California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.5 million residents across a total area of about 163,696 square miles, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's economy, with a gross state product of $3.0 trillion, is the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the fifth-largest economy in the world, the 36th-most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest gross domestic product per capita in 2018 among large primary statistical areas, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and three of the world's ten richest people. California culture is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, information, environmentalism, economics and entertainment; as a result of the state's diversity and migration, California integrates foods and traditions from other areas across the country and around the globe. It is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food and car culture, the Internet, the personal computer, among others; the San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as centers of the global technology and entertainment industries, respectively.
California's economy is diverse: 58% of it is based on finance, real estate services and professional, technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U. S. state. California shares a border with Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood and Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more frequent. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Spanish Empire claimed and conquered it. In 1804 it was included within Spanish New Spain Viceroyalty; the area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850; the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. The Spaniards gave the name Las Californias to the peninsula of Baja California and to Alta California, the region that became the present-day states of California and Utah, parts of Arizona, New Mexico and Wyoming; the name derived from the mythical island of California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. This work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula.
Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph, it is possible. Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons, they were robust of body with great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000.
The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct ethnic groups of Native Americans, ranging f
The 1980 NCAA Division I baseball season, play of college baseball in the United States organized by the National Collegiate Athletic Association began in the spring of 1980. The season concluded with the 1980 College World Series; the College World Series, held for the thirty fourth time in 1980, consisted of one team from each of eight regional competitions and was held in Omaha, Nebraska at Johnny Rosenblatt Stadium as a double-elimination tournament. Arizona claimed the championship for the second time; this is a partial list of conference champions from the 1980 season. The NCAA sponsored regional competitions to determine the College World Series participants. Seven regionals of four teams and one of six each competed in double-elimination tournaments, with the winners advancing to Omaha. 21 teams earned automatic bids by winning their conference championship while 13 teams earned at-large selections. The following is an incomplete list of conference standings: The 1980 season marked the thirty fourth NCAA Baseball Tournament, which culminated with the eight team College World Series.
John Bruckner was a Dutch Lutheran minister and author, who settled in Norwich, England. He was born on the Land van Cadzand a small island in Zeeland, he was educated for the ministry at the University of Franeker, where he studied Greek under Lodewijk Caspar Valckenaer. In 1752 an elder of the Norwich Walloon church that leased the church of St. Mary the Less, seeking a successor to Michel Olivier Vallotton as pastor, recruited Bruckner, who could preach in Latin, Dutch and English. In addition to his duties at St. Mary the Less, he succeeded Dr. van Sarn, about 1766, as pastor of the Norwich Dutch church who used the choir of the church of St. John the Baptist; these duties were light, lessened. Bruckner held the joint charge till his death, was the last regular minister of either church, he taught French, Amelia Opie being among his pupils, acted as organist. He took part in the Norwich literary circle, he committed suicide at Norwich, while suffering from depression, on Saturday, 12 May 1804.
He was buried near Foulsham, Norfolk. He had married in 1782 Miss Cooper of a former pupil, who predeceased him. John Opie painted his portrait, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1800. Bruckner wrote Théorie du Système Animal, Leyden, 1767, a work now referenced in terms of the history of ecology. In chapters VII and X there is an anticipation of Thomas Malthus's views, Loren Eiseley took Bruckner as the immediate forerunner of Malthus; this work was translated within two years into English by Thomas Cogan. Bruckner's ideas were taken from Buffon, as well as general reading. Bruckner is noted as an early proponent of the food web concept. Other works were: ‘Criticisms on the Diversions of Purley. By John Cassander,’ 1790. John Horne Tooke replied in his edition of 1798. Bruckner's views derived from Tiberius Hemsterhuis. Richard Taylor included information on Bruckner in his 1829 edition of the Diversions. ‘Thoughts on Public Worship,’ 1792. In his preface Bruckner promises a continuation, he began a didactic poem in French verse, intended to popularise the views of his ‘Théorie.’ Lines on his own wrinkled and ‘lugubre’ countenance are in Amelia Opie's ‘Life.’ Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gordon, Alexander.