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Calculator

An electronic calculator is a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics. The first solid-state electronic calculator was created in the early 1960s. Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s after the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor, was developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom, they became used within the petroleum industry. Modern electronic calculators vary from cheap, give-away, credit-card-sized models to sturdy desktop models with built-in printers, they became popular in the mid-1970s as the incorporation of integrated circuits reduced their size and cost. By the end of that decade, prices had dropped to the point where a basic calculator was affordable to most and they became common in schools. Computer operating systems as far back as early Unix have included interactive calculator programs such as dc and hoc, calculator functions are included in all personal digital assistant type devices, the exceptions being a few dedicated address book and dictionary devices.

In addition to general purpose calculators, there are those designed for specific markets. For example, there are scientific calculators which include trigonometric and statistical calculations; some calculators have the ability to do computer algebra. Graphing calculators can be used to graph functions defined on the real line, or higher-dimensional Euclidean space; as of 2016, basic calculators cost little. In 1986, calculators still represented an estimated 41% of the world's general-purpose hardware capacity to compute information. By 2007, this had diminished to less than 0.05%. Electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for arithmetical operations. Most basic calculators assign operation on each button. Calculators have liquid-crystal displays as output in place of historical light-emitting diode displays and vacuum fluorescent displays. Large-sized figures are used to improve readability. Various symbols for function commands may be shown on the display. Fractions such as ​1⁄3 are displayed as decimal approximations, for example rounded to 0.33333333.

Some fractions can be difficult to recognize in decimal form. Calculators have the ability to store numbers into computer memory. Basic calculators store only one number at a time; the variables can be used for constructing formulas. Some models have the ability to extend memory capacity to store more numbers. Power sources of calculators are: batteries, solar cells or mains electricity, turning on with a switch or button; some models have no turn-off button but they provide some way to put off. Crank-powered calculators were common in the early computer era; the following keys are common to most pocket calculators. While the arrangement of the digits is standard, the positions of other keys vary from model to model. In general, a basic electronic calculator consists of the following components: Power source Keypad – consists of keys used to input numbers and function commands Display panel – displays input numbers and results. Liquid-crystal displays, vacuum fluorescent displays, light-emitting diode displays use seven segments to represent each digit in a basic calculator.

Advanced calculators may use dot matrix displays. A printing calculator, in addition to a display panel, has a printing unit that prints results in ink onto a roll of paper, using a printing mechanism. Processor chip. Clock rate of a processor chip refers to the frequency at which the central processing unit is running, it is used as an indicator of the processor's speed, is measured in clock cycles per second or the SI unit hertz. For basic calculators, the speed can vary from a few hundred hertz to the kilohertz range. A basic explanation as to how calculations are performed in a simple four-function calculator: To perform the calculation 25 + 9, one presses keys in the following sequence on most calculators: 2 5 + 9 =; when 2 5 is entered, it is picked up by the scanning unit. This "pushes" the first number out into the Y register.

Ann Taylor (writer, born 1757)

Ann Taylor or Ann Martin was a British writer. Her children were notable writers and this included Ann and Jane Taylor. Taylor was born in London in 1757, her father, who died when she was a child, was an evangelical preacher. Her mother married again and her new siblings bullied her, she found respite writing verse which gave her increased status among her school peers. Among those peers was Isaac Taylor and at Islington on 18 April 1781 she married him, they had five survived to adulthood and to be noted writers. Ann born at Islington on 30 January 1782. Ann's daughters Jane were unusually allowed to publish their work; the Quaker publisher had considerable success with their anonymous work and Ann senior was encouraged to offer her own work and a collaboration with Jane. Taylor was buried in Ongar. Maternal Solicitude for a Daughter's Best Interests. Practical Hints to Young Females The Present of a Mistress to a Young Servant Reciprocal Duties of Parents and Children Correspondence between a Mother and her Daughter at School The Family Mansion Retrospection: a Tale The Itinerary of a Traveller in the Wilderness

Granville, Ohio

Granville is a village in Licking County, United States. The population was 5,646 at the 2010 census; the village is located in a rural area of rolling hills in central Ohio. It is 35 miles east of Columbus, the state capital, 7 miles west of Newark, the county seat. Granville is home to Denison University; the village has a number of historic buildings, including Greek Revival structures like the Avery Downer House, St. Luke's Episcopal Church and others; the Buxton Inn, the Granville Inn, Bancroft House and Bryn Du Mansion are local landmarks. Granville is the location of the prehistoric Alligator Effigy Mound, built by the indigenous people of the Fort Ancient culture, between 800 and 1200 CE, more than four hundred years before European contact, it may be an effigy of the underwater panther featured in Native American mythology. The mound is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the area is rich in evidence of indigenous cultures. Less than five miles from the Alligator Effigy Mound are the impressive Newark Earthworks, associated with the earlier Hopewell culture of 100 BCE to 500 CE. Granville was not settled by European Americans until 1805.

The area was first surveyed by United States representatives in 1797, as land set aside by the national government for payment in land grants to veterans who had served in the Revolutionary War. Among the earliest settlers were Theophilus Rees and Thomas Philipps. Born in Wales, they immigrated to the United States in 1795, headed west for a new life on the American frontier, they arrived following a brief time in Philadelphia. Other Welsh settlers followed them. Education was a pillar of early civic life. By 1820, the village's pioneer settlers built a three-story brick school house. By the 1830s they established five schools in the growing village; as the schools were developed through the mid and late 19th century, they began to serve students from the region as well as from the village. Among those institutions were the Granville Literary and Theological Institution, the Granville Female Seminary, the Granville Episcopal Female Seminary, the Young Ladies’ Institute, the Granville Female Academy, Doane Academy, Shepardson College for Women.

The seminaries served first as preparatory schools for college, what were called high schools. This was a period in which girls' education was newly stressed, the village ensured their girls could be educated. Several of these institutions combined and developed as what is today Denison University. Granville is located at 40°4′3″N 82°30′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 4.71 square miles, of which 4.68 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. The central village is situated among three prominent hills. College Hill is to the north. Sugarloaf is a prominent park at the west end of Broadway. Mt. Parnassus is another prominent hill and residential area at the east end of Broadway. A short distance south of the village center is the Raccoon Creek flood plain with the creek running from the west to east. Granville's public schools are operated by the Granville Exempted Village School District; the system includes, Granville High School, Granville Middle School, Granville Intermediate School and Granville Elementary School.

The high school's graduating class of 2014 included 220 students. The district receives strong performance rankings from the Ohio Department of Education Located in the village is the Granville Christian Academy serving K-12 students. There are several private preschools. On a hill overlooking the village is the campus of Denison University, founded in 1831 as the Granville Theological and Literary Seminary a northern Baptist institution. Today, Denison is a private, non-sectarian liberal arts college with a student body of about 2,100 and a faculty of 200; the school is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and is certified by the Ohio Board of Regents to grant Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees. 74 % of the student body comes from out including representatives from forty countries. The Homestead at Denison University is a residential student intentional community focusing on environmental sustainability. Swasey Chapel is the iconic campus structure.

Completed in 1924, the chapel is named in honor of Ambrose Swasey, a benefactor to the college and prominent Cleveland inventor and businessman. The history of Granville has been interwoven with that of the college for nearly two centuries. Denison faculty and staff make up an important segment of the village's population, student patronage is central to many village businesses. Granville residents may take advantage of many university facilities, such as the athletic center, free of charge; the college has embarked on a number of in-town purchases, including the Granville Golf Club and the Granville Inn. Churches occupy prominent positions in the life of the community. At the intersection of Broadway and Main Street are located the First Presbyterian Church, Centenary United Methodist Church, St. Luke's Episcopal Church and the United Church of Granville. Nearby are St. Edward's Catholic Church. Located in the village are Spring Hills Baptist Church, a meetinghouse of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a Kingdom Hall