The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation; the Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, being annexed by the United States. The revolution began in October 1835, after a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the large population of American settlers in Texas; the Mexican government had become centralized and the rights of its citizens had become curtailed regarding immigration from the United States.
Colonists and Tejanos disagreed on whether the ultimate goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation debated the war's motives, Texians and a flood of volunteers from the United States defeated the small garrisons of Mexican soldiers by mid-December 1835; the Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texian Army. In March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexico's honor, Santa Anna vowed to retake Texas, his Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered.
Santa Anna led a larger force to San Antonio de Béxar, where his troops defeated the Texian garrison in the Battle of the Alamo, killing all of the defenders. A newly created Texian army under the command of Sam Houston was on the move, while terrified civilians fled with the army, in a melee known as the Runaway Scrape. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groce's Landing on the Brazos River, for the next two weeks, the Texians received rigorous military training. Becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houston's army staged a surprise assault on Santa Anna and his vanguard force at the Battle of San Jacinto; the Mexican troops were routed, vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage. Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s; the annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, led directly to the Mexican–American War.
After a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the late 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region. On its southern edge, along the Medina and Nueces Rivers, Spanish Texas was bordered by the province of Coahuila. On the east, Texas bordered Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the United States claimed the land west of the Sabine River, all the way to the Rio Grande. From 1812 to 1813 anti-Spanish republicans and U. S. filibusters rebelled against the Spanish Empire in what is known today as the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition during the Mexican War of Independence. They won battles in the beginning and captured many Texas cities from the Spanish that led to a declaration of independence of the state of Texas as part of the Mexican Republic on April 17, 1813; the new Texas government and army met their doom in the Battle of Medina in August 1813, 20 miles south of San Antonio, where 1,300 of the 1,400 rebel army were killed in battle or executed shortly afterwards by royalist soldiers.
It was the deadliest single battle in Texas history. 300 republican government officials in San Antonio were captured and executed by the Spanish royalists shortly after the battle. What is significant is a Spanish royalist lieutenant named Antonio López de Santa Anna fought in this battle and followed his superiors' orders to take no prisoners. Another interesting note is two founding fathers of the Republic of Texas and future signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence in 1836, José Antonio Navarro and José Francisco Ruiz, took part in the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition. Although the United States renounced that claim as part of the Transcontinental Treaty with Spain in 1819, many Americans continued to believe that Texas should belong to their nation, over the next decade the United States made several offers to purchase the region. Following the Mexican War of Independence, Texas became part of Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, which defined the country as a federal republic, the provinces of Texas and Coahuila were combined to become the state Coahuila y Tejas.
Texas was granted only a single seat in the state legislature, which met in Saltillo, hundreds of miles away. After months of grumbling by Tejanos outraged at the loss of their political autonomy, state officials agreed to make Tex
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
San Marcos, Texas
San Marcos is a city in the U. S. state of Texas, within the Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos metropolitan area. It is the seat of Hays County, its limits extend into Guadalupe counties, as well. Its population was 44,894 at the 2010 census and was an estimated 61,980 in 2016. Founded on the banks of the San Marcos River, the area is thought to be among the oldest continuously inhabited sites in the Americas. San Marcos is home to Texas State University and the Meadows Center for the Environment. In 2010, San Marcos was listed in Business Week's fourth annual survey of the "Best Places to Raise your Kids". In 2013 and 2014, the United States Census Bureau named it the fastest-growing city in the United States. In December 2013, it was named #9 on Business Insider's list of the "10 Most Exciting Small Cities In America". San Marcos is in Central Texas, it is 30 miles southwest of Austin and 51 miles northeast of San Antonio. According to the United States Census Bureau, in 2010, it had a total area of 30.3 square miles, of which 30.2 square miles was land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.44%, was covered by water.
Interstate 35 is the main highway through it, with access from Exits 199 through 208. It is situated on the Balcones Fault, the boundary between the Hill Country to the west and the Coastal Plains to the east. Along the fault, many springs emerge, such as San Marcos Springs, which forms Spring Lake and is the source of the San Marcos River; the eastern part is blackland prairie. The western part consists of forested or grassy rolling hills marked with cacti; the San Marcos River and the Blanco River, part of the Guadalupe watershed, flow through the city, along with Cottonwood Creek, Purgatory Creek, Sink Creek, Willow Springs Creek. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters, with some winter frost at night. Annual precipitation is about 34 inches. According to the Köppen climate classification system, San Marcos has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps. For primary and secondary education, San Marcos is served by the San Marcos Consolidated Independent School District.
San Marcos High School is the district's sole high school. San Marcos Baptist Academy, a private high school, is in the city. Doris Miller Middle School and Owen Goodnight Middle School are the two middle schools located in San Marcos. San Marcos is home to six elementary schools; the city houses a Pre-Kindergarten School, named Bonham Pre-K. As per higher education, San Marcos is home to Texas State University, a public research university, established in 1899. Further, the Austin Community College District has an independent campus in the nearby city of Kyle, Texas; the Forensic Anthropology Center at Texas State is one of the four extant body farms in the United States and the largest such forensics research facility in the world. San Marcos is home to Aquarena Center, the Meadows Center for Water and the Environment, the San Marcos National Fish Hatchery and Aquatic Resource Center, the A. E. Wood Texas Fish Hatchery, the San Marcos Nature Center, the Centro Cultural Hispano de San Marcos, the Indigenous Cultures Institute.
Capital Area Rural Transportation System San Marcos Municipal Airport San Marcos Station is served by Amtrak's Texas Eagle San Marcos' central location along IH-35 and strong infrastructure makes it ideal for industry. It includes business incentives, a high quality of life, regional airports and proximity to major international airports, access to major roadways such as IH-35, SH-130, US-183, IH-10, networking opportunities and support for small businesses and entrepreneurs, a healthy tax structure, a diverse and talented workforce. Along with its easy access to air travel, San Marcos has ready access to several freight routes and IH-35 and IH-10, which run north/south and east/west through the region; the access points of the area provide an easy route to major cities in Texas such as Austin, San Antonio and Houston. The region has several institutions of higher education that provide a continual source of talent for the region's workforce; these institutions include the fourth-largest university in Texas State University.
The area's quality of life is highlighted by the San Marcos River, fed by the San Marcos Springs. Many other lakes and rivers dot the local landscape, the region's location within the Texas Hill Country provides easy access to the many outdoor amenities. In June 2006, The View named the San Marcos Outlet Malls as the third-best place to shop in the world. About six million people visit them annually; the San Marcos and Blanco Rivers flow through the city, along with Cottonwood Creek, Purgatory Creek, Sink Creek, Willow Springs Creek. Each of these rivers and creeks has parks or nature preserves with hiking trails along it; the San Marcos River rises from the San Marcos Springs. The springs are home to several threatened or endangered species, including the Texas blind salamander, fountain darter, San Marcos gambusia, Texas wild rice; the river begins at San Marcos Springs. The upper river flows through Texas State University and San Marcos and is a popular recreational area, it is joined by the Blanco River after four miles, passes through Luling and near Gonzales, flows into the Guadalupe River after 75 miles.
Lockhart is a city in Caldwell County, United States. It is the county seat of Caldwell County. According to the 2010 census the population of Lockhart was 12,698. Lockhart and Caldwell County are within the Austin-Round Rock metropolitan area; the city of Lockhart is named after Byrd Lockhart, an assistant surveyor of Green DeWitt and the first Anglo to set foot in Caldwell County. Lockhart was the site of a victory of the Texans over the Comanche, at the Battle of Plum Creek in 1840. Lockhart was called "Plum Creek" but the name was changed to Lockhart; the town's economic growth began with the arrival of the railroad in the late 19th century, at which time the town became a regional shipping center for local cotton. Following the arrival of the railroad, various immigrants arrived in Lockhart and opened various businesses. Lockhart has several claims to fame. In 1999, the Texas Legislature proclaimed Lockhart the "Barbecue Capital of Texas"; the Dr. Eugene Clark Library is the oldest operating public library in Texas.
Lockhart was the subject of an article by the architectural historian and critic Colin Rowe and architect John Hejduk, first published in Architectural Record in 1957, republished in the collection of his writings As I Was Saying. Rowe and Hejduk see Lockhart as a "curiously eloquent" example of a Victorian post-frontier American town. Lockhart has played host to many film sets, as this quaint small town is located just 30 miles south of Austin; the 1996 Christopher Guest comedy film Waiting for Guffman and the 1993 drama What's Eating Gilbert Grape were filmed in Lockhart, including the historic courthouse and the town square. The city's Wal-Mart store was featured in the 2000 film. On July 30, 2016, a hot air balloon struck a power line and caught on fire, killing all 16 people on board when it crashed near the unincorporated community of Maxwell. Lockhart is located at 29°52′55″N 97°40′34″W. Located near central Texas, Lockhart is 30 miles south of downtown Austin on U. S. Highway 183, it is 70 miles northeast of San Antonio and 156 miles west of Houston.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.6 square miles, of which 15.6 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.14%, is water. Climate is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa". As of the census of 2000, there were 11,615 people, 3,627 households, 2,691 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,032.7 people per square mile. There were 3,871 housing units at an average density of 344.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 65.42% White, 12.68% African American, 0.67% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 18.00% from other races, 2.82% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 47.41% of the population. There were 3,627 households out of which 38.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families.
21.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.28. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,762, the median income for a family was $41,111. Males had a median income of $29,329 versus $20,923 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,621. About 12.2% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 18.1% of those age 65 or over. Lockhart is served by a seven-person city council; the mayor and two council members are elected at large. The remaining four council members are elected from single-member districts.
Mayor – Lew White City Council At-Large – Angie Gonzales-Sanchez City Council At-Large – Brad Westmoreland City Council District 1 – Juan Mendoza City Council District 2 – John Castillo City Council District 3 – Benny Hilburn City Council District 4 – Jeffry Michelson Lockhart is served by the Lockhart Independent School District and is home to the Lockhart High School Lions. The city has the Southwest Museum of Clocks and Watches; the following are some of the films that have been shot in whole or in part in Lockhart: Dr. Eugene Clark Library, the oldest continuously operating public library in Texas Caldwell County Courthouse Scott H. Biram, musician Lily Cahill, actress John Cyrier, state representative for District 17. Fuller, educator and community leader. Billy Grabarkewitz, Major League Baseball player Primo Miller, football player Robert Schwarz Strauss and diplomat Template:James M. Jordan, Banker 2016 Lockhart hot air balloon crash City of Lockhart official website Lockhart Chamber of Commerce
Austin–Round Rock is a five-county metropolitan area in the U. S. state of Texas, as defined by the Office of Budget. Referred to as Greater Austin, the metropolitan area is situated in Central Texas on the eastern edge of the American Southwest, borders San Antonio–New Braunfels to the south. Austin–Round Rock is the 35th largest metropolitan area in the United States, with a population over 2 million people and 16th largest GDP per Capita as of the 2014 U. S. census estimate. The metropolitan area is centered on the City of Austin—the fourth-largest city in Texas and the 11th-largest city in the United States with a population of 912,791 people. Austin's largest suburbs are Round Rock, Cedar Park, San Marcos and Pflugerville; as of 2013 the U. S. Office of Management and Budget defines the Austin–Round Rock MSA as including Bastrop, Hays and Williamson Counties; the U. S. Bureau of Economic Analysis includes the counties of Blanco, Lee, Llano and Milam Counties, in addition to the Austin MSA, in its definition of the Austin Economic Area.
The Capital Area Council of Governments, an Austin-area intergovernmental cooperative, adds Blanco, Fayette and Llano Counties to the MSA counties in its definition of the metropolitan area. Other counties in Central Texas included by some sources are Burleson and Gillespie Counties. More distant communities such as Marble Falls, Johnson City and Lampasas are sometimes considered part of Greater Austin though they fall well outside the bounds of the OMB definitions. There are over 4 million people in the San Antonio-Austin corridor; the areas in and around Austin have been the site of human habitation since at least 9,000 B. C. and considerably before that. The earliest known inhabitants of the area, during the late Pleistocene, can be linked to the Clovis people around 9200 B. C. just west of Williamson County. But archeology dig sites show a much greater evidence of Archaic Period inhabitants has been recovered from burned rock middens and rock shelters near Round Rock along Brushy Creek, in Georgetown along the San Gabriel River, in Austin near Barton Springs.
The earliest known historical occupants of the area, the Tonkawas, were a flint-working, hunting people who followed the buffalo on foot and periodically set fire to the prairie to aid them in their hunts. During the 18th century they made the transition to a horse culture and used firearms to a limited extent. After they were crowded out by white settlement, the Comanches continued to raid settlements in the county until the 1860s. There appear to have been small numbers of Kiowa, Yojuane and Mayeye Indians living in the Travis and Williamson counties at the time of the earliest Anglo settlements; the prehistory of Texas has been studied by both professional and avocational archeologists for many decades. Pre-historic campsites are found throughout the county along streams or other water sources; when Europeans first arrived in the area, the Tonkawa tribe was the most prevalent, though the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area as well. Spanish explorers, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries though few permanent settlements were created for some time.
In the mid-18th century the San Xavier missions were established along the San Gabriel River in what is now western Milam County to facilitate exploration. In 1804 the fort Puesta del Colorado was established by the Spanish in. In 1807 the San Marcos de Neve settlement was established on the San Marcos River. Following the independence of Mexico, of which Texas was a part, the empresario Stephen F. Austin issued grants to settlers in what is now Bastrop and Fayette Counties. During the mid-1820s settlements were established along the Colorado River near modern La Grange; the village of Mina was established in 1827. Growth of the settlements was stagnant for some time because of conflicts with the Native Americans in the region; the region sat along an important trade route known as the Camino Real de los Tejas, which ran from Mexico, though San Antonio and San Marcos, to Natchitoches. During the 1830s others, such as Martín Veramendi and Thomas G. McGehee, were issued land grants by the Mexican government to encourage settlement in the region.
A string of forts was established east of modern Austin in what was the western frontier. In 1835 Texans won. Following independence other settlements were established including Waterloo and Brushy Creek. In 1839 a commission appointed by Texas President Mirabeau B. Lamar selected Waterloo as the site for the new capital and the name Austin was chosen as the town's new name. In 1840 a series of conflicts between the Texas Rangers and the Comanches known as the Council House Fight and the Battle of Plum Creek pushed the Comanches westward ending conflicts in Central Texas. Settlement in the area began to expand quickly. Travis County was established in 1840 and the surrounding counties were established within the next two decades. New settlements were established such as Hamilton in 1852. In 1861, with the outbreak of the American Civil War, voters in Austin and other Central Texas communities and counties voted against secession. However, as the war progressed and fears of attack by Union forces increased, the communities contributed hundreds of men to the Confederate forces.
With the end of the war and the emancipation of Texas
Smithville is a city in Bastrop County, United States, near the Colorado River. The population was 3,817 at the 2010 census. Smithville is part of the Greater Austin metropolitan area. Dr. Thomas Jefferson Gazley arrived in 1827 and set the pace of development for Smithville by building the first house and establishing the first store, which served incoming settlers and the friendly Lipan and Tonkawa Indians, he served in the Mexican government and helped write the Texas Declaration of Independence and the first Constitution, became a true Texas hero. William Smith’s family arrived several years after Dr. Gazley, they owned a store and were early influences on the area, including the naming of Smithville where about seventeen families lived on the south bank of the Colorado River. Local businessman, Murray Burleson, persuaded the approaching railroad to erect a Terminus here and the TB&H steamed through in 1887; the Missouri, Kansas & Texas took over the Taylor and Houston Railroad in 1891. In 1894, the MK&T established central shops in Smithville, giving rise to growth which resulted in Smithville becoming the largest town in Bastrop County for nearly fifty years.
This population created markets for homes and other necessities as it grew from a frontier village to a town. The Hill family established the first bank; the need for infrastructure systems attracted the Buescher brothers to come and create the first utilities. Partnerships of prominent, able men involved in land-based activities united the Bueschers, Cooks, Turneys, Rabbs and others to establish cotton gins, general stores, drugstores and brick yards and to develop numerous churches and fraternal organizations such as the Masons and the Oddfellows and to provide medical care for this now flourishing community. In 1895, this thriving town was incorporated into the City of Smithville; the city fathers recognized the importance of education by creating the Smithville School District. Smithville is located in southeastern Bastrop County at 30°00′26″N 97°09′18″W, it is 12 miles southeast of Bastrop and 42 miles southeast of Austin. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,901 people, 1,491 households, 990 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,112.7 people per square mile. There were 1,672 housing units at an average density of 476.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.01% White, 14.53% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 5.10% from other races, 1.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.43% of the population. There were 1,491 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,586, the median income for a family was $45,163. Males had a median income of $33,500 versus $23,409 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,282. About 12.1% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.2% of those under age 18 and 17.9% of those age 65 or over. Smithville is served by the Smithville Independent School District and home to the Smithville High School Tigers; the James H. Long Railroad Museum, located at the intersection of First and Main streets in Smithville, contains exhibits and relics from Smithville's railroad history; the Smithville post office contains an oil on canvas mural, The Law, Texas Rangers, painted in 1939 by Minette Teichmueller. Murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department; the WPA was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing individuals to carry out public works projects.
Bettye Caldwell, educator Thomas Carter and Emmy Award-winning director Hannibal Lokumbe, jazz trumpeter and composer Balor Moore, major league baseball pitcher born in Smithville Sonny Rhodes, blues singer and lap steel guitar player DJ Screw, hip hop artist. Smithville has its own music and film commission and continues to promote itself as a Film Friendly Community, a designation it received from the Texas Film Commission in 2008. Following is a list of productions that had filming locations in Smithville. Hope Floats starring Sandra Bullock and Harry Connick, Jr. was set and filmed in Smithville, was released at theaters across the nation on May 29, 1998. The Tree of Life starring Brad Pitt, Sean Penn and Jessica Chastain was filmed in Smithville, was released in May 2011; the film, directed by Terrence Malick, won the Palme d'Or
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western