Russian colonization of the Americas
The Russian colonization of the Americas covers the period from 1732 to 1867, when the Russian Empire laid claim to northern Pacific Coast territories in the Americas. Russian colonial possessions in the Americas are collectively known as Russian America, Russian expansion eastward began in 1552, and in 1639 Russian explorers reached the Pacific Ocean. In 1725, Emperor Peter the Great ordered navigator Vitus Bering to explore the North Pacific for potential colonization, the Russians were primarily interested in the abundance of fur-bearing mammals on Alaskas coast, as stocks had been depleted by overhunting in Siberia. Berings first voyage was foiled by thick fog and ice, but in 1741 a second voyage by Bering, Russian promyshlenniki quickly developed the maritime fur trade, which instigated several conflicts between the Aleuts and Russians in the 1760s. The fur trade proved to be an enterprise, capturing the attention of other European nations. In response to potential competitors, the Russians extended their claims eastward from the Commander Islands to the shores of Alaska, in 1784, with encouragement from Empress Catherine the Great, explorer Grigory Shelekhov founded Russias first permanent settlement in Alaska at Three Saints Bay.
Ten years later, the first group of Orthodox Christian missionaries began to arrive, evangelizing thousands of Indians, angered by encroachment on their land and other grievances, the indigenous peoples relations with the Russians deteriorated. In 1802, Tlingit warriors destroyed several Russian settlements, most notably Redoubt Saint Michael and this failed to expel the Russians, who reestablished their presence two years following the Battle of Sitka. In 1808, Redoubt Saint Michael was rebuilt as New Archangel, a year later, the RAC began expanding its operations to more abundant sea otter grounds in Northern California, where Fort Ross was built in 1812. By the middle of the 19th century, profits from Russias American colonies were in steep decline, competition with the British Hudsons Bay Company had brought the sea otter to near extinction, while the population of bears and foxes on land was nearing depletion. The purchase of Alaska for $7.2 million ended Imperial Russias colonial presence in the Americas, many indigenous peoples protested the sale, arguing that they were the rightful owners of the land and that Russia had no right to sell Alaska.
The first European landfall took place in southern Alaska in 1741 during the Russian exploration by Vitus Bering, captain Sterling Romanov and his wife Anna Romanov founded the first Russian colony in the Americas. Between 1774 and 1800 Spain led expeditions to Alaska in order to assert its claim over the Pacific Northwest. These claims were abandoned at the turn of the 19th century. Imperial Russia was unique among European empires for having no state sponsorship of foreign expeditions or territorial settlement, the first state-protected trading company for sponsoring such activities in the Americas was the Shelikhov-Golikov Company of Grigory Shelikhov and Ivan Larionovich Golikov. A number of companies were operating in Russian America during the 1780s. Shelikhov petitioned the government for control, but in 1788 Catherine II decided to grant his company a monopoly only over the area it had already occupied. Other traders were free to compete elsewhere, catherines decision was issued as the imperial ukase of September 28,1788
The Lasky-DeMille Barn is one of Hollywoods first film studios. It is a designated California State Historic Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and it is now the site of the Hollywood Heritage Museum. The barn was built in about 1895 on the Hollywood, California citrus ranch of Robert Northam, located at the southeast corner of Selma and Vine, it housed horses, carriages and other farm supplies. It was sold in 1904 to Jacob Stern, the barn was at the southeast corner of Selma and Vine Streets. In March 1913, it was purchased by L. L. Burns, the pair rented the barn, now called the Burns and Revier Studio and Laboratory, as a film location. In December of that year, Cecil B, in 1926, the barn was moved to the back lot of United Studios, where present day Paramount was built. It went through several uses as a set, research library, conference area. In a ceremony attended by its founders, the Lasky-DeMille Barn was dedicated on December 27,1956, as Hollywoods First Major Film Company Studio,554, representing the birth of the Hollywood motion picture industry and becoming the first landmark associated with it.
In October 1979, the barn was moved off the Paramount lot to a vacant lot in Hollywood. It was moved by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce to the lot of The Hollywood Palace theater. Hollywood Heritage Museum The Lasky-DeMille Barn was acquired by Hollywood Heritage and it was moved to its present site at the southern end of the parking lot of the Hollywood Bowl, where it was restored and made into the Hollywood Heritage Museum. AFI entry for The Squaw Man IMDb entry for The Squaw Man The Story of the Lasky-DeMille Barn by Allan Ellenberger on Dec 22nd,2013
Northern California, often abbreviated NorCal, is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. The 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, and from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. The arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries, in 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a geographic designation. Californias north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco, though, Northern California usually refers to the states northernmost 48 counties. This definition coincides with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, the term is applied to the area north of Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains.
Because of Californias large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well, the state is often considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast while the region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the economic, scientific. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is Home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, Northern Californias largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto.
The 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any area in California. The states larger cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts. The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish Crown, in 1542, beginning in 1565, the Spanish Manila galleons crossed the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Spanish Philippines, with silver and gemstones from Mexico. The Manila galleons returned across the northern Pacific, and reached North America usually off the coast of northern California, in 1579, northern California was visited by the English explorer Sir Francis Drake who landed north of todays San Francisco and claimed the area for England. In 1602, the Spaniard Sebastián Vizcaíno explored Californias coast as far north as Monterey Bay, other Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of northern California for the next 150 years, but no settlements were established.
The first European inhabitants were Spanish missionaries, who built missions along the California coast, the mission at Monterey was first established in 1770, and at San Francisco in 1776
The HP Garage is a private museum where the company Hewlett-Packard was founded. It is located at 367 Addison Avenue in Palo Alto, California and it is considered to be the Birthplace of Silicon Valley. HP founders William Hewlett and David Packard are considered the first Stanford students who took Termans advice, the garage has since been designated California Historical Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is not open for tours, but the property can be viewed from the sidewalk. The home, originally designated as 367 Addison Avenue, was first occupied in 1905 by Dr. John Spencer, his wife Ione, Dr. Spencer became Palo Altos first mayor in 1909. In 1918, the house was divided two separate apartments, numbered 367 and 369. In 1937, David Dave Packard, 25 years old, visited William Bill Hewlett in Palo Alto, both men attended Stanford University, where its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman encouraged his students to establish their own electronics companies in the area instead of leaving California.
In 1938, newly married Dave and Lucile Packard moved into 367 Addison Ave, mrs. Spencer, now widowed, moved into the second-floor apartment,369 Addison. Hewlett and Packard began to use the garage, with $538 in capital. In 1939, Hewlett and Packard formed their partnership with a coin toss, hewlett-Packards first product, built in the garage, was an audio oscillator, the HP200A. California registered landmark,1987 National Register of Historic Places,2007 Rebuilding HPs Garage
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
The Historic-Cultural Monument process has its origin in the Historic Buildings Committee formed in 1958 by the Los Angeles chapter of the American Institute of Architects. On April 30,1962, a historic preservation ordinance proposed by the AIA committee was passed. The original Cultural Heritage Board was formed in the summer of 1962, consisting of William Woollett, FAIA, Bonnie H. Riedel, Carl S. Dentzel, Senaida Sullivan and Edith Gibbs Vaughan. The board met for the first time in August 1962, at a time when the owner of the historic Leonis Adobe was attempting to demolish the structure, in its first day of official business, the board designated the Leonis Adobe and four other sites as Historic-Cultural Monuments. The designation of a property as a Historic-Cultural Monument does not prevent demolition or alteration, the designation requires permits for demolition or substantial alteration to be presented to the commission. The commission has the power to delay the demolition of a property for up to one year.
In the commissions first decade of operation, it designated 101 properties as Historic-Cultural Monuments, by March 2010, there were 979 designated properties. A. Historic-Cultural Monuments website — with ever-updated LAHCM List via PDF link, official Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources website — Homepage Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission website Designated LAHCM Landmarks by Neighborhood — L. A. Bariscale. Bariscales Flickr Photostream — Big Orange Flickr Gallery of L. A. H. C. Monuments
Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises Californias 10 southernmost counties. The region is described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara. The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. Southern California is an economic center for the state of California. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.5 million people. With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of Californias population, located east of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada while towards the south is the Mexico–United States border, within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the countrys largest metropolitan areas.
With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation. The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, the motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony run major record companies, Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, some of the worlds biggest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U. S.
Open of Surfing, are all held in Southern California. Southern California is important to the world of yachting, the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachtings premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the Americas Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995, Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its popular beaches, the desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces. Southern California is not a geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, Californias North-South midway point lies at exactly 37°958.23 latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose, when the state is divided into two areas, the term Southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state
California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24,1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States, the Gold Rush initiated the California Genocide, with 100,000 Native Californians dying between 1848 and 1868. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory to the state of the first nominee for the Republican Party. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial, whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called forty-niners. The first to hear confirmed information of the rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, and Latin America. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Australia and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852.
Roads, churches and other towns were built throughout California, in 1849 a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by vote, and the future states interim first governor. In September,1850, California became a state, at the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of staking claims was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service, by 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, Gold worth tens of billions of todays dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with more than they had started with.
The Mexican–American War ended on February 3,1848, although California was firmly in American hands before that, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States. The California Gold Rush began at Sutters Mill, near Coloma, on January 24,1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two tested the metal. However, rumors started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher
Sutters Mill was a sawmill, owned by 19th-century pioneer John Sutter, where gold was found, setting off the California Gold Rush. It was located on the bank of the South Fork American River in Coloma, California. On January 24,1848, James Wilson Marshall, an originally from New Jersey, found flakes of gold in the American River at the base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains near Coloma. At the time, Marshall was working to build a sawmill owned by John Sutter. On February 2,1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in Mexico City which transferred the American Southwest to the United States. When the news got out about the gold, people all over the world headed for California, speeding statehood. Henry Bigler and Azariah Smith, like other workers at the mill, were veterans of the Mormon Battalion, Bigler recorded the actual date when gold was discovered, January 24,1848, in his diary. This gold find started the California Gold Rush the next year, the site of the mill is located on the South Fork American River.
Marshall Gold Discovery State Historic Park is registered as California Historical Landmark #530, the current Sutters Mill is a replica of the original building. It was built based on Marshalls own drawings and an early day photo of the mill, the mill was the namesake and inspiration for a song by singer-songwriter Dan Fogelberg. The mill was the namesake for a song by the New Riders of the Purple Sage, the original flake of gold discovered at the mill is currently at the Smithsonian Institution. Sutters Fort California gold coinage Sutters Mill meteorite Discovery of Gold, by John A. Sutter, Hutchings’ California Magazine, Sutter describes how he wanted a sawmill near the Sacramento and how Marshall told him of the gold. Early photographs and textual references to Sutters Mill, via Calisphere, California Digital Library
California State Capitol
The California State Capitol is home to the government of California. The building houses the state legislature and the office of the governor. The building is based on the U. S. Capitol building in Washington, the west facade ends in projecting bays, and a portico projects from the center of the building. At the base of the portico, seven granite archways brace, eight fluted Corinthian columns line the portico. A cornice supports the pediment above depicting Minerva surrounded by Education, Industry, above the flat roof with balustrade are two drums supporting a dome. The first drum consists of a colonnade of Corinthian columns, the second, large arched windows line the drum walls. The dome is 64 m high, and supports a lantern with a dome capped with a gold-leafed orbed finial. The California Senate chamber seats its forty members in a chamber room decorated in red. The chamber is entered through a second floor corridor, from the coffered ceiling hangs an electric reproduction of the original gas chandelier.
A hand-carved dais caps off a recessed bay framed by Corinthian columns, the Latin phrase Senatoris est civitatis libertatem tueri lines the cornice. A portrait of George Washington by Jane Stuart, the daughter of Gilbert Stuart, is on the wall above, statues of the Roman goddess Minerva once overlooked both chambers. Today, sculpted by Michael H. Casey, appears only in the senate chambers, gilded Corinthian columns support the gallery above, and dark red curtains that can be drawn for privacy are tied back along the columns. High arched windows run along the bottom below rectangular pane windows, behind the rostrum, there are two chairs with red velvet cushions, reserved for the president pro tempore of the senate and the speaker of the assembly, but are never used. The California Assembly chamber is located at the end of the building. Its green tones are based on those of the British House of Commons, the dais rests along a wall shaped like an E, with the central projection housing the rostrum.
Along the cornice appears a quotation from Abraham Lincoln in Latin, almost every decorating element is identical to the Senate Chamber
Central California is a subregion of Northern California, generally thought of as the middle third of the state, north of Southern California. It includes the portion of the San Joaquin Valley, the Central Coast, the central hills of the California Coast Ranges. Central California is considered to be west of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, the largest cities in the region are Fresno, Salinas, Clovis, Turlock, Tulare and Hanford. Central California can have varying definitions depending on the context. Some divide the state by lines of latitude making northern, others divide by county lines or watershed boundaries. Some definitions include more of the San Joaquin Valley and even portions of the Central Valley. Some have less or none of Central Coast, generally the widest definition of central California is the middle third of the state by latitude. The northern boundary of area at 38°51 crosses just north of the Sacramento metro area. That leaves the most accepted definitions of central California to the south of there.
Central California as defined above includes the following 10 counties, Area cities, the University of California has one campus in the region. University of California, Merced opened on a newly constructed site on the east side of Merced in 2005, the California State University system has four campuses in the region. California State University, Monterey Bay opened on the site of the former Fort Ord army base in 1994, California State University, Stanislaus in Turlock opened in 1957. California State University, Fresno opened in 1911, the Monterey Institute of International Studies is a graduate school of Middlebury College. San Joaquin College of Law is a private, nonprofit law school located in Clovis, Fresno Pacific University is a private university in Fresno. The Naval Postgraduate School and Defense Language Institute are located in Monterey, most of the major highways in the region run north-south around the mountains. Interstate 5 and State Route 99 are the highways in the San Joaquin Valley.
US101 and State Route 1 are the coastal highways. Passenger rail in the consists of the Amtrak long-haul Coast Starlight