An endangered species is a species, categorized as likely to become extinct. Endangered, as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered. In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3,079 animal and 2,655 plant species as endangered worldwide; the figures for 1998 were 1,102 and 1,197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves. Population numbers and species' conservation status can be found at the lists of organisms by population; the conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood. Many factors are considered; the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 50% of the world's species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered and other threatened species.
In the United States, such plans are called Species Recovery Plans. Though labelled a list, the IUCN Red List is a system of assessing the global conservation status of species that includes "Data Deficient" species – species for which more data and assessment is required before their status may be determined – as well species comprehensively assessed by the IUCN's species assessment process; those species of "Near Threatened" and "Least Concern" status have been assessed and found to have robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline. Unlike their more general use elsewhere, the List uses the terms "endangered species" and "threatened species" with particular meanings: "Endangered" species lie between "Vulnerable" and "Critically Endangered" species, while "Threatened" species are those species determined to be Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered; the IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, include: Extinct no remaining individuals of the species Extinct in the wild Captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population.
Critically endangered Faces an high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Endangered Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future. Vulnerable Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term. Near-threatened May be considered threatened in the near future. Least concern No immediate threat to species' survival. A) Reduction in population size based on any of the following: An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 70% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on any of the following: direct observation an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence or quality of habitat actual or potential levels of exploitation the effects of introduced taxa, pathogens, competitors or parasites. An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1.
A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of to under A1. An observed, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever is longer, where the time period must include both the past and the future, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1. B) Geographic range in the form of either B1 OR B2 OR both: Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5,000 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations. Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.
Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individualsC) Population estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals and either: An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer, OR A continuing decline, projected
Christian Leopold von Buch
Christian Leopold von Buch was a German geologist and paleontologist born in Stolpe an der Oder and is remembered as one of the most important contributors to geology in the first half of the nineteenth century. His scientific interest was devoted to a broad spectrum of geological topics: volcanism, fossils and mountain formation, his most remembered accomplishment is the scientific definition of the Jurassic system. He was known as Leopold von Buch. Buch studied with Alexander von Humboldt under Abraham Gottlob Werner at the mining school in Freiberg, Saxony, he afterwards completed his education at the universities of Göttingen. He began writing on geological topics early in life, his Versuch einer mineralogischen Beschreibung von Landeck was translated into French, into English as Attempt at a Mineralogical Description of Landeck. In 1802 he published Entwurf einer geognostischen Beschreibung von Schlesien, which became the first volume of his Geognostische Beobachtungen auf Reisen durch Deutschland und Italien.
He was at this time a zealous upholder of the Neptunian theory of Werner, with some modifications. In 1797, he met Humboldt at Salzburg, with him explored the geological formations of Styria, the adjoining Alps. In the spring of 1798, Buch extended his excursions into Italy, where his faith in the Neptunian theory was shaken. In his early works, he had advocated the aqueous origin of basaltic and other formations, but now he saw cause to abandon Werner's theory, to recognize the volcanic origin of the basalts, he saw Vesuvius for the first time in 1799. In 1805, he had the opportunity, along with Humboldt and Gay Lussac, of witnessing its actual eruption, it was a remarkable eruption, supplied Buch with data for refuting many erroneous ideas entertained regarding volcanoes. In 1802 he examined the extinct volcanoes of the Auvergne in the south of France; the aspect of the Puy de Dôme, with its cone of trachyte and its strata of basaltic lava, induced him to abandon as untenable the doctrines of Werner on the formation of these rocks.
The results of all these geological travels were given to the world in the two volumes of his Geognostische Beobachtungen. In 1806, Buch spent two years in examining its physical constitution; this furnished the materials for his work entitled Reise durch Norwegen und Lappland. He made many important observations on climatology and on geology, he showed that many of the erratic blocks on the North German plains must have come from Scandinavia. He established the fact that the whole of Sweden is but continuously rising above the level of the sea from Frederikshald to Åbo. In 1815 Buch visited the Canary Islands in company with a Norwegian botanist; these volcanic isles furnished the starting point from which Buch commenced a regular course of study on the production and activity of volcanoes. This is attested by his standard work on the subject entitled Physical Description of the Canary Isles, his observations convinced him that these and other islands of the Atlantic owed their existence to volcanic action of the most intense kind, whereas the groups of islands in the South Sea were the remains of a pre-existing continent.
During his time in the Canary Islands, he visited the Las Cañadas Caldera on Tenerife and the Caldera de Taburiente on La Palma. When he published his memoirs and observations about his excursion, he introduced the Spanish word "Caldera" into the geological and scientific vocabulary. After his return from the Canaries he visited the basaltic group of the Hebrides and the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Buch's geological excursions in countries which he had visited before, continued without interruption until a advanced age: eight months before his death he visited the mountains of the Auvergne, on returning home he read a paper on the Jurassic formation before the Academy of Berlin. Humboldt, who had known him intimately for a period of more than sixty years, called him the greatest geologist of that period. Buch was unmarried and lived aloof from the world devoted to scientific pursuits, his excursions were always taken on foot, with a staff in his hand, the large pockets of his overcoat filled with papers and geological instruments.
He died in Berlin. In the third edition of his On the Origin of Species published in 1861, Charles Darwin added a Historical Sketch giving due credit to naturalists who had preceded him in publishing the opinion that species undergo modification, that the existing forms of life have descended by true generation from pre-existing forms. According to Darwin: The celebrated geologist and naturalist, Von Buch, in his excellent'Description physique des Isles Canaries' expresses his belief that varieties become changed into permanent species, which are no longer capable of intercrossing. Evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr has written that Buch was the first naturalist to suggest geographic speciation, in 1825. In 1825, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Buch was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1849. Recipient of the Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts. Elected as the first foreign member of the Geological Society of London.
The German Geological Society named its Leopold-von-Buch-Plakette after him. Besides the works mentioned, he was the author of many impor
The Canary Islands is a Spanish archipelago and the southernmost autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco at the closest point. The Canary Islands, which are known informally as the Canaries, are among the outermost regions of the European Union proper, it is one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The Canary Islands belong to the African Plate like the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the two on the African mainland; the seven main islands are Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. The archipelago includes much smaller islands and islets: La Graciosa, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este, it includes a series of adjacent roques. In ancient times, the island chain was referred to as "the Fortunate Isles"; the Canary Islands are the most southerly region of Spain and the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region.
The Canary Islands have been considered a bridge between four continents: Africa, North America, South America and Europe. The archipelago's beaches and important natural attractions Maspalomas in Gran Canaria and Teide National Park and Mount Teide in Tenerife, make it a major tourist destination with over 12 million visitors per year Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Lanzarote; the islands have a subtropical climate, with moderately warm winters. The precipitation levels and the level of maritime moderation vary depending on location and elevation. Green areas as well as desert exist on the archipelago. Due to their location above the temperature inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have been built on the islands. In 1927, the Province of Canary Islands was split into two provinces; the autonomous community of the Canary Islands was established in 1982.
Its capital is shared by the cities of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, which in turn are the capitals of the provinces of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, except for a brief period in the 1910s. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered; the third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife. This city is home to the Consejo Consultivo de Canarias, the supreme consultative body of the Canary Islands. During the time of the Spanish Empire, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, which came south to catch the prevailing northeasterly trade winds; the name Islas Canarias is derived from the Latin name Canariae Insulae, meaning "Islands of the Dogs", a name, applied only to Gran Canaria. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, the Mauretanian king Juba II named the island Canaria because it contained "vast multitudes of dogs of large size".
Alternatively, it is said that the original inhabitants of the island, used to worship dogs, mummified them and treated dogs as holy animals. The ancient Greeks knew about a people, living far to the west, who are the "dog-headed ones", who worshipped dogs on an island; some hypothesize that the Canary Islands dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the dog-headed god, Anubis are connected but there is no explanation given as to which one was first. Other theories speculate that the name comes from the Nukkari Berber tribe living in the Moroccan Atlas, named in Roman sources as Canarii, though Pliny again mentions the relation of this term with dogs; the connection to dogs is retained in their depiction on the islands' coat-of-arms. It is considered that the aborigines of Gran Canaria called themselves "Canarios", it is possible that after being conquered, this name was used in plural in Spanish, i.e. as to refer to all of the islands as the Canarii-as. What is certain is that the name of the islands does not derive from the canary bird.
Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the archipelago. Gran Canaria, with 865,070 inhabitants, is both the Canary Islands' second most populous island, the third most populous one in Spain after Majorca; the island of Fuerteventura is the second largest in the archipelago and located 100 km from the African coast. The islands form the Macaronesia ecoregion with the Azores, Cape Verde and the Savage Isles; the Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region. The archipelago consists of seven large and several smaller islands, all of which are volcanic in origin. According to the position of the islands with respect to the north-east trade winds, the climate can be mild and wet or dry. Several native species form laurisilva forests; as a consequence, the individual islands in the Canary archipelago tend to have distinct microclimates. Those islands such as El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera lying to the west of the archipelago have a climate, influenced by the m
A cauldron is a large cast iron pot for cooking or boiling over an open fire, with a large pot and with an arc-shaped hanger. The word cauldron is first recorded in Middle English as caudroun, it was borrowed from Norman caudron. It represents the phonetical evolution of Vulgar Latin *caldario for Classical Latin caldārium "hot bath", that derives from caldus "hot"; the Norman-French word replaces the Middle English chetel. The word "kettle" is a borrowing of the Old Norse variant ketill "cauldron". Cauldrons have fallen out of use in the developed world as cooking vessels. While still used for practical purposes, a more common association in Western culture is the cauldron's use in witchcraft—a cliché popularized by various works of fiction, such as Shakespeare's play Macbeth. In fiction, witches prepare their potions in a cauldron. In Irish folklore, a cauldron is purported to be where leprechauns keep their gold and treasure. In some forms of Wicca, incorporating aspects of Celtic mythology, the cauldron is associated with the goddess Cerridwen.
Welsh legend tells of cauldrons that were useful to warring armies. In the second branch of the Mabinogi in the tale of Branwen, Daughter of Llŷr, the Pair Dadeni is a magical cauldron in which dead warriors could be placed and be returned to life, save that they lacked the power of speech, it was suspected. These warriors could go back into battle. In Wicca and some other forms of neopagan or pagan belief systems the cauldron is still used in magical practices. Most a cauldron is made of cast iron and is used to burn loose incense on a charcoal disc, to make black salt, for mixing herbs, or to burn petitions. Cauldrons symbolize not only the Goddess but represent the womb and on an altar it represents earth because it is a working tool. Cauldrons are sold in New Age or "metaphysical" stores and may have various symbols of power inscribed on them; the holy grail of Arthurian legend is sometimes referred to as a "cauldron", although traditionally the grail is thought of as a hand-held cup rather than the large pot that the word "cauldron" is used to mean.
This may have resulted from the combination of the grail legend with earlier Celtic myths of magical cauldrons. The common translation for ding is referred to as a cauldron. In Chinese history and culture, possession of one or more ancient dings is associated with power and dominion over the land. Therefore, the ding is used as an implicit symbolism for power; the term "inquiring of the ding" is used interchangeably with the quest for power. Archeologically intact actual cauldrons with apparent cultural symbolism include: the Gundestrup cauldron, made in the 2nd or 1st century BC, found at Gundestrup, Denmark a Bronze Age cauldron found at Hassle, Sweden the cauldron where the Olympic Flame burns for the duration of the Olympic GamesCauldrons known only through myth and literature include: Dagda's Cauldron The Cauldron of Dyrnwch the Giant Pair Dadeni Cauldron of Hymir Alfet Fire pot Gulyásleves Hassle Kama List of cooking vessels Olympic flame Potjiekos Sacrificial tripod
Teide National Park
Teide National Park is a national park located in Tenerife. The national park is centered on Mount Teide, the highest mountain of Spain in addition, the highest volcano in the Atlantic Ocean islands and the third highest volcano in the world from its base in the ocean floor, its national park status was passed on 22 January 1954, making it the third oldest national park in Spain. Pico Viejo included within the national park limits, is the second highest volcano in the Canary Islands with its 3,135 m peak. Mount Teide and Pico Viejo are the only two peaks in the Canary islands rising above the 3,000 m level; the park has an area of 18,990 hectares located in the municipality of La Orotava. It was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on June 28, 2007. Since the end of 2007, it has been one of the 12 Treasures of Spain. On a ridge, to the east of Teide, are the telescopes of the Observatorio del Teide. Teide is the most visited national park in Spain and Europe and −by 2015− the eighth most visited in the world, with some 3 million visitors yearly.
In 2016, it was visited by 4,079,823 tourists reaching a historical record. The Teide is the most famous natural icon not only of Tenerife but of all the Canary Islands. There are morning and afternoon coach trips through the park, departing from selected areas in the south of Tenerife's tourist towns. Access to the peak requires a free permit; the Teide National Park has a large historical value. This place had an important spiritual significance to aboriginal Guanches and important archaeological sites have been discovered in the park. For the Guanches the Teide was a place of worship, they thought. National park status was declared on January 22, 1954, one of the third in Spain. In 1981 the park was established as a special legal regime. In 1989, the Council of Europe awarded the European Diploma of Protected Areas, in its highest category; this recognition and conservation management has been subsequently renewed in 1994, 1999 and 2004. In celebration of the 50th anniversary of its transformation into a national park, in 2002 the paperwork was begun to declare the park a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
On June 28, 2007, after five years of work and effort, UNESCO decided to declare the Teide National Park, World Heritage Site in the World Heritage Convention of UNESCO held in Christchurch, New Zealand. Teide National Park is at the end of 2007, one of the 12 Treasures of Spain. Teide National Park is complementary to the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, this is due to being in each of them represented the volcanic structures and forms less evolved magmas of such islands and more evolved and differentiated. Moreover, Teide National Park shares similar scenic characteristics with the Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona, United States; the lava flows on the flanks of Teide weather to a thin, but nutrient and mineral rich soil that supports a diverse number of plant species. Vascular flora consists of 168 plant species. Forests of Canary Island pine occur from 1000–2100 m, covering the middle slopes of the volcano, having an alpine timberline 1000 m lower than that of continental mountains of similar latitude.
At higher altitudes, the Las Cañadas caldera provides sufficient shelter for more fragile species such as the Canary Island cedar, the Canary Island pine to grow. The most dominant plant species in the Teide National Park are the Teide white broom, which has a white and pink flower; the Teide daisy can be found at altitudes close to 3,600m above sea level. The Teide violet can be found right up to the summit of the volcano, making it the highest flowering plant in Spain; these plants are adapted to the tough environmental conditions on the volcano such as high altitude, intense sunlight, extreme temperature variations, lack of moisture. Adaptations include acquiring semi-spherical forms, acquiring a downy or waxy cover, reducing the exposed leaf area, having a high flower production. Flowering takes place in early summer, in the months of May and June; the Teide National Park contains a huge range of invertebrate fauna, over 40% of which are endemic species, with 70 species only being found in the national park.
The invertebrate fauna include spiders, dipterans and hymenopterae. In contrast, Teide national park has only a limited variety of vertebrate fauna. Ten species of bird nest in the park; these include the blue chaffinch. Three endemic reptile species are found in the park – the Canary Island lizard, the Canary Island wall gecko, the Canary Island skink; the only mammals native to the park are bats, the most common species of, Leisler's bat. Other mammals such as the mouflon, the rabbit, the house mouse, the black rat, the feral cat, the Algerian hedgehog have all been introduced to the park; the similarity between environmental conditions and geological Teide National Park and the planet Mars have turned this spot volcanic reference point
Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain)
The Parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada is a national park located in the provinces of Granada, Almería, Málaga in Andalusia, Spain. It was declared a national park on 14 January 1999, it stretches from the Alpujarra to El Marquesado and the Lecrin Valley, covering a total area of 85,883 hectares, making it the largest national park in Spain. It incorporates the municipalities of Abla, Alboloduy, Bayárcal, Canjáyar, Fiñana, Fondón, Laujar de Andarax, Ohanes, Paterna del Río, Rágol, Las Tres Villas, Alpujarra de La Sierra, Bérchules, Bubión, Busquístar, Cáñar, Capileira, Dílar, Dólar, Dúrcal, Ferreira, Güéjar Sierra, Huéneja, Jerez del Marquesado, Lanjarón, Lecrín, Monachil, Nigüelas, Pampaneira, Pórtugos, Soportújar, La Taha, Trevélez, Valor and La Zubia. There are more than 20 peaks over 3,000 meters, with the highest being Mulhacén, Veleta and Alcazaba; the rivers that rise on the north face of the range feed the Guadalquivir basin, the most important ones being the Fardes and Genil. Meanwhile, the rivers that rise on the west and south faces run down into the Mediterranean.
These include the Dúrcal, Ízbor, Trevélez and Poqueira, which are all tributaries of the Guadalfeo, which itself rises in the Sierra Nevada, the Adra and Andarax, with their tributaries. The south and west faces are where you will find the majority of the 50 high-mountain lakes that exist in the Sierra Nevada, many of which are the sources of streams and rivers. Much of the landscape above 2,400 metres was shaped by the action of glaciers, resulting in characteristic U-shaped valleys. Due to its isolated location in the far south of Europe, the flora and fauna of the Sierra Nevada are unique. During the last ice age, species moved south to escape the colder climate in the north, as the climate grew warmer again, these species survived by taking refuge in the mountains. 2,100 plant species have been catalogued in the park, 116 of which are classified as threatened, over 60 of which are unique to the area. Threatened species include the Artemisia granatensis, a sub-species of the Marsh Gentian endemic to the Sierra Nevada and the Alpine Meadow-rue.
One of the most emblematic plants of the Sierra Nevada is the Plantago nivalis known as the Snow Star. The park is home to a thriving Spanish ibex population, along with other species such as wild boar, martens and wildcats. Native bird species include the Golden Eagle, Bonelli’s Eagle, Common Kestrel, Little Owl, Eurasian Eagle-owl, European Goldfinch, Ortolan, Dartford Warbler, Red-legged Partridge and Common Quail. On the edge of the park lies the Botanic Garden of Cortijuela, where the endemic species of the Sierra are investigated and preserved. Skiing:The Sierra Nevada Ski Station, which hosted the Alpine World Ski Championships in 1996, is Europe's southernmost ski resort. Thanks to its high altitude, the skiing season can last from late November until the start of May. Hiking:Popular bases for hiking in the Sierra Nevada include Capileira, Trevélez, Monachil, Güéjar Sierra and Bubión, it is easy to reach the summits of Mulhacén and Veleta, whereas Alcazaba is harder to reach. Dotted around the Sierra Nevada there are a number of mountain cabins designed for the use of hikers.
The three staffed cabins charge a small amount. There are a further six unstaffed cabins in a reasonable state of repair. Paragliding Bird-watching Sierra Nevada Sierra Nevada Natural Park
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund