Catfish are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. There are armour-plated types and there are naked types, neither having scales, despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbel. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the skull, Catfish are of considerable commercial importance, many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food. Many of the species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal, but others are crepuscular or diurnal, extant catfish species live inland or in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at one time or another, Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe. More than half of all species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar and they are found in freshwater environments, though most inhabit shallow, running water.
Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean with three families that are troglobitic, one such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats. Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, and a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water. In the United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of names, such as mud cat, polliwogs. These nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname chucklehead, while in state or region. Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fish in their native waters, and have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna. Walking catfish have introduced in the freshwaters of Florida. Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages, pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, have established feral populations in many warm waters around the world.
In general, they are buoyant, which means that they will usually sink rather than float due to a reduced gas bladder. Catfish have a variety of shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding. A flattened head allows for digging through the substrate as well as serving as a hydrofoil
It is an interdisciplinary subject drawing on natural and social sciences, and the practice of natural resource management. The conservation ethic is based on the findings of conservation biology and Michael E. Soulé with a group of leading university and zoo researchers and conservationists including Kurt Benirschke, Sir Otto Frankel, Thomas E. Lovejoy, and Jared M. Diamond. The meeting was prompted by the concern over deforestation, disappearing species. Conservation biology and the concept of biological diversity emerged together, helping crystallize the modern era of conservation science, the inherent multidisciplinary basis for conservation biology has led to new subdisciplines including conservation social science, conservation behavior and conservation physiology. It stimulated further development of genetics which Otto Frankel had originated first but is now often considered a subdiscipline as well. The rapid decline of established biological systems around the means that conservation biology is often referred to as a Discipline with a deadline.
Conservation biology is tied closely to ecology in researching the ecology of rare or endangered species. Conservation biologists work in the field and office, in government, non-profit organizations, the topics of their research are diverse, because this is an interdisciplinary network with professional alliances in the biological as well as social sciences. Those dedicated to the cause and profession advocate for a response to the current biodiversity crisis based on morals, ethics. Conscious efforts to conserve and protect global biodiversity are a recent phenomenon, natural resource conservation, has a history that extends prior to the age of conservation. Resource ethics grew out of necessity through direct relations with nature and this social dilemma with respect to natural resource management is often called the Tragedy of the Commons. From this principle, conservation biologists can trace communal resource based ethics throughout cultures as a solution to communal resource conflict.
For example, the Alaskan Tlingit peoples and the Haida of the Pacific Northwest had resource boundaries and these rules were guided by clan elders who knew lifelong details of each river and stream they managed. There are numerous examples in history where cultures have followed rules, Conservation ethics are found in early religious and philosophical writings. There are examples in the Tao, Hindu, Islamic, in the bible, through Moses, God commanded to let the land rest from cultivation every seventh year. Before the 18th century, much of European culture considered it a view to admire nature. Wilderness was denigrated while agricultural development was praised, however, as early as AD680 a wildlife sanctuary was founded on the Farne Islands by St Cuthbert in response to his religious beliefs. Natural history was a preoccupation in the 18th century, with grand expeditions
Arowanas are freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae, known as bonytongues. In this family of fish, the head is bony and the body is covered by large, heavy scales. The dorsal and anal fins have soft rays and are long based, the name bonytongues is derived from a toothed bone on the floor of the mouth, the tongue, equipped with teeth that bite against teeth on the roof of the mouth. The arowana is a facultative air breather and can obtain oxygen from air by sucking it into its swim bladder, osteoglossids are basal fish that originated some time during the Cretaceous, and are placed in the actinopterygiid order Osteoglossiformes. As traditionally defined, the family includes several extant species from South America, one from Africa, several from Asia, today Arapaimidae is often regarded as a separate family, which includes the arapaimas and the African arowana. Consequently, the South American genus Osteoglossum, and the Asian and Australian genus Scleropages are the extant genera that remain in the osteoglossid family.
Arapaimidae and Osteoglossidae split about 220 million years ago, during the Late Triassic, within Osteoglossidae, the South America Osteoglossum arowanas diverged from the Asian and Australian Scleropages arowanas about 170 Mya, during the Middle Jurassic. The Osteoglossidae are the only freshwater fish family found on both sides of the Wallace Line. At least five genera, known only from fossils, are classified as osteoglossids. Other fossils from as far back as the Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous are widely considered to belong to the arowana superorder Osteoglossomorpha, osteoglossomorph fossils have been found on all continents except Antarctica. These fossil genera include Brychaetus and Phareodus, arowana species typically grow to around 2 to 3 ft in captivity. Several species of osteoglossids exhibit parental care and they build nests and protect their young after they hatch. All species are mouthbrooders, the parents holding sometimes hundreds of eggs in their mouths, the young may make several tentative trips outside the parents mouth to investigate the surroundings before leaving permanently.
Depending on the system used, there are 10 types of arowana commonly kept as pets,4 from Asia,3 from South America,2 from Australia and 1 from Africa. Arowanas are solitary fish and only allow company while young, adults may show dominance and these fish are best kept with live or frozen feed and they easily outgrow the tank within 8 to 10 months. An aquarium of at least 150 gallons is a minimum, while tanks upwards of 400-600 gallons is preferable, Australian species are best kept alone in aquaria. The name comes from the Indonesian language arwana or nirwana, meaning fish of paradise, archived from the original on 26 May 2006
Cichlids /ˈsɪklᵻdz/ are fish from the family Cichlidae in the order Perciformes. Cichlids are members of a known as Labroidei, along with the wrasses, damselfishes. This family is large and diverse. At least 1,650 species have been described, making it one of the largest vertebrate families. New species are discovered annually, and many species remain undescribed, the actual number of species is therefore unknown, with estimates varying between 2,000 and 3,000. Cichlids are popular freshwater fish kept in the home aquarium, Cichlids span a wide range of body sizes, from species as small as 2.5 cm in length to much larger species approaching 1 m in length. As a group, cichlids exhibit a diversity of body shapes, ranging from strongly laterally compressed species to species that are cylindrical. Generally, cichlids tend to be of size, ovate in shape, and slightly laterally compressed, and generally similar to the North American sunfishes in morphology, behavior. Many cichlids, particularly tilapia, are important food fishes, while others are valued game fish, the family includes many familiar aquarium fish, including the angelfish and discus.
Cichlids have the largest number of endangered species among vertebrate families and their diversity in the African Great Lakes is important for the study of speciation in evolution. Many cichlids introduced into waters outside of their range have become nuisances. Cichlids share a key trait, the fusion of the lower pharyngeal bones into a single tooth-bearing structure. Cichlids are efficient and often highly specialized feeders that capture and process a wide variety of food items. This is assumed to be one reason why they are so diverse, Cichlids vary in body shape, ranging from compressed and disc-shaped, to triangular to elongated and cylindrical. A ninth subfamily, was recognized by Sparks. Cichlid taxonomy is still debated, and classification of genera cannot yet be definitively given, a comprehensive system of assigning species to monophyletic genera is still lacking, and there is not complete agreement on what genera should be recognized in this family. As an example of the problems, Kullander placed the African genus Heterochromis phylogenetically within Neotropical cichlids.
Other problems center upon the identity of the common ancestor for the Lake Victoria superflock
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Biodiversity, a contraction of biological diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. One of the most widely used definitions defines it in terms of the variability within species and it is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems. This can refer to genetic variation, ecosystem variation, or species variation within an area, terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator, which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, and is richest in the tropics and these tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 per cent of earths surface, and contain about 90 percent of the worlds species. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, there are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, the number and variety of plants and other organisms that exist is known as biodiversity.
It is a component of nature and it ensures the survival of human species by providing food, shelter, medicines. The richness of biodiversity depends on the conditions and area of the region. All species of plants taken together are known as flora and about 300,000 species of plants are known to date, all species of animals taken together are known as fauna which includes birds, fish, insects, molluscs, etc. Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions, more than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earths current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described. More recently, in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth currently with only one-thousandth of one percent described, the total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes.
In comparison, the mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all living on Earth. The age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years old, there are microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia. Other early physical evidence of a substance is graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old meta-sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland. More recently, in 2015, remains of life were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia. According to one of the researchers, If life arose relatively quickly on Earth, it could be common in the universe
The reticulated python is a species of python found in Southeast Asia. They are the worlds longest snakes and longest reptiles, and among the three heaviest snakes, like all pythons, they are nonvenomous constrictors and normally not considered dangerous to humans. However, cases of people killed by reticulated pythons have been documented, an excellent swimmer, P. reticulatus has been reported far out at sea and has colonized many small islands within its range. The specific name, reticulatus, is Latin meaning net-like, or reticulated and this species is the largest snake native to Asia. More than a thousand wild reticulated pythons in southern Sumatra were studied and estimated to have a range of 1.5 to 6.5 m. Reticulated pythons with lengths more than 6 m are rare, though according to the Guinness Book of World Records, a reticulated python of the same length as a green anaconda may weigh only half as much as the bulkier anaconda. One of the largest scientifically measured specimens, from Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, was measured under anesthesia at 6.95 m, when Colossus died on April 14,1963, its body was deposited in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History.
The hide tends to stretch from the process, and thus be longer than the snake from which it came – e. g. by roughly 20–40% or more. Because of these issues, a 2012 journal article concluded that Colossus was neither the longest snake nor the heaviest snake ever maintained in captivity, too large to be preserved with formaldehyde and stored in alcohol, the specimen was instead prepared as a disarticulated skeleton. The hide was sent to a laboratory to be tanned, but it was either lost or destroyed, there is considerable confusion in the literature over whether Colossus was male or female. The colour pattern is a geometric pattern that incorporates different colours. The back typically has a series of diamond shapes flanked by smaller markings with light centers. In this species wide range, much variation of size, colour. In zoo exhibits, the pattern may seem garish, but in a shadowy jungle environment amid fallen leaves and debris. Called disruptive colouration, it protects them from predators and helps them to catch their prey, the smooth dorsal scales are arranged in 69–79 rows at midbody.
There are deep pits on four anterior upper labials, on two or three anterior lower labials, and on five or six lower labials. The original description does not include a type locality, three subspecies have been proposed, but are not recognized in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System. The color and size can vary a great deal among the subspecies described, geographical location is a good key to establishing the subspecies, as each one has a distinct geographical range
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Association of Science-Technology Centers
The Association of Science-Technology Centers is a non-profit, global organization based in Washington, D. C. United States that provides a voice, professional support, and programming opportunities for science centers, museums. Through strategic alliances and global partnerships, ASTCs goal is to increase awareness of the valuable contributions its members make to their communities and the field of informal STEM learning. Science centers connect people with science, give science a presence in the community and offer people of all ages and backgrounds the opportunity to ask questions, Science centers provide firsthand experience and an opportunity to develop intuitions about the natural world. Many schools rely on science centers for field trips and auditorium programs, hands-on curriculum, science kits. In the words of Frank Oppenheimer, founder of San Franciscos Exploratorium, “No one flunks a museum. ”For some, the interests awakened by science center experiences have turned into a passion for science, and the beginning of a lifetime devoted to teaching or research. ASTC’s goal is to support efforts of science centers and museums, in addition to their staff, visitors.
Some ASTC member institutions participate in ASTC’s Passport Program, more than 300 institutions in over a dozen countries are currently participating in the Passport Program. ASTC provides professional development opportunities for those who work in science centers, ASTC provides CoPs with resources and support for connecting with colleagues, convening meetings, and organizing workshops, among other activities. They work with partners to support sharing of knowledge and experience, and assist with planning, marketing, ASTC Connect is a learning and resource-sharing area for the informal science education community. Discussion forums, online workshops, and self-paced tutorials are hosted in collaboration with partners throughout the field. The YOUmedia Network is a group of libraries and community-based organizations that invite people to create, learn. There are currently 24 Learning Lab sites operating across the country with programs that are driven by youth interests and connect learning directly back to school and other realms.
This program was inspired by President Obama and other world leaders’ commitment to strengthening the science, engineering, to date, more than 100 science centers have joined the challenge. ExhibitFiles is a community of exhibit practitioners building a shared collection of exhibition records. Its a place to connect with colleagues, find out about exhibits, exhibitFiles was developed to preserve and share experiences and materials that are often unrecorded and hard to locate. Visitors to the site can search for, and post exhibitions rentals. ASTC and the National Writing Project received a grant from the National Science Foundation to design a program that will integrate science, through this program, ten partnerships will be created between NWP sites and ASTC-member science centers and museums to develop innovative programs for educators and youth
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can refer generally to the study of the features of any terrestrial planet. Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth by providing the evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life. Geology plays a role in engineering and is a major academic discipline. The majority of data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These typically fall into one of two categories and unconsolidated material, the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three types of rock, igneous and metamorphic. The rock cycle is an important concept in geology which illustrates the relationships between three types of rock, and magma. When a rock crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock, the sedimentary rock can be subsequently turned into a metamorphic rock due to heat and pressure and is weathered, eroded and lithified, ultimately becoming a sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary rock may be re-eroded and redeposited, and metamorphic rock may undergo additional metamorphism, all three types of rocks may be re-melted, when this happens, a new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once again crystallize. Geologists study unlithified material which typically comes from more recent deposits and these materials are superficial deposits which lie above the bedrock. Because of this, the study of material is often known as Quaternary geology. This includes the study of sediment and soils, including studies in geomorphology and this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading, and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity. This coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics provided a basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features could be explained as plate boundaries, mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, were explained as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart.
Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes were explained as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts under another, transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes. Plate tectonics provided a mechanism for Alfred Wegeners theory of continental drift and they provided a driving force for crustal deformation, and a new setting for the observations of structural geology
California Science Center
The California Science Center is a state agency and museum located in Exposition Park, Los Angeles, next to the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County and the University of Southern California. Billed as the West Coasts largest hands-on science center, the California Science Center is a partnership between the State of California and the California Science Center Foundation. The California Natural Resources Agency oversees the California Science Center and the California African American Museum, founded in 1951 as the California Museum of Science and Industry, the Museum was remodeled and renamed in 1998 as the California Science Center. The California Science Center hosts the California State Science Fair annually, admission includes access to the permanent exhibits, such as the Space Shuttle Endeavour and other prominent aircraft and spacecraft, and to various demonstrations. A separate ticket is required for the IMAX movies, most special traveling exhibitions, and special activities include a climbing wall, motion simulator.
The Center has been accredited by the American Alliance of Museums and the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, the museum is an affiliate in the Smithsonian Affiliations program. An area with activities and exhibits that explore innovation and invention, with themes involving construction, energy. The brick and terra cotta building, designed by William D. Coates, Jr. state architect, after World War II, the building featured exhibits about state science and technology industries. In 1951, the became the California Museum of Science. The State Exhibition building was renamed in honor of major donor, the hands-on interactive exhibits included themes on agriculture, electricity, energy and minerals. Interaction stations demonstrated different concepts including celestial mechanics, the Möbius strip, symmetry, the original exhibit closed in 1998, and is now on display at the New York Hall of Science. The Hall of Health was added in 1968, in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics, the museum added new exhibits on earthquakes and economics, and a IMAX theatre.
The opening and closing ceremonies for the games were held in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, in 1994, the museums building was damaged by the Northridge earthquake. The California Museum of Science and Industry closed in 1996 to prepare for a new facility, the California Aerospace Museum was opened in 1984 adjacent to and operated by the California Museum of Science and Industry to coincide with the Summer Olympics. The museum focused on the States history as a leader in the aviation and aerospace industries and featured a giant, hangar-like space with aircraft and space vehicles, the building, now known as the Air and Space Gallery, was closed in 2011. In 2012 the building was listed on the California Register of Historical Resources, in 1988 the museums leadership began a to develop a three-phase, 25-year master plan to transform the institution from a science museum to a science education facility. This new facility would be known as the California Science Center, the original museum building closed its doors in 1996 to prepare for the new construction.
The new construction was designed by Portland, Oregon-based Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership, changes included, Redesign of the original main building
Western United States
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because European settlement in the U. S. expanded westward after its founding, prior to about 1800, the crest of the Appalachian Mountains was seen as the western frontier. Since then, the frontier moved westward and eventually lands west of the Mississippi River came to be referred to as the West. The West contains several major biomes, the Western U. S. is the largest region of the country, covering more than half the land area of the United States. Given this expansive and diverse geography it is no wonder the region is difficult to specifically define, a majority of the historian respondents placed the eastern boundary of the West east of the Census definition out on the eastern edge of the Great Plains or on the Mississippi River. The survey respondents as a whole showed just how little agreement there was on the boundaries of the West, within a region as large and diverse as the Western United States, smaller areas with more closely shared demographics and geography have developed as subregions.
Meanwhile, the states of Idaho, Montana and Washington can be considered part of the Northwest or Pacific Northwest, West Texas in the Chihuahuan Desert may be considered as part of the Western U. S. Fort Worth has long laid claim to be Where the West Begins, the West is still one of the most sparsely settled areas in the United States with 49.5 inhabitants per square mile. Only Texas with 78.0 inhabitants/sq mi, Washington with 86.0 inhabitants/sq mi. and California with 213.4 inhabitants/sq mi. exceed the national average of 77.98 inhabitants/sq mi. The entire Western region has strongly influenced by European, Hispanic or Latino and Native Americans. African and European Americans, continue to wield a stronger political influence because of the rates of citizenship and voting among Asians. The West contains much of the Native American population in the U. S. particularly in the reservations in the Mountain. The Western United States has a sex ratio than any other region in the United States.
Because the tide of development had not yet reached most of the West when conservation became an issue, agencies of the federal government own. National parks are reserved for activities such as fishing, camping and boating, but other government lands allow commercial activities like ranching, logging. The largest city in the region is Los Angeles, located on the West Coast, Other West Coast cities include San Diego, San Bernardino, San Jose, San Francisco, Bakersfield, Seattle and Portland. Prominent cities in the Mountain States include Denver, Colorado Springs, Tucson, Las Vegas, Salt Lake City, Boise, El Paso, and Cheyenne. Along the Pacific Ocean coast lie the Coast Ranges and they collect a large part of the airborne moisture moving in from the ocean