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Calendar

A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time days, weeks and years. A date is the designation of a specific day within such a system. A calendar is a physical record of such a system. A calendar can mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a or chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills. Periods in a calendar are though not synchronized with the cycle of the sun or the moon; the most common type of pre-modern calendar was the lunisolar calendar, a lunar calendar that adds one intercalary month to remain synchronized with the solar year over the long term. The term calendar is taken from calendae, the term for the first day of the month in the Roman calendar, related to the verb calare "to call out", referring to the "calling" of the new moon when it was first seen. Latin calendarium meant "account book, register"; the Latin term was adopted in Old French as calendier and from there in Middle English as calender by the 13th century.

The course of the sun and the moon are the most salient natural recurring events useful for timekeeping, thus in pre-modern societies worldwide lunation and the year were most used as time units. The Roman calendar contained remnants of a ancient pre-Etruscan 10-month solar year; the first recorded physical calendars, dependent on the development of writing in the Ancient Near East, are the Bronze Age Egyptian and Sumerian calendars. A large number of Ancient Near East calendar systems based on the Babylonian calendar date from the Iron Age, among them the calendar system of the Persian Empire, which in turn gave rise to the Zoroastrian calendar and the Hebrew calendar. A great number of Hellenic calendars developed in Classical Greece, in the Hellenistic period gave rise to both the ancient Roman calendar and to various Hindu calendars. Calendars in antiquity were lunisolar, depending on the introduction of intercalary months to align the solar and the lunar years; this was based on observation, but there may have been early attempts to model the pattern of intercalation algorithmically, as evidenced in the fragmentary 2nd-century Coligny calendar.

The Roman calendar was reformed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC.. The Julian calendar was no longer dependent on the observation of the new moon but followed an algorithm of introducing a leap day every four years; this created a dissociation of the calendar month from the lunation. The Islamic calendar is based on the prohibition of intercalation by Muhammad, in Islamic tradition dated to a sermon held on 9 Dhu al-Hijjah AH 10; this resulted in an observation-based lunar calendar that shifts relative to the seasons of the solar year. The first calendar reform of the early modern era was the Gregorian calendar, introduced in 1582 based on the observation of a long-term shift between the Julian calendar and the solar year. There have been a number of modern proposals for reform of the calendar, such as the World Calendar, International Fixed Calendar, Holocene calendar, the Hanke-Henry Permanent Calendar; such ideas are mooted from time to time but have failed to gain traction because of the loss of continuity, massive upheaval in implementation, religious objections.

A full calendar system has a different calendar date for every day. Thus the week cycle is by itself not a full calendar system; the simplest calendar system just counts time periods from a reference date. This applies for Unix Time; the only possible variation is using a different reference date, in particular, one less distant in the past to make the numbers smaller. Computations in these systems are just a matter of subtraction. Other calendars have one larger units of time. Calendars that contain one level of cycles: week and weekday – this system is not common year and ordinal date within the year, e.g. the ISO 8601 ordinal date systemCalendars with two levels of cycles: year and day – most systems, including the Gregorian calendar, the Islamic calendar, the Solar Hijri calendar and the Hebrew calendar year and weekday – e.g. the ISO week dateCycles can be synchronized with periodic phenomena: Lunar calendars are synchronized to the motion of the Moon. Solar calendars are based on perceived seasonal changes synchronized to the apparent motion of the Sun.

Lunisolar calendars are based on a combination of both solar and lunar reckonings. The week cycle is an example of one, not synchronized to any external phenomenon. A calendar includes more than one type of cycle or has both cyclic and non-cyclic elements. Most calendars incorporate more complex cycles. For example, the vast majority of them track years, months and days; the seven-day week is universal, though its use varies. It has run uninterrupted for millennia. Solar calendars assign a date to each solar day. A day may consist of the period between sunrise and sunset, with a following period of night, or it may be a peri

East Douglas, Massachusetts

East Douglas is a census-designated place in the town of Douglas in Worcester County, United States. The population was 2,557 at the 2010 census. East Douglas is located at 42°4′31″N 71°42′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 9.1 km². 8.9 km² of it is land and 0.2 km² of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,319 people, 916 households, 628 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 261.8/km². There were 936 housing units at an average density of 105.7/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.59% White, 0.43% African American, 0.43% Asian, 0.39% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.86% of the population. There were 916 households out of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.0% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.4% were non-families. 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.10. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 37.0% from 25 to 44, 17.5% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $55,208, the median income for a family was $58,517. Males had a median income of $41,116 versus $31,420 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $22,274. About 6.8% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.6% of those under age 18 and 26.0% of those age 65 or over

Fire and brimstone

Fire and brimstone is an idiomatic expression referring to God's wrath in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament. In the Bible, it appears in reference to the fate of the unfaithful. Brimstone, an archaic term synonymous with sulfur, evokes the acrid odor of sulphur dioxide given off by lightning strikes. Lightning was understood as divine punishment by many ancient religions; the English phrase "fire and brimstone" originates in the King James Bible. Used as an adjective, fire-and-brimstone refers to a style of Christian preaching that uses vivid descriptions of judgment and eternal damnation to encourage repentance; the King James translation of the Bible renders passages about fiery torments with the phrase "fire and brimstone." In Genesis 19, God destroys Sodom and Gomorrah with a rain of fire and brimstone, in Deuteronomy 29, the Israelites are warned that the same punishment would fall upon them should they abandon their covenant with God. Elsewhere, divine judgments involving fire and sulfur are prophesied against Assyria, Edom and all the wicked.

The breath of God, in Isaiah 30:33, is compared to brimstone: "The breath of Jehovah, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it." Fire and brimstone appear as agents of divine wrath throughout the Book of Revelation culminating in chapters 19–21, wherein Satan and the ungodly are cast into a lake of fire burning with brimstone as an eternal punishment. The King James Version translation of the Bible contains references to brimstone in the books of Genesis, Job, Isaiah and Revelation; the story of prophet Lot finds mention in several Qur'anic passages Chapter 26:160-175 which reads: "The people of Lut rejected the apostles. Behold, their brother Lut said to them: "Will ye not fear? "I am to you an apostle worthy of all trust. "So fear God and obey me. "No reward do I ask of you for it: my reward is only from the lord of the Worlds. "Of all the creatures in the world, will ye approach males, "And leave those whom God has created for you to be your mates? Nay, ye are a people transgressing!" They said: "If thou desist not, O Lut!

Thou wilt assuredly be cast out!" He said: "I do detest your doings." "O my Lord! Deliver me and my family from such things as they do!" So We delivered him and his family,- all Except an old woman who lingered behind. But the rest We destroyed utterly. We rained down on them a shower: and evil was the shower on those who were admonished! Verily in this is a Sign: but most of them do not believe, and verily thy Lord is He, the Exalted in Might Most Merciful." According to Jewish historian, Josephus, "Now this country is so sadly burnt up, that nobody cares to come at it. It was of old a most happy land, both for the fruits it bore and the riches of its cities, although it be now all burnt up, it is related. Brimstone was not only associated with the wrath of God or judgment but it was used as a purifying agent; the Greek Orthodox would burn brimstone to ward off disease. This is why God's breath is compared to brimstone and why brimstone is used in carrying out divine judgment; that is, the brimstone is used to purify the land from evil.

Puritan preacher Thomas Vincent authored a book called "Fire and Brimstone in Hell", first published in 1670. In it he quotes from Psalm 11:6 "Upon the wicked he shall rain snares and brimstone, a horrible tempest, this shall be the portion of their cup." Preachers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were referred to as "fire-and-brimstone preachers" during the Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s. Edwards' "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" remains among the best-known sermons from this period. Reports of one occasion when Edwards preached it said that many of the audience burst out weeping, others cried out in anguish or fainted. Two archeologists believed that they found brimstone in the ancient cities of the Holy Land reported to have suffered from the disaster. William Albright and Melvin Kyle set out to find the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in 1924, found brimstone at Southern end of the Dead Sea. Afterlife Fear of God First Great Awakening § Conviction of sin Hell Sermon § Protestantism Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God The Straight Dope on Fire and Brimstone

Agneta Stark

Agneta Stark, is the vice chancellor of Dalarna University in Sweden and was the president of the International Association for Feminist Economics from 2012 to 2013. She is the vice chair of the Association of Swedish Higher Education; the main areas of research that she covers are economic theory, accounting theory, gender and economic change. Stark gained her economics degree from the Stockholm School of Economics, her LL. M. and her doctorate in business administration were from Stockholm University. In 2004 Karlstad University awarded Agneta Stark an honorary doctorate. Stark-Frösslund, Agneta; the State of Social Accounting. Sweden: Swedish Council for Social Science Research. OCLC 187132835. In Swedish as: Stark, Agneta. Social redovisning. Sweden: Studieförbundet Näringsliv och Samhäll. Stark, Agneta. Halva makten - hela lönen. Sweden: Bonnier. ISBN 9789100559700. Stark, Agneta. Rent ekonomiskt?: om kvinnor och män, siffror och pengar. Stockholm: Bonnier. ISBN 9100561053. Stark, Agneta. Ljusnande framtid eller ett långt farväl?: den svenska välfärdsstaten i jämförande belysning: rapport till Utredningen om fördelningen av ekonomisk makt och ekonomiska resurser mellan kvinnor och män.

Stockholm: Fritzes Arbetsmarknadsdepartementet. ISBN 9138206765. Stark, Agneta. Frivilligarbetets kön: kvinnor, män och frivilligt arbete: en översikt. Stockholm Uppsala: Svenska kommunförb. Importancia distributör. ISBN 9789170999284. Stark, Agneta. Warm hands in cold age: gender and aging. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415396769. Stark, Agneta. Global perspectives on gender equality reversing the gaze. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780203938386. Feminist economics List of feminist economists

Semaphore Park, South Australia

Semaphore Park is a suburb in the Australian state of South Australia located in the west of Adelaide on the coastline of Gulf St Vincent. The northern end of the suburb is considered to be located within the Lefevre Peninsula. Semaphore Park started as a private sub-division in Section 64 in the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Yatala under the names of New Liverpool and Mellor Park. Boundaries were created for the suburb on 30 September 1976. Portions were added to the suburb of West Lakes Shore in October 2002 and October 2004 while in July 2007, land was removed from Semaphore Park and the suburbs of Birkenhead and Glanville to “create the new suburb of New Port”. Glanville Blocks Post Office opened on 1 September 1896, was renamed Semaphore Park in 1947 and was replaced by the West Lakes Shore office in 1997; the Fort Glanville Conservation Park is located within the boundaries of Semaphore Park. Semaphore Park is located within the federal division of Hindmarsh, the state electoral district of Lee and the local government area of the City of Charles Sturt

Monégasque franc

The franc was the official currency of the Principality of Monaco until 1995, when it changed to the French franc. The franc was subdivided into 10 décimes; the Monégasque franc circulated alongside the French franc with the same value. Like the French franc, the Monégasque franc was revalued in 1960 at a rate of 100 old francs = 1 new franc; the official euro-to-franc exchange rate was MCF 6.55957 to EUR 1. Today, Monégasque coins have only numismatic value, including the fleurs de coins, or proof-like coins; the period for exchange of the coins for euros has expired. The Monégasque franc was legal tender in Monaco and Andorra. Monaco's first decimal coins were issued in 1837 and 1838, in denominations of 5 centimes, 1 decime and 5 francs; the 5 centimes and 1 decime were minted in both copper and brass and were the same size as the earlier French coins whilst the 5 francs matched the French coin. No further issues were made until 1882, from when gold 100 francs coins were issued until 1904. Between 1924 and 1926, aluminium-bronze 50 centimes, 1 and 2 francs were issued of the same size as the French coins.

In 1943, aluminium 1 and 2 francs were introduced followed by aluminium-bronze versions in 1945, alongside aluminium 5 francs. In 1946, cupronickel 10 francs were introduced, followed by 20 francs in 1947, a coin to which there was no corresponding French coin. In 1950, aluminium-bronze 10, 20 and 50 francs and cupro-nickel 100 francs were issued, with the size of the 100 francs reduced to match the French coin in 1956; when the franc was revalued in 1960, Monaco issued silver 5 francs. In 1962, aluminium-bronze 10, 20 and 50 centimes coins were added, followed by nickel ​1⁄2 franc coins in 1965, nickel-clad cupronickel 5 francs in 1971, nickel-brass 10 francs in 1974, stainless steel 1 centime and aluminium-bronze 5 centimes in 1976, bi-metallic 10 francs in 1989, tri-metallic 20 francs 1992, respectively. All of these coins matched the compositions of corresponding French coins; the only Monégasque banknotes are dated 20 MARS 1920. There was an initial emergency issuance of 25- and 50-centime and 1-franc notes on 28 April 1920, followed by a second issued of 25-centime and 1-franc notes with different color schemes.

The violet 25-centime notes are available with and without embossing, used to validate the notes, but the process was soon discontinued as a cost-cutting measure. The embossed notes have a crowned shield with diamond pattern at center, encircled by the text Principauté de Monaco, are available with circles of two different diameters. Monegasque euro coins Bold textCURTISYELLOWFLY