California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
State Scenic Highway System (California)
The State Scenic Highway System is a list of highways state highways, that have been designated by the California Department of Transportation as scenic highways. The California State Legislature makes state highways eligible for designation as a scenic highway. For a highway to be declared scenic, the government with jurisdiction over abutting land must adopt a "scenic corridor protection program" that limits development, outdoor advertising, earthmoving, Caltrans must agree that it meets the criteria; the desire to create such a designation has at times been in conflict with the property rights of abutters, for example on State Route 174. Scenic highways are marked by a California poppy, inside a rectangle or pentagon. State Route 1I-5 in San Juan Capistrano to SR 19 in Long Beach SR 187 near Santa Monica to US 101 near El Rio US 101 at Las Cruces to SR 246 in Lompoc Designated 1971-12-14 in Santa Barbara County: US 101 at Las Cruces to Lompoc SR 227 near Oceano to US 101 in Pismo Beach US 101 in San Luis Obispo to SR 35 in Daly City Designated 1999-08-13 in San Luis Obispo County: San Luis Obispo to Monterey County Designated 1965-06-07 in Monterey County: San Luis Obispo County to Carmel River Designated 1970-05-21 in Monterey County: Carmel River to SR 68 in Monterey Designated 1976-06-25 in San Mateo County: Santa Cruz County to Half Moon Bay SR 35 to US 101 in San Francisco US 101 near Marin City to US 101 at LeggettState Route 2I-210 in La Cañada Flintridge to SR 138 near Wrightwood Designated 1971-05-12 in Los Angeles County: La Cañada Flintridge to San Bernardino CountyState Route 3SR 36 near Peanut to MontagueState Route 4SR 160 in Antioch to SR 84 near Brentwood SR 49 in Angels Camp to SR 89 near Markleeville Designated 1971-11-09 in Calaveras County: Arnold to Alpine County Designated 1970-09-14 in Alpine County: Calaveras County to SR 89 near MarkleevilleInterstate 5Mexico to SR 75 in southern San Diego SR 75 near Downtown San Diego to SR 74 in San Juan Capistrano I-210 in Sylmar to SR 126 in Santa Clarita SR 152 near Los Banos to I-580 near Tracy Designated 1968-10-25 in Merced County: SR 152 near Los Banos to Stanislaus County Designated 1968-10-25 in Stanislaus County: Merced County to San Joaquin County Designated 1974-06-07 in San Joaquin County: Stanislaus County to I-580 near Tracy SR 44 in Redding to Shasta Lake SR 89 near Mount Shasta to US 97 in Weed SR 3 in Yreka to OregonInterstate 8Sunset Cliffs Boulevard in San Diego to SR 98 near OcotilloState Route 9SR 1 in Santa Cruz to SR 17 in Los Gatos Designated 1979-10-18 in Santa Clara County: SR 35 at Saratoga Gap to Saratoga Sunnyvale Road in Saratoga Designated 1968-05-02 in Santa Clara County: Saratoga Sunnyvale Road in Saratoga to Los GatosInterstate 10SR 38 in Redlands to SR 62 near White WaterState Route 12US 101 in Santa Rosa to SR 121 near Sonoma Designated 1974-12-17 in Sonoma County: Santa Rosa to Agua Caliente State Route 14SR 58 near Mojave to US 395 near Little LakeInterstate 15SR 76 near Pala to SR 91 in Corona SR 58 in Barstow to SR 127 at BakerState Route 16SR 20 near Rumsey to CapayState Route 17SR 1 in Santa Cruz to SR 9 in Los GatosState Route 18SR 138 at Crestline to SR 247 at Lucerne ValleyState Route 20SR 1 in Fort Bragg to SR 16 near Rumsey SR 49 in Grass Valley to I-80 near Emigrant Gap Designated 1971-03-12 in Nevada County: Relief to Bear ValleyState Route 24Caldecott Tunnel near Oakland to I-680 in Walnut Creek Designated 1982-10-22 in Contra Costa County: Caldecott Tunnel near Oakland to I-680 in Walnut CreekState Route 25SR 198 near Priest Valley to SR 156 near HollisterState Route 27SR 1 at Topanga Beach to Mulholland Drive in Los AngelesState Route 28SR 89 in Tahoe City to NevadaState Route 29SR 37 in Vallejo to SR 221 near Napa Trancas Street in Napa to SR 20 near Upper LakeState Route 33US 101 in Ventura to SR 166 near Cuyama Designated 1972-02-18 in Ventura County: Wheeler Springs to near Sespe Gorge Designated 1988-07-11 in Ventura County: near Sespe Gorge to near Pine Mountain Ridge Road Designated 1972-02-18 in Ventura County: near Pine Mountain Ridge Road to near Lockwood Valley Road Designated 1988-07-11 in Ventura County: near Lockwood Valley Road to Santa Barbara CountyState Route 35SR 17 near Redwood Estates to SR 1 in San Francisco Designated 1968-09-13 in San Mateo County: Santa Cruz County to near Page Mill Road Designated 1968-01-22 in San Mateo County: near Page Mill Road to SR 92 near Crystal Springs ReservoirState Route 36US 101 near Fortuna to SR 3 near PeanutState Route 37SR 251 near Nicasio to SR 29 in VallejoState Route 38I-10 in Redlands to SR 18 at Big Bear Dam Designated 1968-03-19 in San Bernardino County: Santa Ana River to State Lane near SugarloafState Route 39I-210 in Azusa to SR 2 at Islip SaddleInterstate 40Barstow to NeedlesState Route 41SR 1 in Morro Bay to US 101 in Atascadero SR 46 near Cholame to SR 33 at Reef Station SR 49 at Oakhurst to Yosemite National ParkState Route 44I-5 in Redding to SR 89 near Old StationState Route 46SR 1 near Cambria to SR 41 near CholameState Route 49SR 41 at Oakhurst to SR 89 at Sattley Designated 1971-07-14 in Sierra County: Yuba County to Yuba PassU.
S. Route 50SR 49 in Placerville to Nevada Designated 1985-04-02 in El Dorado County: Placerville Drive in Placerville to Echo Summit Designated 1986-04-01 in El Dorado County: Echo Summit to South Lake TahoeState Route 52I-5 in San Diego to SR 67 in SanteeState Route 53SR 29 at Lower Lake to SR 20 near ClearlakeState Route 57SR 90 in Brea to SR 60 near IndustryState Route 58SR 14 near Mojave to I-15 in BarstowState Route 62I-10 near White Water to Arizona Designated 1972-09-14 in Riverside County: I-10 near White Water to San Bernardino CountyState Route 68Monterey to US 101 in Salinas Designated 1968-06-19 in Monterey County: SR 1 in Monterey to Salinas Rive
California State Route 3
State Route 3 is a state highway in the U. S. state of California. It runs from SR 36 north along the shore of Fort Jones and Etna; the route approaches Yreka, intersecting with Interstate 5, turns east to Montague. The road was numbered SR 3 in 1964, most of it has been part of the state highway system since 1933. SR 3 begins at the junction with SR 36 south of the town of Peanut in Trinity County. SR 3 is known as Bramlot Road from its southern terminus to Hayfork; this stretch of road through the Shasta-Trinity National Forest parallels the Hayfork River. Once SR 3 reaches the town of Hayfork, it travels along Hyampom Road east and snakes through the mountains to Douglas City and the junction with SR 299. From there, SR 3 runs concurrently with SR 299 north to the town of Weaverville. SR 3 separates from SR 299, providing access to the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area and Trinity Dam along Lewiston Lake. SR 3 passes through the towns of Covington Mill, Trinity Center, Wyntoon before paralleling the Trinity River and Trinity Mountains as Weaverville-Scott Mountain Road and crossing the Scott Mountains and the Pacific Crest Trail into Siskiyou County.
In Siskiyou County, SR 3 passes through Callahan, Etna and Fort Jones as it turns northeast to intersect with Interstate 5 in Yreka. At this point, SR 263 continues in the northerly direction towards SR 96. SR 3 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, a portion near the southern terminus is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 3 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System, is designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation for its entire length, meaning that it is a substantial section of highway passing through a "memorable landscape" with no "visual intrusions", where the potential designation has gained popular favor with the community. In 2014, SR 3 had an annual average daily traffic of 135 at U. S. Forest Service Road, 10000 at Moonlit Oaks Avenue, the latter of, the highest AADT for the highway.
The short piece from SR 36 north to Peanut was added to the state highway system in 1907 as part of the Peanut Road, which became Route 35 in 1917. Route 35 was extended north from Peanut to Route 20 near Douglas City in 1933, a new Route 82 was created, running from Route 3 in the Yreka area southwest to Etna and east to Montague; the gap between Douglas City and Etna was filled in 1959 with an extension of Route 82 south to Route 20 near Weaverville. The State Route 3 designation was applied to the Peanut-Montague roadway in the 1964 renumbering; the overlap with temporary I-5 near Yreka was removed. Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on the alignment that existed at the time, do not reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, T indicates postmiles classified as temporary. Segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted.
The numbers reset at county lines. California Roads portal California @ AARoads.com – State Route 3 Caltrans: Route 3 highway conditions California Highways: Route 3
Trinity County, California
Trinity County is a county in the northwestern part of the state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,786, making it the fourth least-populous county in California; the county seat and largest community is Weaverville. Weaverville has the distinction of housing some of California's oldest buildings; the courthouse, built in 1856, is the second oldest in the state, the Weaverville Drug Store has been filling prescriptions since 1852. The Joss House is a historic Taoist temple built in 1873. Trinity County is rugged, mountainous forested, lies along the Trinity River within the Salmon and Klamath Mountains, it is one of three counties in California with no incorporated cities. The county takes its name from the Trinity River, named in 1845 by Major Pierson B. Reading, under the mistaken impression that the river emptied into Trinidad Bay. Trinity is the English translation of Trinidad. Trinity County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood.
Parts of the county were given to Klamath County in 1852 and to Humboldt County in 1853. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,208 square miles, of which 3,179 square miles is land and 28 square miles is water; the county contains a significant portion of Shasta-Trinity National Forest, home to the Trinity Alps. The county hosts many visitors during summer months, for camping, boating on the lakes, rafting/kayaking on the rivers and fishing; the summers tend to be clear, sunny and dry, with little rain from June to September except for some mountain thunderstorms in the highest elevations. The winters tend to have copious precipitation, falling as rain under 1000m/3300 ft in the valley bottoms, as snow over 1000m/3300 ft on the mountainsides. December and February are the wettest. There is an extensive wild river and stream system, the terrain is quite rugged and forested, with the highest point at Mount Eddy, over 9,000 ft; the Klamath Mountains occupy the vast portion of the county.
Siskiyou County - north Shasta County - east Tehama County - southeast Mendocino County - south Humboldt County - west Shasta-Trinity National Forest Six Rivers National Forest Mendocino National Forest Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area Trinity Alps Wilderness Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness Trinity was a Republican-leaning county in Presidential and congressional elections until recently. No Democrat had won the county since Jimmy Carter in 1976 until Barack Obama defeated John McCain by a 4% margin in 2008. In 2012, the county narrowly. Voter registration reflects this trend, with Democratic and Republican registration in a near dead heat. Third-party candidates tend to do rather well in Trinity County: George Wallace got over 13% of the county's vote in 1968, it was the only California county carried by Ross Perot in 1992, it was Perot's best performance in the state in 1996, although he didn't carry it again. John Anderson did well in 1980, as did third-party candidates in 2016. Trinity County is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman.
In the state legislature Trinity is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood. In 2010, Trinity County voted against Proposition 19, which would have taxed and regulated marijuana. In 2016 Trinity County residents were asked again to vote on legalization of state-level recreational marijuana, facilitated by the Adult Use of Marijuana Act known as California Proposition 64; the measure passed with 50.1% in favor of legalization. Statewide, the measure passed with 57.1% of the vote. State Route 299 State Route 3 State Route 36 Trinity Transit provides weekday intercity bus service on State Routes 3 and 299, with connecting service in Willow Creek and Redding. Service is provided from Weaverville to Lewiston and Hayfork; the county owns five general aviation airports: Trinity Center Airport, Weaverville Airport, Hayfork Airport, Hyampom Airport and Ruth Airport. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Trinity County had a population of 13,786. The racial makeup of Trinity County was 12,033 White, 59 African American, 655 Native American, 94 Asian, 16 Pacific Islander, 217 from other races, 712 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 959 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,022 people, 5,587 households, 3,625 families residing in the county. The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 7,980 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.9% White, 0.5% Black or African American, 4.9% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from other races, 4.4% from two or more races. 4.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.1% were of German, 13.4% English, 12.1% Irish and 9.5% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.3% spoke English and 1.8% Spanish as their first language. There were 5,587 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families.
29.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average hou
Northern California is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area, the Greater Sacramento area, the Metropolitan Fresno area. Northern California contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada, including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta, most of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions; the 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. Native Americans arrived in northern California at least as early as 8,000 to 5,000 BC and even much earlier, successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries did not establish European settlements in northern California.
In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a formal geographic designation. California's north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco. Popularly, though, "Northern California" refers to the state's northernmost 48 counties; because of California's large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well. For example, the Central Valley is a region, distinct both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are placed in northern California; the state is considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. Extreme northern residents have felt under-represented in state government and in 1941 attempted to form a new state with southwestern Oregon to be called Jefferson, or more to introduce legislation to split California into two or three states.
The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast, while the interior region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Northern California is the name of a proposed new state on the 2018 California ballot created by splitting the existing state into three parts. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the world's economic and cultural stages. From the development of gold mining techniques and logging practices in the 19th century that were adopted around the world, to the development of world-famous and online business models, northern California has been at the forefront of new ways of doing business. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, to breakthroughs in microchip technology. Cultural contributions include the works of Ansel Adams, George Lucas, Clint Eastwood, as well as beatniks, the Summer of Love, the cradle of the international environmental movement, the open, casual workplace first popularized in the Silicon Valley dot-com boom and now in use around the world.
Other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, the largest of California, Travis Air Force Base. Northern California's largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto. With expanding development in all these areas, the San Francisco Bay Area, Monterey Bay Area, central part of the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may now be viewed as part of a single megalopolis; the 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any metropolitan area in California; the state's larger inland cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts.
Important cities in the region not in major metropolitan areas include Eureka on the far North Coast, Redding, at the northern end of the Central Valley and Yuba City in the mid-north of the Valley, as well as Fresno and Visalia on the southern end. Though smaller in every case except for Fresno than the larger cities of the vast region, these smaller regional centers are of historical, inflated economic importance for their respective size, due to their locations, which are rural or otherwise isolated. Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America; the first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish
History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a large connected system began in 1912, after the state's voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways; the last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, after which only minor changes have been made. The first state road was authorized on March 26, 1895, when a law created the post of "Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner" to maintain the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, now US 50 from Smith Flat - 3 miles east of Placerville - to the Nevada state line; the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a stone bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. In 1895, on March 27, the legislature created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads; the bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896.
The legislature replaced the Bureau of Highways with the Department of Highways on April 1, 1897, three days after it passed a law creating a second state highway from Sacramento to Folsom - another part of what became US 50 - to be maintained by three "Folsom Highway Commissioners". This was the last highway maintained by a separate authority, as the next state road, the Mono Lake Basin State Road, was designated by the legislature in 1899 to be built and maintained by the Department of Highways. Several more state highways were legislated in the next decade, the legislature passed a law creating the Department of Engineering on March 11, 1907; this new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. On March 22, 1909 the "State Highways Act" was passed, taking effect on December 31, 1910 after a successful vote by the people of the state in November; this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a "continuous and connected state highway system" that would connect all county seats.
To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8, 1911 to take full charge of the construction and maintenance of this system. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, which ended up stretching about 3100 miles. Construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR 82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the system built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California and the Yolo Causeway west from Sacramento; because the first bond issue did not provide enough funding, the "State Highways Act of 1915" was approved by the legislature on May 20, 1915 and the voters in November 1916, taking effect on December 31. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system and $3 million for a further 680 miles specified by the law. At this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34.
In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, turned over the 750 miles of roads adopted by legislative act, until maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these - and routes subsequently added legislatively in 1917 and 1919 - were given numbers from 35 to 45. A third bond issue was approved by the voters at a special election on July 1, 1919, provided $20 million more for the existing routes and the same amount for new extensions totaling about 1800 miles, adding Routes 46 to 64 to the system; the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920. The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, the California Highway Commission was separated as its own department in 1923. In order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923; the legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925.
In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, placing guide and warning signs along state highways, marked the U. S. Highways along several of the most major state highways; the California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on state highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Carquinez Bridge. After 1927 and 1929, in which no highways were added to the system, the legislature authorized the construction of 23 new routes in 1931, which were numbered from 72 to 80 when not forming extensions of existing routes. Two years another 213 sections of highway were added doubling the total length of state highways to about 14000 miles. Many of these new routes, as well as a number of existing routes, were incorporated into the initial system of state sign routes in 1934 posted by the auto clubs; the Division of Highways took over signage on stat
A Truck scale, weighbridge or railroad scale is a large set of scales mounted permanently on a concrete foundation, used to weigh entire rail or road vehicles and their contents. By weighing the vehicle both empty and when loaded, the load carried by the vehicle can be calculated; the key component that uses a weighbridge in order to make the weigh measurement is load cells. Commercial scales have to be National Type Evaluation Program certified; the certification is issued by the National Conference on Weights and Measures, in accordance to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Handbook 44" specifications and tolerances, through Conformity Assessment and the Verified Conformity Assessment Program Handbook 44: General Code paragraph G-A.1.. NTEP approved scales are considered those scales which are intended by the manufacturer for use in commercial applications where products are sold by weight. NTEP Approved is known as Legal for Trade or complies with Handbook 44. NTEP scales are used for applications ranging from weighing coldcuts at the deli, to fruit at the roadside farm stand, shipping centers for determining shipping cost to weighing gold and silver and more.
Electronic Electronic Digital Digital Digital Rail Weighbridges Movable Weighbridge Mechanical weighbridge Mechanical Electro-mechanical Portable weighbridge Axle scales Portable ramp end scales Truck scales can be surface mounted with a ramp leading up a short distance and the weighing equipment underneath or they can be pit mounted with the weighing equipment and platform in a pit so that the weighing surface is level with the road. They are built from steel or concrete and by nature are robust. In earlier versions the bridge is installed over a rectangular pit that contains levers that connect to a balance mechanism; the most complex portion of this type is the arrangement of levers underneath the weighbridge since the response of the scale must be independent of the distribution of the load. Modern devices use multiple load cells that connect to an electronic equipment to totalize the sensor inputs. In either type of semi-permanent scale the weight readings are recorded in a nearby hut or office.
Many weighbridges are now linked to a PC which runs truck scale software capable of printing tickets and providing reporting features. Truck scales can be used for two main purposes: Selling or charging by weight over the bridge Check weighing both axle weights and gross vehicle weights; this helps to stop possible heavy fines. They are used in industries that manufacture or move bulk items, such as in mines or quarries, garbage dumps / recycling centers, bulk liquid and powder movement, household goods, electrical equipment. Since the weight of the vehicle carrying the goods is known they are a quick and easy way to measure the flow of bulk goods in and out of different locations. A single axle truck scale or axle weighing system can be used to check individual axle weights and gross vehicle weights to determine whether the vehicle is safe to travel on the public highway without being stopped and fined by the authorities for being overloaded. Similar to the full size truck scale these systems can be pit mounted with the weighing surface flush to the level of the roadway or surface mounted.
For many uses weighbridges have been supplanted by simple and thin electronic weigh cells, over which a vehicle is driven. A computer accumulates the total vehicle weight. By weighing the force of each axle it can be assured that the vehicle is within statutory limits, which will impose a total vehicle weight, a maximum weight within an axle span limit and an individual axle limit; the former two limits ensure the safety of bridges. Portable truck scales can be found in use around the world. A portable truck scale will have lower frame work that can be placed on non-typical surfaces such as dirt; these scales retain the same level of accuracy as a pit-type scale, with accuracy of up to + or - 1%. The first portable truck scale record in the US was units operated by the Weight Patrol of the Los Angeles Motor Patrol in 1929. Four such weighing units were used with one under each of the trucks wheels; each unit could record up to 15,000 pounds. On-board scale Scale test car Weighing scale Weigh lock Types of Weighbridge & images of different type of weighbridges