Elland is a market town in Calderdale, in the county of West Yorkshire, England. It is situated south of Halifax, by the Calder and Hebble Navigation. Elland was recorded as Elant in the Domesday Book; the town's name is derived from the Old English meaning'land by the water, river or land or wholly surrounded by water'. It had a population in 2001 of 14,554, with the ward being measured at 11,676 in the 2011 Census. Mentioned in the 1086 Domesday Book as Elant, Elland retained continuity of tenure from before the Norman Conquest into the Middle Ages, as the Elland family were descended from Anglo-Saxon thegns; the Manor of Elland, with Greetland and Southowram formed an island of the Honour of Pontefract in the surrounding Manor of Wakefield. In 1350 Sir John de Eland was murdered, as were his son and grandson in the following year, which extinguished the male line of the family and the manor passed to the Savile family. From this period, the manor house ceased to be the principal dwelling of a gentry family, as the Saviles had their seat at the moated manor of Thornhill.
Elland manor house was never reconstructed and, when dismantled and excavated in 1975 by the West Yorkshire Archaeology Unit, it was found to incorporate a 13th-century solar wing – one of the earliest secular buildings in the county. The manor house stood on a knoll aligned with the bridge over the River Calder and was destroyed during the construction of Calderdale Way bypass; the farm buildings survive. At the request of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey, Edward II granted a charter, to John de Eland, for a free market on Tuesday at his Manor of Elland, two fairs; the town became a centre of wool production. The decline of the woollen industry had a significant effect on the town and many mills were demolished or converted to residences. Durable flagstones, Elland flags, were quarried near the town and after the canal was constructed, they could be transported economically all over the county. Elland housed the main factory of the manufacturer of Gannex products and is the home of the Dobsons sweet factory, which produces traditional boiled sweets.
Since 2001, Elland has been home to Suma Wholefoods, the largest workers' co-operative in the United Kingdom. Elland was a township, with Greetland, in the large ancient parish of Halifax; the township became a civil parish in 1866, but in 1894 Elland was separated from Greetland and became Elland Urban District. In 1937 Greetland and Stainland were added to the Urban District. In 1974 the urban district and civil parish were abolished and merged into Calderdale Metropolitan Borough. Buildings of interest include the parish church of St Mary the Virgin, the former Rose and Crown Inn in Northgate, the Old Town Hall, Southgate Methodist Church, the reputedly haunted Fleece Inn at the top of Westgate, the Rex Cinema and Waxman ceramics on Elland Lane; the remains of the medieval stocks can be found at the junction of Elizabeth Street. Elland Power Station was a coal-fired power station by the River Calder, it was decommissioned and closed in 1991, in keeping with the trend of generating power at fewer but larger power stations away from towns, demolished in 1996.
The Calder and Hebble Navigation opened in the late-18th century to serve the growing industrialisation of the Calder Valley. Elland railway station closed in 1962 but the line is still in use as a passenger service for the Caldervale Line; the A643 road ended in Elland. It passes Elland Road, it now ends at junction 23 of the M62 motorway. Thomas Thornton, first-class cricketer Ellands, a surname Elland
Halifax, West Yorkshire
Halifax is a minster town in the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire, England. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town has been a centre of woollen manufacture from the 15th century onward dealing through the Piece Hall. Halifax is known for Mackintosh's toffee products including Rolo and Quality Street; the Halifax Bank was founded and is still headquartered in Halifax. Dean Clough, one of the largest textile factories in the world at more than 1⁄2 mile long, was in the north of the town; the premises have since been converted for office and retail use including a gym, theatre and radio station. The town's name was recorded in about 1091 as Halyfax, from the Old English halh-gefeaxe, meaning "area of coarse grass in the nook of land"; this explanation is preferred to derivations from the Old English halig, in hālig feax or "holy hair", proposed by 16th-century antiquarians. The incorrect interpretation gave rise to two legends. One concerned. Another held; the legend is certainly medieval rather than ancient, although the town's coat of arms carries an image of the saint.
Another explanation ley a clearing or meadow. This etymology is based on Haley Hill, the nearby hamlet of Healey, the common occurrence of the surnames Hayley/Haley around Halifax; the erroneous derivation from halig has given rise to the demonym Haligonian, of recent origin and not in universal use. The Earldom of Halifax took the name of the town, its first creation, in the Peerage of England in 1677, was for William Savile, created Baron Savile of Eland and Viscount Halifax in 1668 and became the Marquess of Halifax. George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, became the President of the Board of Trade in 1748. In 1749 the city of Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, was named in his honour; the Halifax River in Central Florida, United States, was named after him. Halifax is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, evidence of the early settlement is indefinite. By the 12th century the township had become the religious centre of the vast parish of Halifax, which extended from Brighouse in the east to Heptonstall in the west.
Halifax Minster, parts of which date from the 12th century is dedicated to St John the Baptist. The minster's first organist, in 1766, was William Herschel; the coat of arms of Halifax include the chequers from the original coat of arms of the Earls Warenne, who held the town during Norman times. Halifax was notorious for its gibbet, an early form of guillotine used to execute criminals by decapitation, last used in 1650. A replica has been erected on the original site in Gibbet Street, its original blade is on display at Bankfield Museum. Punishment in Halifax was notoriously harsh, as remembered in the Beggar's Litany by John Taylor, a prayer whose text included "From Hull, from Halifax, from Hell, ‘tis thus, From all these three, Good Lord deliver us.". The town's 19th century wealth came from the cotton and carpet industries and like most other Yorkshire towns, it had a large number of weaving mills many of which have been lost or converted to alternate use. In November 1938, in an incident of mass hysteria, many residents believed a serial killer, the Halifax Slasher, was on the loose.
Scotland Yard concluded there were no attacks after several locals admitted they had inflicted wounds on themselves. Halifax plc started as a building society, the Halifax Permanent Benefit Building and Investment Society, in the town in 1853. Today the bank operates as a trading name of part of the Lloyds Banking Group. Yorkshire Bank, based in Leeds and known as the West Riding Penny Savings Bank, was established on 1 May 1859 by Colonel Edward Akroyd of Halifax. Halifax is twinned with Aachen in Germany; the A58 has a stretch called Aachen Way. Halifax has benefited from Single Regeneration Budget, European URBAN II and the Home Office’s Community Cohesion Fund money through Action Halifax who have a vision for "a prosperous and safe centre where all sections of the community can access opportunities to enhance their quality of life." The ancient parish of Halifax was divided into a large number of civil parishes in the 19th century. In Halifax, a body of improvement commissioners or town trustees was created between 1762 and 1823, the town became a borough constituency under the Great Reform Act of 1832.
Halifax was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1848 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888, became a county borough in 1889. Since 1974, Halifax has been the administrative centre of the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire. Topographically, Halifax is located in the south-eastern corner of the moorland region called the South Pennines. Halifax is situated about 4 miles from the M62 motorway, close to Huddersfield; the Tees-Exe line passes through the A641 road, which links Brighouse with Bradford and Huddersfield, The town lies 65 miles from Hull and Liverpool, about 170 miles from the cities of London, Belfast and Cardiff as the crow flies. The Hebble Brook joins the River Calder at Salterhebble. In 2004 Calderdale had a population of 192,405; the main ethnic group in Halifax is White, followed by Pakistani. Over 90% of people aged 16–74 were employed full-time. 64% of residents had qualification
Hebden Bridge is a market town in the Upper Calder Valley in West Yorkshire, England. It is 8 miles west of Halifax and 14 miles north-east of Rochdale, at the confluence of the River Calder and the Hebden Water; the town is the largest settlement in the civil parish of Hebden Royd. In 2015, the Calder ward, covering Hebden Bridge, Old Town, part of Todmorden, had a population of 12,167; the original settlement was the hilltop village of Heptonstall. Hebden Bridge started as a settlement where the Halifax to Burnley packhorse route dropped into the valley and crossed the River Hebden where the old bridge stands; the name Hebden comes from the Anglo-Saxon Heopa Denu,'Bramble Valley'. Steep hills with fast-flowing streams and access to major wool markets meant that Hebden Bridge was ideal for water-powered weaving mills and the town developed during the 19th and 20th centuries. Watercolour artist Thomas Frederick Worrall, who lived in nearby Pecket Well, painted a depiction of the mills c. 1900, available on the Watercolour World web site.
Drainage of the marshland, which covered much of the Upper Calder Valley before the Industrial Revolution, enabled construction of the road which runs through the valley. Before it was built, travel was only possible via the ancient packhorse route which ran along the hilltop, dropping into the valleys wherever necessary; the wool trade was served by the Manchester & Leeds Railway. Hebden Bridge grew to include a Picture House and offices for Hebden Bridge Urban District Council. Hebden Bridge has no swimming pool, although for some years there was a small training pool for children in the adult education centre on Pitt Street. Hebden Bridge had its own cooperative society but during the 1960s, it was defrauded and went bankrupt; the old Co-op building became a hotel and was converted into flats. The Co-op returned in the 1980s on the site of an old mill. During the Second World War Hebden Bridge was designated a "reception area" and took in evacuees from industrial cities. Two bombs fell on Calderdale during the war.
During the 1970s and 1980s the town saw an influx of artists, photographers, alternative practitioners, teachers and New Age activists and more wealthier'yuppie' types. This in turn saw a boom in tourism to the area. During the 1990s Hebden Bridge became a dormitory town, due to its proximity to major towns and cities both sides of the Pennines. On 6 July 2003, Hebden Bridge was granted Fairtrade Zone status. On 6 July 2014, Stage 2 from York to Sheffield, passed through the town. At a district level, Hebden Bridge Urban District was established in 1891. In 1937, it merged with Mytholmroyd Urban District to become Hebden Royd Urban District. At a county level, Hebden Bridge was administered as part of the West Riding of Yorkshire; these were abolished as part of the reforms introduced in the Local Government Act 1972. They were replaced with West Yorkshire Metropolitan county, Calderdale Metropolitan Borough, Hebden Royd Town Civil Parish. From a legal point of view, the town council is a parish council.
It has attracted praise for its commitment to eco-friendly policies, following the example of Modbury in banning all plastic shopping bags, thus becoming the largest community in Europe to do so. The ban is not enforceable, but rather a voluntary agreement between local shop owners and the community at large. Hebden Bridge Town Hall and adjoining fire station is a Grade II listed building, built in 1897. Following local government reorganisation, it became underused; the building was transferred from Calderdale Metropolitan Borough Council to Hebden Bridge Community Association on a 40-year lease on 1 April 2010, along with funds for basic maintenance work. Substantial volunteer time was put into renovation works and fundraising to secure the building’s future. An ambitious £4 million project has been finished, building a small enterprise centre and new community facilities on land adjacent to the Town Hall. More than 450 local people have signed up as "Friends of the Town Hall" and can vote for the trustees.
Since the floods on Boxing Day 2015 the Town Hall with café and foyer exhibition space has become a popular community hub. Hebden Bridge lies close to the Pennine Way and Hardcastle Crags and is popular for outdoor pursuits such as walking and cycling, it lies on the Rochdale Canal – a through route across the Pennines. The town's location in the valley causes problems with flooding between Hebden Water and the cinema on New Road, Brearley Fields in Mytholmroyd, further up the valley at Callis Bridge by the sewage works and the old Aquaspersions factory. Flooding at Callis Bridge is so frequent that the level of the River Calder has been lowered and special perforated kerbstones fitted so that water can drain back into the river. Brearley on a flood plain contains the playing fields for Calder High School and local football, rugby league and cricket teams. Hebden Bridge suffered two devastating floods in the summer of 2012, again on Boxing Day 2015.
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government. Unitary authorities cover towns or cities which are large enough to function independently of county or other regional administration. Sometimes they consist of national sub-divisions which are distinguished from others in the same country by having no lower level of administration. In Canada, each province creates its own system of local government, so terminology varies substantially. In certain provinces there is only one level of local government in that province, so no special term is used to describe the situation. British Columbia has only one such municipality, Northern Rockies Regional Municipality, established in 2009. In Ontario the term single-tier municipalities is used, for a similar concept.
Their character varies, while most function as cities with no upper level of government, some function as counties or regional municipalities with no lower municipal subdivisions below them. They exist as individual census divisions, as well as separated municipalities. In Germany, kreisfreie Stadt is the equivalent term for a city with the competences of both the Gemeinde and the Kreis administrative level; the directly elected chief executive officer of a kreisfreie Stadt is called Oberbürgermeister. The British counties have no directly corresponding counterpart in Germany; this German system corresponds in the Czech Republic. Until 1 January 2007, the municipalities of Copenhagen and Bornholm were not a part of a Danish county. In New Zealand, a unitary authority is a territorial authority that performs the functions of a regional council. There are five unitary authorities; the Chatham Islands, located east of the South Island, have a council with its own special legislation, constituted with powers similar to those of a regional authority.
In Poland, a miasto na prawach powiatu, or shortly powiat grodzki is a big, city, responsible for district administrative level, being part of no other powiat. In total, 65 cities in Poland have this status. In the United Kingdom, "unitary authorities" are English local authorities set up in accordance with the Local Government Changes for England Regulations 1994 made under powers conferred by the Local Government Act 1992 to form a single tier of local government in specified areas and which are responsible for all local government functions within such areas. While outwardly appearing to be similar, single-tier authorities formed using older legislation are not Unitary Authorities thus excluding e.g. the Isle of Wight Council or any other single-tier authority formed under the Local Government Act 1972 or older legislation. This is distinct from the two-tier system of local government which still exists in most of England, where local government functions are divided between county councils and district or borough councils.
Until 1996 two-tier systems existed in Scotland and Wales, but these have now been replaced by systems based on a single-tier of local government with some functions shared between groups of adjacent authorities. A single-tier system has existed in Northern Ireland since 1973. For many years the description of the number of tiers in UK local government arrangements has ignored any current or previous bodies at the lowest level of authorities elected by the voters within their area such as parish or community councils. Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts for local government purposes. In Northern Ireland local councils have no responsibility for road building or housing, their functions include waste and recycling services and community services, building control and local economic and cultural development. Since their reorganisation in 2015 councils in Northern Ireland have taken on responsibility for planning functions; the collection of rates is handled by the Property Services agency.
Category: Subdivisions of Northern Ireland Local authorities in Scotland are unitary in nature but not in name. The Local Government etc. Act 1994 created a single tier of local government throughout Scotland. On 1 April 1996, 32 local government areas, each with a council, replaced the previous two-tier structure, which had regional and district councils. Comhairle nan Eilean Siar uses the alternative Gaelic designation Comhairle; the phrase "unitary authority" is not used in Scottish legislation, although the term is encountered in publications and in use by United Kingdom government departments. Local authorities in Wales are unitary in nature but are described by the Local Government Act 1994 as "principal councils", their areas as principal areas. Various other legislation (e.g. s.9
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people gather for the purchase and sale of provisions and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a souk, bazaar, a fixed mercado, or itinerant tianguis, or palengke; some markets operate daily and are said to be permanent markets while others are held once a week or on less frequent specified days such as festival days and are said to be periodic markets. The form that a market adopts depends on its locality's population, culture and geographic conditions; the term market covers many types of trading, as market squares, market halls and food halls, their different varieties. Due to this, marketplaces can be situated both indoors. Markets have existed for as long; the earliest bazaars are believed to have originated in Persia, from where they spread to the rest of the Middle East and Europe. Documentary sources suggest that zoning policies confined trading to particular parts of cities from around 3,000 BCE, creating the conditions necessary for the emergence of a bazaar.
Middle Eastern bazaars were long strips with stalls on either side and a covered roof designed to protect traders and purchasers from the fierce sun. In Europe, unregulated markets made way for a system of formal, chartered markets from the 12th century. Throughout the Medieval period, increased regulation of marketplace practices weights and measures, gave consumers confidence in the quality of market goods and the fairness of prices. Around the globe, markets have evolved in different ways depending on local ambient conditions weather and culture. In the Middle East, markets tend to be covered, to protect shoppers from the sun. In milder climates, markets are open air. In Asia, a system of morning markets trading in fresh produce and night markets trading in non-perishables is common. In many countries, shopping at a local market is a standard feature of daily life. Given the market's role in ensuring food supply for a population, markets are highly regulated by a central authority. In many places, designated market places have become listed sites of historic and architectural significance and represent part of a town or nation's cultural assets.
For these reasons, they are popular tourist destinations. The term market comes from the Latin mercatus; the earliest recorded use of the term market in English is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 963, a work, created during the reign of Alfred the Great and subsequently distributed, copied throughout English monasteries. The exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun,” which translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town.” Markets have existed since ancient times. Some historians have argued that a type of market has existed since humans first began to engage in trade. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, Phoenecia, Egypt and on the Arabian peninsula. However, not all societies developed a system of markets; the Greek historian, Herodotus noted. Across the Mediterranean and Aegean, a network of markets emerged from the early Bronze Age. A vast array of goods were traded including: salt, lapiz-lazuli, cloth, pots, statues and other implements. Archaeological evidence suggests that Bronze Age traders segmented trade routes according to geographical circuits.
Both produce and ideas travelled along these trade routes. In the Middle-East, documentary sources suggest that a form of bazaar first developed around 3,000 BCE. Early bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city; the bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world. Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised; the Greek historian, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth. He described a The Babylonian Marriage Market. In antiquity, markets were situated in the town's centre; the market was surrounded by alleyways inhabited by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers, leather workers and carpenters. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days.
Across ancient Greece market places were to be found in most city states, where they operated within the agora. Between 550 and 350 BCE, Greek stallholders clustered together according to the type of goods carried - fish-sellers were in one place, clothing in another and sellers of more expensive goods such as perfumes and jars were located in a separate building; the Greeks organised trade into all located near the city centre and known as stoa. A freestanding colonnade with a covered walkway, the stoa was both a place of commerce and a public promenade, situated within or adjacent to the agora. At the market-place in Athens, officials were employed by the government to oversee weights and coinage to ensure that the people were not cheated in market place transactions; the rocky and mountainous terrain in Greece made it difficult for producers to transport goods or surpluses to local markets, giving rise to a specialised type of retailer who operated as an intermediary purchasing produce from farmers
Yorkshire Dales National Park
The Yorkshire Dales National Park is a 2,178 km2 national park in England covering most of the Yorkshire Dales. The majority of the park is in North Yorkshire, with a sizeable area in Cumbria and a small part in Lancashire; the park was designated in 1954, was extended in 2016. Over 20,000 residents live and work in the park, which attracts over eight million visitors every year; the park is 50 miles north-east of Manchester. The national park does not include all of the Yorkshire Dales. Parts of the dales to the south and east of the national park are located in the Nidderdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the national park includes the Howgill Fells and Orton Fells in the north west although they are not considered part of the dales. In 1947, the Hobhouse Report recommended the creation of the Yorkshire Dales National Park in the West Riding and North Riding of Yorkshire; the proposed National Park included most of the Yorkshire Dales, but not Nidderdale. Accordingly, Nidderdale was not included in the National Park when it was designated in 1954.
In 1963 the West Riding County Council proposed that Nidderdale should be added to the National Park, but the proposal met with opposition from the district councils which would have lost some of their powers to the county council. Following the Local Government Act 1972 most of the area of the national park was transferred in 1974 to the new county of North Yorkshire. An area in the north west of the national park was transferred from the West Riding of Yorkshire to the new county of Cumbria. In 1997 management of the national park passed from the county councils to the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority. A westward extension of the park into Lancashire and Cumbria encompasses much of the area between the old boundaries of the park and the M6 motorway; this increases the area by nearly 24% and brings the park close to the towns of Kirkby Lonsdale, Kirkby Stephen and Appleby-in-Westmorland. The extension includes the northern portion of the Howgill Fells and most of the Orton Fells. Prior to the expansion, the national park was in the historic county of Yorkshire, the expansion bringing in parts of historic Lancashire and Westmorland.
The area has a wide range of activities for visitors. For example, many people come to the Dales for other exercise. Several long-distance routes cross the park, including the Pennine Way, the Dales Way, the Coast to Coast Walk and the Pennine Bridleway. Cycling is popular and there are several cycleways; the Dales Countryside Museum is housed in the converted Hawes railway station in Wensleydale in the north of the area. The park has five visitor centres; these are at: Aysgarth Falls Grassington Hawes Malham ReethOther places and sights within the National Park include: Bolton Castle Clapham Cautley Spout waterfall Firbank Fell Gaping Gill Gayle Mill Hardraw Force Horton in Ribblesdale Howgill Fells Kisdon Force in Swaledale Leck Fell Malham Cove, Gordale Scar, Janet's Foss and Malham Tarn Orton Fells River Lune Sedbergh Settle Settle and Carlisle Railway including the Ribblehead Viaduct Wild Boar Fell The Yorkshire Three Peaks Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority Media related to Yorkshire Dales National Park at Wikimedia Commons
West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is an inland and in relative terms upland county having eastward-draining valleys while taking in moors of the Pennines and has a population of 2.2 million. West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. West Yorkshire consists of five metropolitan boroughs and is bordered by the counties of Derbyshire to the south, Greater Manchester to the south-west, Lancashire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north and east, South Yorkshire to the south and south-east. Remnants of strong coal and iron ore industries remain in the county, having attracted people over the centuries, this can be seen in the buildings and architecture. Leeds may become a terminus for a north-east limb of High Speed 2. Major railways and two major motorways traverse the county, which contains Leeds Bradford International Airport. West Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 so its five districts became unitary authorities.
However, the metropolitan county, which covers an area of 2,029 square kilometres, continues to exist in law, as a geographic frame of reference. Since 1 April 2014 West Yorkshire has been a combined authority area, with the local authorities pooling together some functions over transport and regeneration as the West Yorkshire Combined Authority. West Yorkshire includes the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the biggest and most built-up urban area within the historic county boundaries of Yorkshire. West Yorkshire was formed as a metropolitan county in 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972, corresponds to the core of the historic West Riding of Yorkshire and the county boroughs of Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield and Wakefield. West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council inherited the use of West Riding County Hall at Wakefield, opened in 1898, from the West Riding County Council in 1974. Since 1987 it has been the headquarters of Wakefield City Council; the county had a two-tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and five districts providing most services.
In 1986, throughout England the metropolitan county councils were abolished. The functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs. Organisations such as the West Yorkshire Metro continue to operate on this basis. Although the county council was abolished, West Yorkshire continues to form a metropolitan and ceremonial county with a Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire and a High Sheriff. Wakefield's Parish Church was raised to cathedral status in 1888 and after the elevation of Wakefield to diocese, Wakefield Council sought city status and this was granted in July 1888; however the industrial revolution, which changed West and South Yorkshire led to the growth of Leeds and Bradford, which became the area's two largest cities. Leeds was granted city status in 1893 and Bradford in 1897; the name of Leeds Town Hall reflects the fact that at its opening in 1858 Leeds was not yet a city, while Bradford renamed its Town Hall as City Hall in 1965. The county borders, going anticlockwise from the west: Lancashire, Greater Manchester, South Yorkshire and North Yorkshire.
It lies entirely on rocks of carboniferous age which form the southern Pennine fringes in the west and the Yorkshire coalfield further eastwards. In the extreme east of the metropolitan county there are younger deposits of magnesian limestone; the Bradford and Calderdale areas are dominated by the scenery of the eastern slopes of the Pennines, dropping from upland in the west down to the east, dissected by many steep-sided valleys. Large-scale industry, housing and commercial buildings of differing heights, transport routes and open countryside conjoin; the dense network of roads and railways and urban development, confined by valleys creates dramatic interplay of views between settlements and the surrounding hillsides, as shaped the first urban-rural juxtapositions of David Hockney. Where most rural the land crops up in the such rhymes and folklore as On Ilkley Moor Bah'Tat, date unknown, the early 19th century novels and poems of the Brontë family in and around Haworth and long-running light comedy-drama Last of the Summer Wine in the 20th century.
The carboniferous rocks of the Yorkshire coalfield further east have produced a rolling landscape with hills and broad valleys. In this landscape there is widespread evidence of former industrial activity. There are numerous derelict or converted mine buildings and landscaped former spoil heaps; the scenery is a mixture of built up areas, industrial land with some dereliction, farmed open country. Ribbon developments along transport routes including canal and rail are prominent features of the area although some remnants of the pre industrial landscape and semi-natural vegetation still survive. However, many areas are affected by urban fringe pressures creating fragmented and downgraded landscapes and present are urban influences from major cities, smaller industrial towns and former mining villages. In the magnesian limestone belt to the east of the Leeds and Wakefield areas is an elevated ridge with smoothly rolling scenery, dissected by dry valleys. Here, there is a large number of country houses and estates with parkland, estate woodlands and game coverts.
The rivers Aire and Calder drain the area, flowing from west to east. The table below outlines many of the co