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Calf of Man

Calf of Man is a 2.50-square-kilometre island, off the southwest coast of the Isle of Man. It is separated from the Isle of Man by a narrow stretch of water called the Calf Sound. Like the nearby rocky islets of Chicken Rock and Kitterland, it is part of the parish of Rushen, it has only two seasonal inhabitants. The word'calf' derives from the Old Norse word kalfr which means a small island lying near a larger one, it is possible to reach the Calf of Man by boat from both Port Port St Mary. Cow Harbour and South Harbour are the main landing places; the highest part of the island is in the west. Until 1939 the island was under private ownership by the Keig family, but the island was purchased by Mr F J Dickens of Silverdale, Lancashire who donated it to the National Trust to become a bird sanctuary. In 1951 the Manx Museum & National Trust was established, which became known as Manx National Heritage. Manx National Heritage rented the Calf from the National Trust for a nominal £1 per year until 1986, when ownership was transferred.

In 2006 Manx National Heritage employed the charity Manx Wildlife Trust as the Calf Warden Service Provider, but it retains ownership. The island has been a bird observatory since 1959 and welcomes visits from volunteers and ornithologists; the observatory is able to accommodate up to eight visitors in basic self-catering accommodation which can be booked through Manx National Heritage. The Calf of Man and its offshore rocks have no fewer than four lighthouses: two lighthouses were built in 1818 by Robert Stevenson to warn mariners of the hazards of the Chicken Rocks off the south end of the Calf; these were replaced in 1875 by a lighthouse built on the Chicken Rocks themselves. In 1968, a third lighthouse was built on the Calf after a severe fire destroyed the Chicken Rocks light; the Chicken Rocks lighthouse was rebuilt. There are two minor, unfenced roads on the island and two short streams. Between the Isle of Man and the Calf is the islet of Kitterland, while the islets of Yn Burroo and The Stack lie close to the Calf's shore.

The southern shore of the island encloses. A mile southwest of the Calf is Chicken Rock, the most southerly part of the Isle of Man's territory. Calf of Man is home to a breeding population of Manx shearwaters, a seabird which derives its name from its presence in Manx waters; the Calf of Man has a large colony of seals which live and breed on the rocky coastline. Information about the Calf of Man Calf of Man Bird Observatory

Skeleton Army

The Skeleton Army was a diffuse group in Southern England, that opposed and disrupted The Salvation Army's marches against alcohol in the late 19th century. Clashes between the two groups led to the deaths of several Salvationists and injuries to many others; the earliest reference to an organised opposition to The Salvation Army was in August 1880 in Whitechapel, when'The Unconverted Salvation Army' was founded with its flag and motto of "Be just and fear not." In 1881 Skeleton Armies were raised in Whitechapel and Weston-super-Mare, the name was taken up elsewhere as other groups were formed in the south of England. Membership was predominantly lower to middle working-class; the "Skeletons" recognised each other by various insignia used to distinguish themselves. Skeletons used banners with crossbones. Banners had pictures of monkeys and the devil. Skeletons further published so-called "gazettes" considered libellous as well as obscene and blasphemous. Several techniques were employed by the "Skeletons" to disrupt Salvation Army marches.

Although George Scott Railton, second in command of the Salvation Army, claimed the Skeleton Army first started in Weston-super-Mare in 1881, contemporary press reports show that it first appeared in Exeter in October 1881. In Weston-super-Mare, in March 1882 Captain William Beatty, Thomas Bowden and William Mullins were given a three-month prison sentence by the magistrates for a breach of the peace when they broke a local ban on processions; this led to the case of Beatty v Gillbanks, which held that the Salvation Army was acting lawfully when marching, despite knowing that their assembly could well lead to riots. As their intentions were peaceful and unrelated to the cause of inciting riot, the court found their actions to be within the limits of the law; that it was known that their marching may cause riots was not found to be a breach of the law, as it was the actions of antagonistic parties including the Skeleton Army which led directly to the riotous behaviour. The convictions against Beatty and the two other Salvationists were quashed by the Queen's Court and costs were awarded against the sentencing magistrates.

The action was reported by The Times. Of an attack in Bethnal Green in November 1882 the Bethnal Green Eastern Post stated: A genuine rabble of'roughs' pure and unadulterated has been infesting the district for several weeks past; these vagabonds style themselves the'Skeleton Army'.... The'skeletons' have their collectors and their collecting sheets and one of them was thrust into my hands... it contained a number shopkeepers' names... I found that publicans, beer sellers and butchers are subscribing to this imposture... the collector told me that the object of the Skeleton Army was to put down the Salvationists by following them about everywhere, by beating a drum and burlesquing their songs, to render the conduct of their processions and services impossible... Amongst the Skeleton rabble there is a large percentage of the most consummate loafers and unmitigated blackguards London can produce...worthy of the disreputable class of publicans who hate the London School Board and temperance and who, seeing the beginning of the end of their immoral traffic, prepared for the most desperate enterprise.

Both sources agree. At Bethnal Green, such items as flour, rotten eggs and brickbats were among those used, many Salvationists were manhandled and beaten; when news of trouble in London spread, Skeleton riots took place in other parts of Britain. For example, when in April 1884 the owner of an alcohol shop in Worthing objected to Salvation Army criticism concerning the selling of alcoholic beverages, 4,000 "Skeletons" joined together in that town in direct opposition to the Salvationists. Black, sticky tar was painted onto the wall of the alley which the entrance to the Salvation Army barracks shared with the alcohol shop; this damaged Salvation Army uniforms as they marched through it. Eggs filled with blue paint were thrown at the "Sally Army". Many in Worthing approved of these confrontational activities, but the Salvation Army continued unabated. Captain Ada Smith led those. General Booth requested police protection for the Salvation Army in that town and ordered Captain Smith and her soldiers to remain in their barracks until they got it.

However, the Home Secretary, Sir William Harcourt, said it was outside his jurisdiction to offer such protection. General Booth ordered Captain Smith and her group to march on Sundays unprotected by the authorities. On Sunday, 17 August 1884, the police, the Salvation Army and the Skeletons confronted each other in Worthing. For an hour the police kept the peace the Skeletons rioted; the area was filled with screaming brick dust and broken glass. The Salvationists returned to their "barracks" and the Skeletons tried to burn it down; the landlord of the barracks, George Head, a Salvation Army supporter, defended his property and the people there with a revolver, wounding several Skeletons. Head was brought before the magistrates on a charge of feloniously and maliciously wounding a young man named Ol

Guardians of the Laws

Guardians of the Laws or Guard of Laws was a short-lived supreme executive governing body of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth established by the Constitution of May 3, 1791. It was abolished, together with other reforms of the Constitution, after the Polish defeat in the summer of Polish–Russian War of 1792. Executive power in the reformed Commonwealth government, according to Article V and Article VIIrested in the hands of "the king in his council", the council being a cabinet of ministers known as the Guardians of the Laws; the ministries could not create or interpret the laws, all acts of the foreign ministry were provisional, subject to parliament's approval. This council was presided over by the king and comprised the Roman Catholic Primate of Poland and five ministers appointed by the king: a minister of police, minister of the seal, minister of the seal of foreign affairs, minister belli, minister of treasury. In addition to the ministers, council members included – without a vote – the Crown Prince, the Marshal of the Sejm, two secretaries.

This royal council was a descendant of similar councils that had functioned over the previous two centuries since King Henry's Articles and the recent Permanent Council. Acts of the king required the countersignature of the respective minister; the ministers, were responsible to Sejm, which could dismiss them by a two-third vote of no confidence by the members of both houses. The stipulation that the king, "doing nothing of himself... shall be answerable for nothing to the nation", parallels the British constitutional principle that "The King can do no wrong." Ministers could be held accountable by the Sejm court, Sejm could demand an impeachement trial of a minister with a simple majority vote. The decisions of the royal council were carried out by commissions, including the created Commission of National Education, the new Commissions for Police, the Military and the Treasury, whose members were elected by Sejm


Kakkarakottai is a village in the Orathanadu taluk of Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India. Kakkaraikkottai is a village of Orathanadu taluk; this panchayath contains three villages: Kakkaraikkottai west, Kakkaraikkottai east and Vadakkunaththam, respectively. The village is bordered by Thekkur in the west, Pinnayur in the east, Vadakkikottai in north and Karukkadipatti in the south There is one small river running through the village. All the lands are occupied by paddy cultivation; this is one of the major work for farmers. A big lake is there in eastern margin of west Kakkaraikkottai. There are two temples in west Kakkaraikkotttai namely Pillaiyar Avudaiyar temple. If someone wants to go to the village, first he has to go to Orathanadu from Thanjavur by bus and from there are buses for Kakkaraikkottai. From Thanjavur direct bus is going to same village "Primary Census Abstract - Census 2001". Directorate of Census Operations-Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 29 August 2009


A Schonwald is the term used in the German state of Baden-Württemberg for a protected woodland area, in which economic usage of the forest is permitted, but under certain restrictions. The term is at best a colloquial term there. Schonwald is defined in § 32 of the Baden-Württemberg Forests Act as follows: schonwald is a woodland reserve, in which a specified woodland community with its animal and plant species, a specified composition of trees or a specified forest biotope is to be conserved, developed or regenerated; the forestry authorities will lay down management measures with the consent of the forest owner. A higher level of protection is afforded by the Bannwald, a term, recognised outside the state. Within Baden-Württemberg a Bannwald is defined at § 32 of the Forests Act as "a woodland reserve, left to itself". List of types of formally designated forests Schönwald Woodland reserves at the Baden-Württemberg State Forestry Commission site

HMS Fawn (1856)

HMS Fawn was a Royal Navy 17-gun Cruizer-class sloop launched in 1856. She served on the Australia, North America and Pacific stations before being converted to a survey ship in 1876, she was sold and broken up in 1884. Fawn was launched on 30 September 1856 from Deptford Dockyard, she was commissioned until 1863 served on the Australia Station. She refitted at Sheerness in 1863, from 1864 to 1868 served on the North America and West Indies Station. After a second refit at Sheerness in 1869 she went to the Pacific Station in Esquimalt, British Columbia, where she remained until 1875. In 1876 she was converted to a survey ship, in this role she surveyed areas of the east coast of Africa, the Sea of Marmara and the Mediterranean, she was under the command of Commander William Wharton from 1 June 1876 to 1 January 1880 and under the command of Commander Pelham Aldrich until paying off. On 6 April 1883 she paid off, she was sold for breaking the next year. Winfield, R.. The Sail and Steam Navy List: All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815–1889.

London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-032-6