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Calhoun County, Illinois

Calhoun County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,089, its county seat and biggest community is Hardin, with a population of less than 1,000. Its smallest community is Hamburg, with a population of 123. Calhoun County is at the tip of the peninsula formed by the courses of the Mississippi and Illinois rivers above their confluence and is completely surrounded by water. Calhoun County is sparsely populated. Calhoun County is part of the Metro-East portion of the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Calhoun County was settled by Americans during the early 19th century, organized in 1825, it was named for Vice President John C. Calhoun, in addition to the Calhoun family, prominent in the area at the time; the southern side of the county, covered in thick forest, was untouched until the population began to expand in the late 1840s with the arrival of German immigrants. Land was cleared for farming, exporting lumber, constructing spacious log barns 200 square feet in size, which were a "trademark of successful German farmers."

The territory was settled by indigenous people who occupied the resource-rich river valleys near waterways. The remains of their occupation have provided some of the most valuable archaeological information in the country; the county's archaeological record chronicles more than 10,000 years of continuous human occupation by Native Americans. In 1680, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle recorded in his diary historic Native American raids by the Iroquois against the Illinois tribes along the Illinois River. La Salle recounts the aftermath of a massacre of the Illinois by the Iroquois in South Calhoun County writing, "As the French drew near to the mouth of the Illinois, they saw a meadow to the right, and, on the farthest verge, several human figures erect, yet motionless, they cautiously examined the place. The long grass was trampled down and all around were strewn the relics of the hideous orgies which formed the ordinary sequel of an Iroquois victory; the figures they had seen were the half consumed bodies of women still bound to the stakes where they had been tortured.

Other sights there were, too revolting for record. All the remains were of children; the French descended the river and soon came to the mouth." The massacre is noted as taking place in the last week of November, 1680, about a mile above the site of the Deer Plain Ferry, no longer in operation, at a place now known as Marshall's Landing. Many skulls, parts of skeletons, weapons have still been found near this spot by farmers during plowing; the first European settler to make his home in what is now Calhoun County was a man only known today by his last name, O'Neal. He came in the year 1801 and settled in the south part of the county at Point Precinct at what has been called "Two Branches". Although his name might have one assume differently, O'Neal was a French trapper and had made his way there from Acadia. O'Neal lived in Point Precinct a number of years before any other European settlers came to that region, when they did come he refused to mingle with them, he lived in a small cave which he had dug, and, located about a quarter of a mile from the Mississippi River.

He continued to live in this cave until his death in 1842, after that he was referred to as "The Hermit" due to the fact that he would not visit the other settlers or allow them to come to his place. In 1850, Soloman Lammy, who owned the farm upon which the cave was located; the next settlers to come to the area were French trappers and people of mixed ancestry, who started a community about a mile above what was called the Deep Plain Ferry, on the Illinois River, in the southern part of the county. They remained until about 1815 when they were driven out by the high water. Another French settlement was located at Cap au Gris; this place was located at the site of. The French settlers who lived here came sometime after 1800 and by the year 1811 there were 20 families, who had a small village on the bank of the river, cultivated a common field of about 500 acres; the field was located on the level land about a mile from the site of their town. One writer said that these families were driven away by the Native Americans in 1814, but there is some doubt as to the accuracy of the statement as John Shaw who took part in battles with the natives in the region and was a community leader at the time does not mention in his writings any harm coming to the settlers at Cap au Gris.

As early pioneers continued to settle in Calhoun County there is evidence of troubled relations between the European settlers and the Native Americans. There are two known cases on kidnapping of settler's children. One being the three year old son of Jacob Pruden. Mr. Pruden settled in the county in 1829 near what was called the old Seuier place, about five miles below the present site of Hardin; the boy was recaptured from the Native Americans five days after he had been taken, had not been harmed. The second case was the kidnapping of Joe DeGerlia, the son of Antoine DeGerlia, Sr. the first settler in the French Hollow area. Mr. DeGerlia had not yet finished building his home, when his small son, was taken, however the family oral history may suggest Joe was bartered or sold. Nearly thirty years a man, acquainted with the history of the DeGerlia family was traveling among the tribes of the Indian Territory, there he heard the story of a boy, kidnapped

Oxygen scavenger

Oxygen scavengers or oxygen absorbers are added to enclosed packaging to help remove or decrease the level of oxygen in the package. They are used to help extend shelf life. There are many types of oxygen absorbers available to cover a wide array of applications; the components of an oxygen absorber vary according to intended use, the water activity of the product being preserved, other factors. The oxygen absorber or scavenger is enclosed in a porous sachet or packet but it can be part of packaging films and structures. Others are part of a polymer structure; the first patent for an oxygen scavenger used an alkaline solution of pyrogallic acid in an air-tight vessel. Modern scavenger sachets use a mixture of sodium chloride. Activated carbon is included as it adsorbs some other gases and many organic molecules, further preserving products and removing odors; when an oxygen absorber is removed from its protective packaging, the moisture in the surrounding atmosphere begins to permeate into the iron particles inside of the absorber sachet.

Moisture activates the iron, it oxidizes to form iron oxide. There must be at least 65% relative humidity in the surrounding atmosphere before the rusting process can begin. To assist in the process of oxidation, sodium chloride is added to the mixture, acting as a catalyst or activator, causing the iron powder to be able to oxidize with low humidity; as oxygen is consumed to form iron oxide the level of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere is reduced. Absorber technology of this type may reduce the oxygen level in the surrounding atmosphere to below 0.01%. Complete oxidation of 1 g of iron can remove 300 cm3 of oxygen in standard conditions. Though other technologies can remove more, iron is the most useful as it does not cause odor like sulfur compounds or passivate like aluminium compounds. Many other alternatives are not food safe; the moisture requirement of iron-based scavengers makes them ineffective in moisture sensitive applications. The performance of oxygen scavengers is affected by relative humidity.

Newer packaging technologies may use oxygen scavenging polymers to prevent accidental ingestion of oxygen scavengers. While most standard oxygen scavengers contain ferrous carbonate and a metal halide catalyst, there are several non-ferrous variants, such as ascorbate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and others available. Typical reasons to use a non-ferrous variant would include the packaging of products intended for international shipping where metal detection would pose a problem. Ascorbic acid is used to scavenge oxygen for generation of anaerobic environments for microbiology. Helps retain fresh-roasted flavor of coffee and nuts Prevents oxidation of spice oleoresins present in spices themselves and in seasoned foods Prevents oxidation of vitamins A, C and E Extends life of pharmaceuticals Inhibits mold in natural cheeses and other fermented dairy products Delays non-enzymatic browning of fruits and some vegetables Inhibits oxidation and condensation of red pigment of most berries and sauces Oxygen deprivation contributes to a pest-free environment in museumsOxygen scavenging technology can reduce oxygen levels in sealed containers to below 0.01%.

Plastic sachets offer greater protection than paper as they are not prone to disintegrating in products with high fat contents. Active packaging Desiccant Oxygen transmission rate Scavenger Silica gel

Competitive Enterprise Institute

The Competitive Enterprise Institute is a non-profit libertarian think tank founded by political writer Fred L. Smith Jr. on March 9, 1984, in Washington, D. C. to advance principles of limited government, free enterprise, individual liberty. CEI focuses on a number of regulatory policy issues, including energy, environment and finance, labor and telecommunications, food and drug regulation. According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, CEI is number 59 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States". Academic research has identified CEI as one of a group of Conservative think tanks funded to overturn the environmentalism of the 1960s, central to what has been called the climate change denial machine, it was involved in assisting the anti-environmental climate change policy of the George W. Bush administration. CEI promotes environmental policies based on limited government regulation and property rights and rejects what they call "global warming alarmism"; the organization's largest program, the Center for Energy and Environment, focuses on energy policy, chemical risk policy, Clean Air Act regulation and water regulation, the Endangered Species Act, private conservation policies.

CEI is an outspoken opponent of government action by the Environmental Protection Agency that would require limits on greenhouse gas emissions. It favors free-market environmentalism, supports the idea that market institutions are more effective in protecting the environment than is government. CEI President Kent Lassman wrote on the organization's blog that, "there is no debate about whether the Earth’s climate is warming", that "human activities likely contribute to that warming", that "this has long been the CEI's position". In March 1992, CEI's founder Fred Smith said of anthropogenic climate change: "Most of the indications right now are it looks pretty good. Warmer winters, warmer nights, no effects during the day because of clouding, sounds to me like we're moving to a more benign planet, more rain, easier productivity to agriculture."In May 2006, CEI's global warming policy activities attracted attention as it embarked upon an ad campaign with two television commercials. These ads promote carbon dioxide as a positive factor in the environment and argue that global warming is not a concern.

One ad focuses on the message that CO2 is misrepresented as a pollutant, stating that "it's essential to life. We breathe it out. Plants breathe it in... They call it pollution. We call it life." The other states that the world's glaciers are "growing, not melting... getting thicker, not thinner." It cites Science articles to support its claims. However, the editor of Science stated that the ad "misrepresents the conclusions of the two cited Science papers... by selective referencing". The author of the articles, Curt Davis, director of the Center for Geospatial Intelligence at the University of Missouri, said CEI was misrepresenting his previous research to inflate their claims. "These television ads are a deliberate effort to confuse and mislead the public about the global warming debate," Davis said. In 2009, CEI's director of energy and global warming policy told The Washington Post, "The only thing that's been demonstrated to reduce emissions is economic collapse". In 2014, CEI sued the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy over a video that linked the polar vortex to climate change.

Academic research has identified it as one of the Conservative think tanks central to promoting climate change denial. CEI advocates for regulatory reform on a range of policy issues, including energy, environment and finance, labor and telecommunications, food and drug regulation, its annual survey of the federal regulatory state entitled Ten Thousand Commandments: An Annual Snapshot of the Federal Regulatory State, documents the size and cost of federal regulations, how the U. S. regulatory burden affects American consumers and the economy. CEI's Clyde Wayne Crews Jr. coined the phrase "regulatory dark matter," referencing astrophysics to distinguish between ordinary government regulations or "visible matter," and “regulatory dark matter,” which consists of “thousands of executive branch and federal agency proclamations and issuances, including memos, guidance documents, bulletins and announcements with practical regulatory effect.” In 2015, CEI filed an amicus brief in support of the petitioners in U.

S. Telecom v. FCC; the brief argued that, "Congress did not authorize the FCC to regulate the Internet when it enacted Section 706 of the Telecommunications Act and, in fact, placed it outside the scope of the FCC’s rulemaking authority.” CEI was one of several free market think tanks who publicly supported the Federal Communication Commission's Restoring Internet Freedom Order in 2017, which repealed net neutrality regulations implemented under the Obama Administration. CEI has argued against using antitrust regulation to break up big technology companies such as Facebook and Google. CEI has a longstanding project to recapture the moral legitimacy of capitalism through research, writing and other outreach activities. In 2019, CEI’s Vice President for Strategy Iain Murray argued, in an op-ed for The Wall Street Journal, that advocates of capitalism and free markets had taken the support of social conservatives for granted; the Competitive Enterprise Institute "is one of a small number of think tanks that have a litigation arm to their organization."

From 2015 to 2019, the Center for Class Action Fairness was part of CEI. It has since spun off as part of the new Hamilton Lincoln Law Institute, a free-market nonprofit public-interest law founded by Frank and his CCA

Environmental Media Services

Environmental Media Services is a Washington, D. C. based nonprofit organization, "dedicated to expanding media coverage of critical environmental and public health issues". EMS was founded in 1994 by Arlie Schardt, a former journalist, former communications director for Al Gore's 2000 Presidential campaign, former head of the Environmental Defense Fund during the 1970s, their primary activities include holding forums that bring scientists knowledgeable in current environmental issues together with journalists, providing web hosting and support for environmental issues sites like RealClimate, providing recommendations to journalists trying to locate experts knowledgeable on environmental topics. They issue press releases related to environmental issues and provide an aggregation service that disseminates recent news on environmental topics. EMS is allied with Fenton Communications, "the largest public interest communications firm in the " which specializes in providing public relations for nonprofit organizations dealing with public policy issues.

As of December 31, 2005, Environmental Media Services ceased to function as an independent organization and merged with Science Communication Network. Environmental Media Services website Appearances by Arlie Schardt on C-SPAN


Randi is both a given name, a nickname in the English language, popular in North America and Norway. It is a feminine name, although there is recorded usage of the name by men, it may have originated as a feminine form of Randy. In turn, Randy was derived from the names Randall, Randolph and Andrew. In Norway, Randi is a feminine name; the original meaning in Old Norse is "God-lovable". Ragnfríðr was famously used about three different people in runic inscriptions from the Viking era; the variant Rangdid was common in the Middle Ages. Over 20 people with the name were mentioned in the Regesta Norvegica. By the 1600s the variant Randi was a common feminine name in Norway. Randi Altschul, American toy inventor Randi Anda, Norwegian politician Randi Bakke, Norwegian pair skater Randi Becker, American politician from Washington Randi Bjørgen, Norwegian trade unionist Randi Blehr, Norwegian feminist Randi Brænne, Norwegian actress Randi Bratteli, Norwegian journalist Randi Elisabeth Dyrdal, Norwegian handballer Randi Hutter Epstein, American medical writer Randi Flesland, Norwegian civil servant Randi Gaustad, Norwegian curator and art historian Randi Gustad, Norwegian handball player Randi Hansen, Norwegian singer Randi Heide Steen, Norwegian singer Randi Hultin, Norwegian jazz critic Randi Karlstrøm, Norwegian politician Randi Kaye, American journalist Randi Leinan, Norwegian footballer Randi Lunnan, Norwegian organizational theorist and professor Randi Michelsen, Danish actress Randi Miller, American wrestler Randi Monsen, Norwegian illustrator Randi Lindtner Næss, Norwegian actress and singer Randi Oakes, American actress and fashion model Randi Øverland, Norwegian politician Randi Rahm, American fashion designer Randi Rhodes, American radio personality Randi Mayem Singer, American writer and producer Randi Solem, Norwegian religious organiser Randi Malkin Steinberger, American photographer, filmmaker and curator Randi Thorvaldsen, Norwegian speedskater Wang Randi, Chinese swimmer Randi Wardum, Faroese football goalkeeper and handballer Randi Weingarten, American trade union leader Randi Zuckerberg, American businesswoman Randi Patterson, Trinidadian footballer Randi J. Rost, American computer graphicist Randi Fronczak, desk clerk in the medical drama ER Randi Hubbard, All My Children character Randi McFarland, character on the TV show Highlander Randi, the main protagonist of the video game Secret of Mana All pages with titles beginning with Randi All pages with titles containing Randi

Miss Ohio

The Miss Ohio Scholarship Program selects the representative for the U. S. state of Ohio to compete for the title of Miss America. The pageant is held annually, during the "Miss Ohio Festival" week, at the historic 1,600 seat Renaissance Theatre in Mansfield. Ohio representatives have won the Miss America pageant six times, joining California, Oklahoma as the only states with six crowns. New York has the most winners with seven. Ohio is the only state to have a contestant who won the Miss America title twice: 1922 Mary Katherine Campbell, Columbus* 1923 Mary Katherine Campbell, Columbus* 1938 Marilyn Meseke, Marion 1963 Jacquelyn Mayer, Sandusky 1972 Laurie Lea Schaefer, Bexley 1978 Susan Perkins, Middletown* When city representatives were common at the national pageant, Mary Katherine Campbell competed in Miss America Pageants as "Miss Columbus, Ohio"; the Miss Ohio pageant played a significant role in the saving of the Ohio Theatre and its renovation into the Renaissance Theatre. Mansfield hosted the Miss Ohio Pageant at the old Ohio Theatre from 1959 through 1962.

After Jacquelyn Mayer, Miss Ohio 1962, was crowned Miss America 1963, the Miss Ohio pageant was relocated to the Ballroom Pavilion at Cedar Point Amusement Park in Sandusky. In 1975, the pageant returned to Mansfield, first to Malabar High School Auditorium from 1975 through 1978 to the Madison Theatre in 1979. In 1980, it was decided to televise the pageant; because of inadequate stage depth and backstage space at the Madison Theatre pageant producer Denny Keller and pageant set designer Paul Gilger persuaded the Miss Ohio Board of Directors to move the pageant back to Mansfield's Ohio Theatre, reopening the facility and sprucing it up for the pageant's first televised broadcast. The pageant's return to the old Ohio Theatre was the initial event that led to the total renovation of the theatre and its reincarnation into the Renaissance Theatre, the history of which can be read here; the Miss Ohio Scholarship Program has been held at the Renaissance Theatre since 1980. Caroline Grace Williams of Cincinnati was crowned on June 15, 2019 at Renaissance Theatre in Mansfield, Ohio.

She competed for the title of Miss America 2020 in December 2019. The following is a visual summary of the past results of Miss Ohio titleholders at the national Miss America pageants/competitions; the year in parentheses indicates the year of the national competition during which a placement and/or award was garnered, not the year attached to the contestant's state title. Miss Americas: Mary Katherine Campbell, Marilyn Meseke, Jacquelyn Mayer, Laurie Lea Schaefer, Susan Perkins 1st runners-up: Mary Katherine Campbell, Kathrine Baumann, Tana Carli, Melissa Ann Bradley 2nd runners-up: Titilayo Adedokun 3rd runners-up: Sharon Phillian, Susan Banks, Sher Patrick 4th runners-up: Pamela Helean Rigas, Kristin Huffman Top 8: Helen Frances Smith Top 10: Barbara Quinlin, Kathy Vernon, Suellen Cochran, Robin Michelle Meade, Lea Mack, Mackenzie Bart Top 15: Pauline James, Elsie Connor, Evelyn Townley, Evelyn Bertelsbeck, Janice Sulzman Top 16: Evelyn Townley, Jean Fadden, LaVonne Bond Top 18: Corinne Potter Top 23: Mary Jane Clark, Olga Emrich, Elizabeth Genevieve Mambourg Preliminary Lifestyle and Fitness: Kathrine Baumann, Laurie Lea Schaefer, Pamela Helean Rigas, Suellen Cochran, Alice Magoto Preliminary Talent: Barbara Patterson, Joan Hyldoft, Barbara Quinlin, Sharon Phillian, Kathrine Baumann, Susan Banks, Susan Perkins, Tana Carli, Suellen Cochran, Kristin Huffman, Titilayo Adedokun, Mackenzie Bart Non-finalist Talent: Karen Sparka, Cheryl Yourkvitch, Lorrie Kapsta, Janice Cooley, Juliana Zilba, Sarah Ann Evans, Robyn Hancock, Amanda Beagle Miss Congeniality: N/A Dr. David B.

Allman Medical Scholarship: Juliana Zilba Quality of Life Award 2nd runners-up: Lea Mack, Tiffany Haas Quality of Life Award Finalists: Ellen Bryan STEM Scholarship Award Winners: Mackenzie Bart Women in Business Scholarship Award Winners: Sarah Clapper Media related to Miss Ohio titleholders at Wikimedia Commons Official website