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Calico

Calico is a plain-woven textile made from unbleached and not processed cotton. It may contain unseparated husk parts, for example; the fabric is far less fine than muslin, but less coarse and thick than canvas or denim, but it is still cheap owing to its unfinished and undyed appearance. The fabric was from the city of Calicut in southwestern India, it was made by the traditional weavers called cāliyans. The raw fabric was dyed and printed in bright hues, calico prints became popular in Europe. Calico originated in Calicut in southwestern India during the 11th century; the cloth was known as "cāliyan" to the natives. It was mentioned in Indian literature by the 12th century when the writer Hēmacandra described calico fabric prints with a lotus design. By the 15th century calico from Gujǎrāt made its appearance in Egypt. Trade with Europe followed from the 17th century onwards. Calico was woven using Sūrat cotton for both the weft; the commercial method of calico printing using engraved rollers was invented in 1821 in New Mills.

John Potts of Potts and Potts used a copper-engraved master to produce rollers to transfer the inks. In the 18th century, England was famous for its worsted cloth; that industry, centred in the east and south in towns such as Norwich, jealously protected their product. Cotton processing was tiny: in 1701 only 1,985,868 pounds of cottonwool was imported into England, by 1730 this had fallen to 1,545,472 pounds; this was due to commercial legislation to protect the woollen industry. Cheap calico prints, imported by the East India Company from Hindustān, had become popular. In 1700 an Act of Parliament passed to prevent the importation of dyed or printed calicoes from India, China or Persia; this caused demand to switch to imported grey cloth instead—calico that had not been finished—dyed or printed. These were printed with popular patterns in southern England. Lancashire businessmen produced grey cloth with linen warp and cotton weft, known as fustian, which they sent to London for finishing. Cottonwool imports recovered though, by 1720 were back to their 1701 levels.

Again the woollen manufacturers, in true protectionist fashion, claimed that the imports were taking jobs away from workers in Coventry. The Woollen, etc. Manufactures Act 1720 was passed, enacting fines against anyone caught wearing printed or stained calico muslins. Neckcloths and fustians were exempted; the Lancashire manufacturers exploited this exemption. There now was an artificial demand for woven cloth. In 1764, 3,870,392 pounds of cotton-wool were imported; this change in consumption patterns, as a result of the restriction on imported finished goods, was a key part of the process that reduced the Indian economy from sophisticated textile production to the mere supply of raw materials. These events occurred under colonial rule, which started after 1757, were described by Nehru and some more recent scholars as "de-industrialization". Early Indian chintz, that is, glazed calico with a large floral pattern, was produced using painting techniques; the hues were applied by wooden blocks, the cloth manufacturers in Britain printed calico using wooden block printing.

Calico printers at work are depicted in one of the stained glass windows made by Stephen Adam for the Maryhill Burgh Halls, Glasgow. Confusingly and silk printed this way were known as linen calicoes and silk calicoes. Early European calicoes were cheap plain weave white cotton fabric, or cream or unbleached cotton, with a design block-printed using a single alizarin dye fixed with two mordants, giving a red and black pattern. Polychromatic prints were possible, using two sets of an additional blue dye; the Indian taste was for dark printed backgrounds, while the European market preferred a pattern on a cream base. As the century progressed the European preference moved from the large chintz patterns to smaller, tighter patterns. Thomas Bell patented a printing technique in 1783. In 1785, Livesey and Company put the first machine that used this technique into operation in Walton-le-Dale, Lancashire; the production volume for printed cloth in Lancashire in 1750 was estimated at 50,000 pieces of 30 yards.

After 1888, block printing was only used for short-run specialized jobs. After 1880, profits from printing fell due to overcapacity and the firms started to form combines. In the first, three Scottish firms formed the United Turkey Red Co. Ltd in 1897, the second, in 1899, was the much larger Calico Printers' Association 46 printing concerns and 13 merchants combined, representing 85% of the British printing capacity; some of this capacity was removed and in 1901 Calico had 48% of the printing trade. In 1916, they and the other printers formed and joined a trade association, which set minimum prices for each'price section' of the industry; the trade association remained in operation until 1954, when the arrangement was challenged by the government Monopolies Commission. Over the intervening period much trade had been lost overseas. In the UK, Australia and New Zealand: Calico – simple, cheap equal weft and warp plain weave fabric in white, cream or unbleached cotton. Calico bag - a bag made of calico used by banks and other financial institutions.

Muslin – a fine, light plain weave cotton fabric. Muslin gauze – muslin. Gauze – soft and fine cotton fabric with a open plain weave. Cheesecloth – gauze. Tote Bag - sometimes made of calicoIn the US: Calico – cotton fabri

If I See You in My Dreams

If I See You in My Dreams is a Japanese manga series by Noriyuki Yamahana under the pen name HANAKO, serialized in Shueisha's Business Jump magazine from 1994 to 1999. A 3-episode OVA by J. C. Staff was released in 1998, followed by an anime television series adaptation that aired on TBS; the story follows a Japanese salaryman Masuo Fugano in a big city who falls in love with Nagisa Shiozaki, a kindergarten teacher. Masuo tries to court Nagisa, but every time he seems to make progress, something goes wrong. Nagisa, in fact, likes Masuo, but due to a previous heartbreak, she pushes him away; as the series progresses, it becomes more thoughtful and mature, with many of the problems evolving out of the characters' personalities rather than being imposed artificially by circumstances. Many of the coincidental misunderstandings have to do with Masuo interacting with coworker Miho Hamaoka, the daughter of the company president, who has fallen in love with Masuo, but Masuo lacks the confidence to believe it to be true.

Masuo has to face two other comical suitors for Nagisa's love. One being Kaizuka, a tall muscular physical education high school teacher, Kujira, a short rich and perverted real estate agent. On he has to face much more serious competition from Nagisa's first love, Minato. At one point on in the manga, Masuo takes in a pregnant woman out of compassion; this information makes its way in a different form. The series ends with Nagisa having their child named Yuka in her arm smiling happily; the TV series takes a more comedic tone than the OVA and involves much of the early unlucky coincidences from the manga. In the TV series, Masuo faces no competition from other suitors but must face Nagisa's difficulty with men while Kaizuka and Kujira appear in the OVA to try to win Nagisa's love. If I See You in My Dreams at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

Grove (nature)

A grove is a small group of trees with minimal or no undergrowth, such as a sequoia grove, or a small orchard planted for the cultivation of fruits or nuts. Other words for groups of trees include woodland, thicket, or stand; the main meaning of "grove" is a group of trees that grow close together without many bushes or other plants underneath. It is an old word in English, with records of its use dating as far back as 1,000 years ago, although the word's true origins are unknown. Naturally-occurring groves are small a few acres at most. In contrast, which are intentional planting of trees, may be small or large, like the apple orchards in Washington state, orange groves in Florida. Groves were considered sacred in pagan, pre-Christian Germanic and Celtic cultures. Helen F. Leslie-Jacobsen argues that "we can assume that sacred groves existed due to repeated mentions in historiographical and ethnographical accounts. E.g. Tacitus, Germania." Bosquet is an artificial grove in a French formal garden The National Grove of State Trees at the United States National Arboretum Sacred grove "Start Now to Design Citrus Groves for Mechanical Harvesting".

University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved 2006-01-06

Anupama Kumar

Anupama Prakash Kumar, better known as Anupama Kumar, is an Indian film actress and model. Having appeared in more than 300 ad films, she made her debut as an actress in the 2004 Hindi film Kyun...! Ho Gaya went on to play supporting roles in Tamil films. Besides acting and modelling, Anupama has worked as a journalist, visualizer and a television producer, she won the Vijay Award 2013 for Best Actor in a Supporting Role for her role in Muppozhudhum Un Karpanaigal. A Tamilan by birth, Anupama lived in North India, she had been involved in the field of television for over thirteen years, working as an anchor, visualizer and producer. She started off into a modelling and acting career, featuring in more than 300 commercials along with the likes of Shahrukh Khan and Mohanlal, she had appeared in several Hindi language television series such as Kabhi Aaye Na Judaai, Mission Fateh, Shaka Laka Boom Boom and The Magic Make-Up Box as well. Kumar debuted in Indian films with the Aishwarya Rai-starrer Kyun...!

Ho Gaya Na in a cameo. She is married to G. Shivakumar, a Navy commander, has one son, with whom she resides in Chennai. Anupama Kumar on IMDb

Barony Rosendal

Barony Rosendal is a historic estate and manor house situated in Kvinnherad in Hordaland county, Norway. The history of Rosendal dates back to the 1650s, when the nobleman Ludvig Holgersen Rosenkrantz came to Bergen as commissioner of war for the Danish king, Fredrik III. At a ball at the fortress of Bergenhus he met Karen Axelsdatter Mowatt, sole heiress to the largest fortune of the country at the time, her father had more than 550 farms all over the western part of Norway. They married in 1658, were given the farm of Hatteberg in Rosendal as a wedding present. In 1661, Ludwig Rosenkrantz started building his own manor in Rosendal, he completed this in 1665. In 1678 King Christian V of Denmark gave the estate the status of barony - the only one of its kind in Norway. Around 1850, an expansive romantic garden was laid out around the manor; the families of Rosendal were important people in the cultural life of Norway. Authors Henrik Ibsen, Jonas Lie and Alexander Kielland and painters Hans Gude and Anders Askevold visited Rosendal often.

Musicians like Edvard Grieg and Ole Bull were guests here. There were concerts in Rosendal, a tradition, still kept alive. Ludvig Holgersen Rosenkrantz received baron patent in 1678 form Christian V. 1658–1685 Baron Ludvig Rosenkrantz 1685–1691 Baron Christian Rosenkrantz1691–1723 Baron Axel Rosenkrantz Bishop Edvard Londemann to Rosendal received in 1749 nobility patent with name Londemann af Rosencrone. In 1773 he received baron patent, he received count patent in 1782. 1745–1749 Count Edvard Londeman Rosencrone 1749–1811 Count Marcus Gerhard Londemann de Rosencrone Von Hoff an Bohemian nobility family naturalized as danish-norwegian nobility in 1778. The family's ancestor was one Major Hans Wentzel Hoff, who immigrated to Denmark in 1659, he was the father of Colonel Lieutenant Christian Hoff who married Maria Margrethe Londemann de Rosencrone, daughter of the titular bishop Edvard Londemann de Rosencrone, who founded the fideikommiss of Rosendal. Christian Hoff was the grandfather of Major Christian Henrik Hoff who inherited the barony of Rosendal, in 1813 was named Baron with the named Hoff Rosencrone.

His children were baroness Edvardine Reinholdine Hoff Rosenkrone, married to Hans Christian Weis, Marcus Gerhard Hoff Rosenkrone to Rosendal and Hermann Reinhold Hoff Rosenkrone to Rosendal. The two brothers were not norwegian barons since the, but still danish barons. 1811–1837 Baron Christian Henrik Hoff Rosencrone 1837–1896 Marcus Gerhard Hoff Rosenkrone to Rosendal 1896–1900 Hermann Reinhold Hoff Rosenkrone to Rosendal The property remained in private ownership until 1927, when the last owner donated it to the University of Oslo. The manor is now operated as the Baroniet Rosendal museum; the museum offers valuable information about an important period of Norwegian history. A guided tour of the manor takes visitors through the different periods of occupation from 1665 up to 1930; the oldest restored rooms are still decorated. The garden is referred to as the most magnificent Victorian garden in Norway. Among other things around 2000 roses in bloom can be experienced here from June to November.

Jorn Oyrehagen Sunde From a Shetland Lairdship to a Norwegian Barony: The Mouat Family and the Barony of Rosendal ISBN 978-0955764233 Baroniet Rosendal official website

Ideopsis vulgaris

Ideopsis vulgaris, the blue glassy tiger, is a butterfly that belongs to the crows and tigers, that is, the danaid group of the brush-footed butterflies family. Subspecies include: Ideopsis vulgaris contigua Talbot, 1939 – Ideopsis vulgaris macrinaMyanmar, P. Thailand, Langkawi, W. Malaysia, Sumatra, Batu Islands, Banka Island, Belitung) This species can be found in India, Thailand, Vietnam, South Burma - Sundaland, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands - Alor, BorneoPalawan; these butterflies inhabits a range of habitats, but occur at the edge of rainforest or plantations and in the coastal mangrove areas. Ideopsis vulgaris has a wingspan reaching 70–80 millimetres; this butterfly is quite similar to the dark glassy tiger. A transverse black bar in the forewing cell, cutting through one of the white streaks, distinguishes the blue glassy tiger from the other one; as other milkweed butterfly it is mimicked by Chilasa clytia. Upperside: black, the dorsal margin of hindwing broadly cinereous. Forewing: a short streak along dorsal margin, two broad streaks united at base in interspace 1, the upper one curved, a broad streak in cell with an outwardly indented detached spot beyond it in apex, a slender costal streak, two large discal spots inwardly pointed, outwardly truncate, three elongate spots beyond apex of cell and four or five elongate preapical spots beyond them a subterminal and a terminal series of spots decreasing in size towards apex of wing.

Hindwing: elongate streaks in interspaces 1 a and 1 b, two in interspace 1, two in cell with a short slender streak-obliquely between their apices, shorter streaks radiating outwards in interspaces 2–6, a sub-terminal series of small spots and a terminal row of dots beyond. Underside: similar, the markings better defined. Antennae black, palpi black above, bluish white below. Male without any special sex-marks on the wings. Race exprompta, Butler. Resembles D. vulgaris Butler, but has all the markings much broader, the apical spot in cell of forewing outwardly less emarginate. Race nicobarica, W.-M. & de N.. Like the preceding race, but the subhyaline markings still broader and somewhat blurred. Upperside: forewing: the whole basal two-thirds of interspace 1 bluish white, enclosing a fine longitudinal black line. Hindwing: the black in interspace 1 reduced to a mere streak. In the solitary specimen of the male in the collection of the British Museum this line is entirelyabsent. Blue tiger Dark glassy tiger Adults can be found all the year around.

They visit flowers for feeding. Females lay white eggs similar to a rugby ball; these eggs take about 3 days to hatch. The caterpillars are white with a black head, while the 2nd instar caterpillars are dark wine red to dark purplish brown colored, with whitish spots and a length about 7.5–8 mm. In the 5th and last instar caterpillars reach 34 mm. Larvae feed on Gymnema species, Tylophora fleuxosa, Tylophora tenuissima and is thus distasteful to birds; the pupa is bright yellowish green, with a length of 18–20 mm. After about 7 days the butterfly emerges. List of butterflies of India Brower, Andrew V. Z.. Glassy Tigers