David M. Halperin is an American theorist in the fields of gender studies, queer theory, critical theory, material culture and visual culture, he is the cofounder of GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, author of several books including Before Pastoral and One Hundred Years of Homosexuality. David Halperin was born on April 1952, in Chicago, Illinois, he graduated from Oberlin College in 1973, having studied abroad at the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in 1972–1973. He received his PhD in Classics and Humanities from Stanford University in 1980. In 1977, Halperin served as Associate Director of the Summer Session of the School of Classical Studies at the American Academy in Rome. From 1981 to 1996, he served as Professor of Literature at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1994, he taught at the University of Queensland, in 1995 at Monash University. From 1996 to 1999, he was a Lecturer in Sociology at the University of New South Wales, he is W. H. Auden Distinguished University Professor of the History and Theory of Sexuality at the University of Michigan, where he is Professor of English, women’s studies, comparative literature, classical studies.
In 1991, he co-founded the academic journal GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, served as its editor until 2006. His work has been published in the Journal of Bisexuality, Identities: Journal for Politics and Culture, Journal of Homosexuality, Michigan Feminist Studies, Michigan Quarterly Review, the Bryn Mawr Classical Review, Ex Aequo, UNSW Tharunka, Australian Humanities Review, Sydney Star Observer, The UTS Review, Blueboy and Theory, American Journal of Philology, Classical Antiquity, Ancient Philosophy, Yale Review, Critical Inquiry, Virginia Quarterly Review, American Notes & Queries, London Review of Books, Journal of Japanese Studies, Partisan Review, Classical Journal, he has been a Rome Prize Fellow at the American Academy in Rome and a Fellow at the National Humanities Center in North Carolina, as well as a fellow at the Stanford Humanities Center, the Humanities Research Centre at the Australian National University in Canberra, at the Society for the Humanities at Cornell University.
In 2008–2009, he received a Guggenheim Fellowship. He received the Michael Lynch Service Award from the Gay and Lesbian Caucus at the Modern Language Association, as well as the Distinguished Editor Award from the Council of Editors of Learned Journals. In 2011–2012, he received the Brudner Prize at Yale University. Halperin is gay. In 1990, he launched a campaign to oppose the presence of the ROTC on the MIT campus, on the grounds that it discriminated against gay and lesbian students; that same year, he received death threats for his gay activism. In 2003, the Michigan chapter of the American Family Association tried to ban his course'How to Be Gay: Male Homosexuality and Initiation.' In 2010, he wrote an open letter to Michigan's 52nd Attorney General Mike Cox to denounce the homophobic harassment by one of the latter's staffers, Andrew Shirvell, of a University of Michigan student, Chris Armstrong. Halperin uses the method of genealogy to study the history of homosexuality, he argues that Aristophanes' speech in Plato's Symposium does not indicate a "taxonomy" of heterosexuals and homosexuals comparable to modern ones.
Medieval historian John Boswell has criticized Halperin's arguments. Halperin's book was published in 1990, two years before the centenary of Charles Gilbert Chaddock's English translation of Richard von Krafft-Ebing's Psycopathia Sexualis. Chaddock is credited with the first use of the term "homosexual" in English in this translation. Halperin believes that the introduction of this term marks an important change in the treatment and consideration of homosexuality; the book collects six essays by the author. The first essay gives the book its title. Didier Eribon demanded that his name be withdrawn as a recipient of the Brudner prize because he did not want to be associated with Halperin, who won the Brudner for his book What Do Gay Men Want? and whom Eribon accused of plagiarizing Eribon's work, Une morale du minoritaire. According to L'Express in 2011, Halperin had not yet responded to Eribon's claims. Before Pastoral: Theocritus and the Ancient Tradition of Bucolic Poetry. New Haven: Yale University Press.
1983. Before Sexuality: The Construction of Erotic Experience in the Ancient Greek World. Edited with John J. Winkler and Froma I. Zeitlin. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1990. CS1 maint: others One Hundred Years of Homosexuality: and other essays on Greek love. New York: Routledge. 1990. The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader. Edited with Henry Abelove and Michele Aina Barale. New York: Routledge. 1993. CS1 maint: others Saint Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995. How to Do the History of Homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2002. What Do Gay Men Want?. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 2007. Gay Shame. Edited with Valerie Traub. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2009. CS1 maint: others How to be Gay. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press. 2012. David Halperin at the University of Michigan
Desert of Desolation is a compilation adventure module published by TSR for the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy roleplaying game. It combines three published individual modules: Pharaoh, Oasis of the White Palm, Lost Tomb of Martek; the modules were made for use with the first edition Advanced Dragons rules. Pharaoh was created by Tracy and Laura Hickman soon after the couple married in 1977, published by TSR in 1982. Oasis of the White Palm was a collaboration between Tracy Hickman and Philip Meyers, Hickman wrote the Lost Tomb of Martek on his own; each module is an Egyptian-styled adventure. The individual modules were well received by critics at the time of their release, the compilation garnered accolades in the early 2000s. Pharaoh is an Egyptian-styled adventure that includes a trap-filled maze. In Oasis of the White Palm, the PCs arrive at the Oasis of the White Palm, on the brink of turmoil. Shadalah, to be the bride of the sheikh's eldest son, has been kidnapped; the sheikh believes her to be held by his enemies somewhere in the oasis.
The PCs must solve the mystery. Once the characters make the contacts they need at the oasis, they continue to the temple of Set and the crypt of Badr al-Mosak, the adventure concludes in the city of Phoenix; the Oasis of the White Palm module contains wilderness maps, includes a number of smaller adventures. The goal of the PCs is the tomb of the millennium-dead wizard Martek; the tomb lies in the vast Desert of Desolation, the majority of the adventure takes place within Martek's tomb. The adventurers have to cross a sea of glass on skate-ships, pass through the Crystal Prism and the Mobius Tower in order to reach the final crypt; the adventure is organized into seven parts, taking the party from the desert through a number of planes on their way to the Citadel of Martek. They must use the Star Gems to revive the dead wizard; when they have done so, he lets them choose from a variety of magical treasure, leaves to defeat the Efreet. In 1977, Tracy Hickman and Laura Hickman were married. Soon after, while living in Provo, they wrote the adventures Pharaoh and Ravenloft.
The Hickmans decided to publish the first two adventures they had designed together and Pharaoh, which earned them a reputation on a local level. Pharaoh was published as part of the "Night Ventures" line of scenarios in 1980, by DayStar West Media Productions, as a sixty-eight-page book. However, disaster struck when Tracy went into business with an associate who went bad, leaving the Hickmans to cover thirty-thousand dollars in bad checks, they were driven into bankruptcy, Tracy Hickman decided to sell their modules to TSR, "literally so that I could buy shoes for my children". TSR decided not only to buy the modules, but hire Tracy as a game designer: "They said it would be easier to publish my adventures if I was part of the company. So, we made the move from Utah to Wisconsin."In 1982, TSR published Pharaoh as a thirty-two-page booklet with two outer folders, for the first edition of AD&D. It was designed for 6-8 player characters of levels 5-7, formed the first of the three-part Desert of Desolation module series.
Oasis of the White Palm is the sequel to the Pharaoh module. TSR published this adventure in 1983 as a thirty-two-page booklet with two outer folders, the adventure was written by Tracy Hickman and Philip Meyers with cover art by Jim Holloway and interior illustrations by Keith Parkinson, it was intended for 6 to 8 characters of levels 6-8. Lost Tomb of Martek is the third module in the series, was designed by Tracy Hickman, for 7th-9th level characters. Lost Tomb of Martek was published in 1983 as a 32-page booklet with two outer folders; the compilation module Desert of Desolation was printed in 1987. The compilation features a cover by Keith Parkinson, it is a revision of the I3, I4, I5 AD&D game modules, with additional design and revision by Peter Rice and William John Wheeler. Wheeler attempted to expand on the originals, without altering their tone; the adventures in Desert of Desolation are designed for a 5th-10th level party and have been reworked to fit into the Forgotten Realms setting, the material was made compatible with the Wilderness Survival Guide rules.
In the revision, the designers added additional background material, as well as staging tips for the Dungeon Master. The details of various elements, open-ended elements were spelled out. Desert of Desolation includes a 128-page adventure booklet, a sixteen-page maps booklet, a large A1 sheet of maps and handouts; the compilation module contains new maps, including an isometric map of the tomb of Amun-Re. The revision introduces ancient inscriptions for the players to decipher. At the time these modules were released, each D&D module was marked with an alphanumeric code indicating the series to which it belonged; the earlier modules have module codes I3, I4, I5 and the combined module's code is I3–5 The modules were well received by critics, both separately and as a compilation. Called "The definitive "Egyptian-themed" D&D adventure", it was ranked the 6th greatest adventure of all time by Dungeon in 2004. Christopher Perkins noted that "This adventure introduced a new encounter format adapted for third edition adventures," serving as the precursor to the format Dungeon would use for third edition.
Chris Pramas felt the backstory made the adventure "so much more interesting than the typi