Hoover is a city in Jefferson and Shelby counties in north central Alabama, United States. The largest suburb near Birmingham, the city had a population of 84,848 as of the 2015 US Census estimate. Hoover is part of the Birmingham-Hoover, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Birmingham-Hoover-Talladega, AL Combined Statistical Area. Hoover's territory is along the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Hoover is home to the Riverchase Galleria, one of the largest shopping centers in the Southeast and one of the largest mixed-use centers in the U. S, it includes retail and office space. The Birmingham Barons Minor League Baseball team, which traces its history to 1885, played its home games at the 10,800-seat Hoover Metropolitan Stadium until 2013, when it moved to Birmingham; this suburban area near the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains had been known as the Green Valley community since the 1930s. The City of Hoover was incorporated in 1967, named for William H. Hoover, a local insurance company owner and co-founder of the American States' Rights Association, which promoted white supremacy and neo-Nazism in its publications..
The city's small City Hall included space for the police department. On September 8, 1980, the city annexed the Riverchase business and residential community, gaining large office buildings and workers to increase the city's tax base; when Interstate I-459 was opened, a major interchange with Interstate I-65 was constructed within the borders of Hoover, improving access. In 1986 the Riverchase Galleria multi-use complex opened, it has attracted new residents and businesses to the area. The city has grown fast, aided by its annexations of territory as well as new developments; the city has expanded its facilities, now operates a Municipal Center and Public Safety Center. The city expects to continue to increase in population, which has risen since 2008, it numbered 81,619 as of the 2010 Census. Hoover is located at 33°23′11″N 86°48′18″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 43.65 square miles, of which 43.13 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water. The municipal government has operated under the Mayor-Council form of government since incorporation.
The Mayor and City Council are elected on a non-partisan basis to concurrent four-year terms of office, which begin on October 1 of election year. Policy-making and legislative authority is vested in the City Council, which consists of seven "at-large" elected members The city council is responsible for considering local resolutions and ordinances, adopting an annual budget, appointing members to local boards and committees; the Mayor is responsible for enforcing the city's policies and ordinances. The Riverchase Galleria shopping-hotel-office complex generates tax revenues for the city; the Riverchase Office Park, other office parks and buildings throughout Hoover, house many large corporations. Major shopping centers in the city include Riverchase Galleria on US 31, Patton Creek on SR 150, Village at Lee Branch on US 280; the Central Business District is intersected by US 31, SR 150, US 280. I-65 and I-459 intersect in the city. Hoover 2015 annual financial report, ranking by largest sales and use taxpayers: Costco Wal-Mart Sam's Club Belk Target Regions Bank Publix Home Depot Best Buy Macy's Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Alabama - 3,000 Hoover Board of Education - 1,773 Regions Financial - 1,765 AT&T Inc. - 1,143 City of Hoover - 745 Walmart - 650 T-Mobile 500 BE&K - 302 Hoover Fire Department is a full-time career department operating from ten fire stations throughout the city.
The city has one battalion. There are eight engine companies, two quints, one ladder trucks, three ALS rescue/ambulances, two battalion chief cars. All engine companies are staffed with a minimum of three, with at least two being firefighter/paramedics. All engines are classified ALS; the department operates one heavy rescue truck, one hazmat unit. Hoover Fire Department holds a Class 1 ISO rating. In 2016, the department responded to over 10,000 calls. Hoover's first chief of police was Oscar Davis. In 2006, the police force of the city of Hoover purchased 104 Chevrolet police Tahoes to support sustainability; the Hoover Police Department now has the largest law enforcement fleet in the nation to run on E85, a fuel, 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. President George W. Bush visited the city in September 2006 to see the fleet and fueling facility. Hoover operates its own enhanced 911 emergency call center, which has 24 operator positions, 2 communication supervisors, 1 department manager and is staffed 24/7.
Hoover provides traffic, severe weather, disaster information, details on special events on low-power AM radio. As of the census of 2000, there were 62,742 people, 25,191 households, 17,406 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,454.6 people per square mile. There were 27,150 housing units at an average density of 629.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.66% White, 6.77% Black, 0.16% Native American, 2.89% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.40% from ot
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Shelby County Airport (Alabama)
Shelby County Airport is a public use airport located four nautical miles southeast of the central business district of Alabaster, a city in Shelby County, United States. It is owned by the Shelby County Commission; the airport is situated in the city of Alabama. This airport is included in the FAA's National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 and 2009–2013, both of which categorized it as a general aviation facility; this was a change from the 2007 -- 2011 NPIAS Report. Although most U. S. airports use the same three-letter location identifier for the FAA and IATA, this airport is assigned EET by the FAA but has no designation from the IATA. Shelby County Airport covers an area of 125 acres at an elevation of 586 feet above mean sea level, it has one asphalt paved runway designated 16/34. The runway runs parallel to adjacent Interstate 65; the airport has its own interchange on that highway. For the 12-month period ending January 15, 2010, the airport had 20,848 aircraft operations, an average of 57 per day: 99% general aviation and 1% military.
At that time there were 83 aircraft based at this airport: 92% single-engine, 7% multi-engine and 1% jet. List of airports in Alabama 7. ^ Shelby County Airport website February 22, 2014 Shelby County Aviation Association - Organization of pilots and aircraft owners that support the Shelby County Airport Aerial image as of 6 March 1997 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for EET, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for EET AirNav airport information for KEET FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Chilton County, Alabama
Chilton County is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,643; the county seat is Clanton. Its name is in honor of William Parish Chilton, Sr. a lawyer who became Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court and represented Montgomery County in the Congress of the Confederate States of America. Chilton County is included in AL Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2010, the center of population of Alabama was located in Chilton County, near the city of Jemison, an area known as Jemison Division; the county is known for its unique landscape. It is home to swamps and mountains due to the foothills of the Appalachians which end in the county, the Coosa River basin, its proximity to the Black Belt Prairie, long a center of cotton production. Baker County was established on December 30, 1868, named for Alfred Baker, with its county seat at Grantville. Residents of the county petitioned the Alabama legislature for the renaming of their county.
On December 17, 1874, the petitioners accepted the suggestion of Chilton County though the Chief Justice had not lived within its boundaries. In 1870 the county seat was moved after the court house burned to. In 1942, the U. S. Navy commissioned the USS Chilton, in honor of Chilton County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 701 square miles, of which 693 square miles is land and 7.9 square miles is water. Interstate 65 U. S. Highway 31 U. S. Highway 82 State Route 22 State Route 139 State Route 145 State Route 155 State Route 191 Shelby County Coosa County Elmore County Autauga County Perry County Dallas County Bibb County Talladega National Forest According to the 2010 United States Census, the population identifies by the following ethnicities: 84.1% White 9.7% Black 0.4% Native American 0.3% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.2% Two or more races 7.8% Hispanic or Latino Chilton County is the 23rd-richest county per capita income in Alabama. At the 2000 census, there were 39,593 people, 15,287 households and 11,342 families residing in the county.
The population density was 57 per square mile. There were 17,651 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.71% White, 10.61% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.51% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Nearly 2.91% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,287 households of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.10% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.80% were non-families. Nearly 22.90% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57, the average family size was 3.00. 25.70% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.90 males. The median household income was $32,588 and the median family income was $39,505. Males had a median income of $31,006 versus $21,275 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,303. About 12.60% of families and 15.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.40% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over. The County Commission is made up of seven members elected by cumulative vote. "Chilton County adopted cumulative voting in 1988 as part of the settlement of a vote dilution lawsuit brought against its previous election system. According to the 1990 Census, African Americans constituted 9.9% of the county's voting age population." Although passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 enabled African Americans to register and vote, in Chilton County no African American was elected to the County Commission until the first cumulative voting election, held in 1988. African Americans in Alabama had been disenfranchised by the 1901 state constitution, which required payment of a poll tax and qualification by a literacy test in order to register to vote.
Discriminatory in practice as administered by white officials, this system excluded most blacks from the state's political system for decades in the 20th century before Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Since African Americans were able to register and vote in the county and state for the first time since the late 19th century. In counties in which there is a minority population and members are elected at-large or by single-member districts, minorities may be unable to elect representatives in a system dominated by the majority; the adoption of cumulative voting in Chilton County has enabled the minority to elect candidates of their choice by pooling their votes. Bobby Agee was elected as a Chilton County Commissioner in 1988 and again in the second cumulative voting election in 1992. Cumulative voting depends by district. "The cumulative options provide a minority of voters an opportunity to concentrate their support for a candidate or candidates more than they can under the more traditional voting rules used in this country."
In 2014, the county commission had an African-American commissioner among its seven members. However, in 2018, the county commissioners were all white males; the commission h