 1924 he inherited the estate of Dalchonzie near Comrie. However, inheriting a partnership in the family firm did not hold his interest and he left in 1926 to join the Aerodynamics Department of the National Physical Laboratrory.

In 1934 he became first Professor of Aeronautics at University College Hull. In the Second World War he was attached to the Royal Aircraft Establishment and afterwards became Professor of Aerodynamics at the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1947 alongside Sir Frank Whittle. In 1950 he returned to his home city as newly created Professor of Aeronautics and Fluid Mechanics at Glasgow University remaining in this post until death, he died on 9 December 1960 a few weeks after a severe operation. He is buried with his parents at Old Logie Kirkyard east of Stirling; the graveyard lies a few hundred metres north of Kirk. The grave lies in the north-west corner. In 1936 he married daughter of G. S. Baker of the William Froude Laboratory. Elementary Matrices Flutter and Stability The Fundamentals of Flutter