National Highway System (United States)
The National Highway System is a network of strategic highways within the United States, including the Interstate Highway System and other roads serving major airports, rail or truck terminals, railway stations, pipeline terminals and other strategic transport facilities. Altogether, it constitutes the largest highway system in the world. Individual states are encouraged to focus federal funds on improving the efficiency and safety of this network; the roads within the system were identified by the United States Department of Transportation in cooperation with the states, local officials, metropolitan planning organizations and approved by the United States Congress in 1995. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 provided that certain key routes such as the Interstate Highway System, be included; the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 is a United States Act of Congress, signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 28, 1995. The legislation designated about 160,955 miles of roads, including the Interstate Highway System, as the NHS.
Aside from designating the system, the act served several other purposes, including restoring $5.4 billion in funding to state highway departments, giving Congress the power to prioritize highway system projects, repealing all federal speed limit controls, prohibits the federal government from requiring states to use federal-aid highway funds to convert existing signs or purchase new signs with metric units. The act created a State Infrastructure Bank pilot program. Ten states were chosen in 1996 for this new method of road financing; these banks would lend money like regular banks, with funding coming from the federal government or the private sector, they would be repaid through such means as highway tolls or taxes. In 1997, 28 more states asked to be part of the program. Ohio was the first state to use a state infrastructure bank to start building a road. An advantage to this method was completing projects faster. According to the Federal Highway Administration, the 160,000-mile National Highway System includes roads important to the United States' economy and mobility, from one or more of the following road networks: Interstate Highway System: The entire Interstate Highway System is included in the NHS, but retains its separate identity within the NHS.
Other Principal Arterials: Highways in rural and urban areas which provide access between an arterial and a major port, public transportation facility, or other intermodal transportation facility. Strategic Highway Network: The entire network of highways which are important to the United States’ strategic defense policy and which provide defense access and emergency capabilities for defense purposes. Major Strategic Highway Network Connectors: Highways which provide access between major military installations and routes which are part of STRAHNET. Intermodal Conectors: Routes which provide access between major intermodal facilities and the other four subsystems making up the NHS; the system includes 4% of the nation's roads, but carries more than 40% of all highway traffic, 75% of heavy truck traffic, 90% of tourist traffic. All urban areas with a population of over 50,000 and about 90% of America's population live within 5 miles of the network, the longest in the world. U. S. Roads portal This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Transportation.
STRAHNET description at US military's Transportation Engineering Agency STRAHNET article at the GlobalSecurity.org Weingroff, Richard F. "Backbone: Creation Of The National Highway System" National Highways System Proposed in 1913 State-by-state maps of the National Highway System of the Federal Highway Administration
California State Route 180
State Route 180 is a state highway in California, United States, which runs through the heart of the San Joaquin Valley from Mendota through Fresno to Kings Canyon National Park, with an unbuilt segment defined west to Paicines. Nearly the entire 24-mile stretch from the Kings River crossing to Cedar Grove is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, nearly the entire route from Paicines to Cedar Grove is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System. Two short segments travel through national parks, so are not state maintained and are the exceptions to the above: a segment through the General Grant Grove section of Kings Canyon National Park, the far eastern end of the road inside of Kings Canyon National Park; the freeway through Fresno has the distinction of having the most traveled section of road in the San Joaquin Valley. Major plans include an extension west to Interstate 5; the actual western terminus of SR 180 is at SR 33 in Mendota, with an unconstructed portion defined west across Interstate 5 to SR 25 in Paicines signed as County Route J1.
In Mendota, the route is carried on Oller Street and San Benito Avenue travels along Whitesbridge Avenue through Kerman to Fresno. Through Fresno, from Brawley Avenue to DeWolf Avenue, it is a 4-to-10-lane freeway intersecting SR 99 in a 2-level stack, SR 41 in a 4-level stack, the southern terminus of SR 168. SR 180 is a busy commercial route along most of its urban length, being a main street of Mendota, Kerman and Fresno's Squaw Valley, as was the old highway through Fresno. In east Fresno, the Kings Canyon corridor is one of the largest multicultural business districts in the city, together with east Belmont a mile north; the old Fresno "main street" of Broadway has long been torn down for Chuckchansi Park and Fulton Mall parking, but Stanislaus and Ventura Streets remain commercially viable, despite having fallen into some neglect over the years. This segment is being redeveloped as part of the Ventura Widening and Downtown Entryway Beautification Project, as well as the preservation or relocation of a number of historic buildings in Old Armenian Town on Ventura, with the creation of a new commercial district by the same name.
The old routing of SR 180 through downtown Fresno remains on the books, but is no longer signed and not considered a business route. The road no longer connects with its freeway bypass at all. Local agencies are now forced to maintain or improve the road. East of Fresno, the freeway links up with the original routing on Kings Canyon Blvd, continues north of Sanger, through Centerville and Fresno's Squaw Valley, before arriving at the entrance to Sierra National Forest near Dunlap, it follows the Kings River into General Grant Grove, where SR 198 splits off south toward Sequoia National Park. SR 180 turns north, passing through Wilsonia, leaving General Grant Grove turns east as it nears the South Fork of the Kings River near Hume, passes through Cedar Grove, terminates in Kanawyers at the entrance of the Kings Canyon National Park; the entire portion beyond Hume Road is closed during winters after the first snowfall. The majority of SR 180, from SR 25 to the entrance of General Grant Grove, is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, but only the piece in Fresno has been constructed to freeway standards.
A 24-mile length east of unbuilt State Route 65 near Minkler to the boundary of Kings Canyon, excepting the 2-mile portion through General Grant Grove, is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System. The road inside of General Grant Grove and Kings Canyon is a Forest Service Byway; the old route east of SR 99 to the General Grant Grove is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. In Fresno, SR 180 is Sequoia-Kings Canyon Freeway, named for its destinations to the east in the Sierra Nevada - Sequoia National Park and Kings Canyon National Park. Overlapping this, between SR 99 and Clovis Avenue it is the Senator Jim Costa Highway, after a longtime Assemblyman and Congressman for Fresno; the SR 41/SR 180 interchange is named the Rose Ann Vuich Interchange, for the longtime State Senator who secured funding for the initial freeway. Inside of Kings Canyon it is the Kings River Highway.
SR 180 handles a wide range of traffic volumes, from a low of 5,000 per day near Kerman, to over 160,000 at the congested SR 168 interchange, the most-traveled highway segment in the San Joaquin Valley. A study into the use of Measure C funds found that traffic volumes will increase between 50% and 100% across the entire road by 2020 in the more rural areas. In 1905, the easternmost portion of what is now SR 180 was created as Legislative Route 41, from General Grant Grove to the Kings River Canyon. In 1935 LR 41 was extended to be a road from Kings Canyon to Tracy, signed as SR 180 to Mendota and SR 33 beyond. Through Fresno from the west, the route turned on B Street, Stanislaus Street, down Broadway, turned at Ventura Street and left downtown on it, becoming Kings
California State Route 65
State Route 65 known as Highway 65, is a north-south state highway in the U. S. state of California. It is composed of two segments; the southern segment begins near Bakersfield and terminates at SR 198 near Exeter. It serves the communities of Oildale, Terra Bella, Porterville and Lindsay; the northern segment terminates at SR 70 at Olivehurst. It serves Lincoln and Wheatland; the route known as the Eastside Freeway, was envisioned as a major freeway connecting northern and southern California. Similar to the Westside Freeway on the opposite side of the valley, it would follow the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, traveling the entire length of the San Joaquin Valley. However, most of the route was never constructed. Of the estimated 300 miles, only 95 miles were constructed. If built, it would serve the communities of Ivanhoe, Sanger and Oakdale. SR 65 is part of the California Expressway System; the southern segment of State Route 65 begins at a partial interchange with State Route 99 north of Bakersfield.
From here to Porterville is a 40-mile rural two-lane highway through hills and grasslands while passing through the communities of Ducor and Terra Bella. This stretch of roadway is considered dangerous given the heavy amount of semi-trucks that drive this corridor. SR 65 expands to a four-lane freeway through Porterville, downgrading into a four-lane expressway upon leaving the city; the highway remains passing Strathmore and up to Lindsay. The highway is reduced to a rural two-lane highway through agricultural areas while passing through Exeter. SR 65's southern segment ends at the junction of State Route 198; this section has been designated the All America City Highway. The northern segment of State Route 65 begins at the interchange with Interstate 80 in Roseville as a freeway heading northwest to Blue Oaks Boulevard where the freeway turns north towards Lincoln, it turns northwest onto a new stretch of roadway at Industrial Avenue/Lincoln Boulevard where it turns west as the freeway ends at Nelson Lane.
The highway is downgraded to a four-lane expressway, turning north again, downgraded further to a two-lane highway, until it meets up with its original alignment just north of the community of Sheridan. After passing through Wheatland, it assumes its freeway designation a few miles north of the town, ending at State Route 70 in Olivehurst. In 2000, Caltrans issued a Project Study Report that analyzed six alternative alignments for the proposed Wheatland Bypass. After extensive public meetings, Caltrans identified Alternative E as the preferred alternative. Alternative E would start at the northern end of the Lincoln Bypass, proceed due north, crossing the Bear River on a new bridge to the east of the existing SR 65 alignment, it would bypass Wheatland to the east, turn west and pass along the southern edge of Beale Air Force Base before connecting to south end of the freeway segment at South Beale Road. If completed, the Wheatland Bypass would enable continuous freeway travel from I-80 to Marysville.
Although Caltrans completed the PSR in 2000 that identified the preferred alignment, the Wheatland Bypass remains unfunded. State and local officials cannot present a timetable for completing the bypass until $300 million is secured to complete the required environmental studies and construction. North of its present northern terminus at SR 70 in Olivehurst, the legislative designation of SR 65 continues west/northwest to SR 99 in Yuba City. Caltrans has planned since 1986 to extend SR 65 as a freeway west or northwest from SR 70 to SR 99 via a third bridge across the Feather River south of Yuba City to alleviate traffic on the two existing bridges between Yuba City and Marysville. Funding issues and environmental concerns have stalled the extension of SR 65 to Yuba City and the third Feather River Bridge; the initial segment was created in 1933 as Legislative Route 129. It was defined from LRN 4 near Bakersfield to LRN 263 in Kings Canyon National Park; the entire route was signed Route 65. In the 1950s, California was developing plans for a statewide freeway network.
Within the San Joaquin Valley, routes were discussed on the west side and along U. S. Route 99. However, officials in Stanislaus County believed that an additional major north-south freeway was needed to serve the east side of the valley. In 1955, they formally proposed the Eastside Freeway, which would be the eastern companion to the Westside Freeway. In 1959, the state defined Legislative Route 249, which would run from the junction of LRN 10 and LRN 129 to LRN 17; this would mark the birth of the Eastside Freeway. In 1964, California's state highways were renumbered; the portion of LRN 129 between Exeter and SR 180 would be removed and become SR 245. The remainder of LRN 129, all of LRN 249, U. S. Route 99E, would be combined to create SR 65. By 1969, except for Merced County, all eight counties which the route would traverse had it included in their general plans; this created a continuous roadway plan from Bakersfield to Roseville. The first segment to be constructed as a freeway was in 1964.
A short freeway segment was built at SR 99 in Kern County in c
Tulare is a city in Tulare County, California. The population was 59,278 at the 2010 census. Tulare is located in the heart of the San Joaquin Valley, eight miles south of Visalia and sixty miles north of Bakersfield; the city is named for the dry Tulare Lake, once the largest freshwater lake west of the Great Lakes. The city's mission statement is: "To promote a quality of life making Tulare the most desirable community in which to live, play, work and prosper." The Stockton seaport is 170 miles away, the Sacramento port is 207 miles away. The Los Angeles and San Francisco ports are each 200 miles away, making Tulare a hub or central location for product movement; the English name Tulare derives from Classical Nahuatl tōllin, "sedge" or "reeds", by way of Spanish tule, which exists in English as a loanword. The name is cognate with Tula and Tultitlán de Mariano Escobedo; the Yokuts people built reed boats and fished in what was to be called Tulare Lake in their homeland for centuries, until the invasion and settlement by the Spanish and American pioneers.
When California became a state in 1850, Tulare did not yet exist as a town. Tulare was founded by the Southern Pacific Railroad; the town was named for Lake Tulare. The lake had been named for the tule rush plant, a species of bulrush that predominantly lined the marshes and sloughs of its shore. Transportation was the first impetus behind the establishment of the town. Tulare flourished as the headquarters of the railroad in the area; the town suffered through many difficult challenges, but despite burning down and being rebuilt three times in its first fourteen years of existence, it was incorporated in 1888. In 1891, the railroad moved its headquarters to Bakersfield. Although the railroad was gone, the community of Tulare struggled to become an agricultural center for California, which it is today. Due to the inadequate 10 inches of rainfall per year, water resources had to be found. In order to bring water to Tulare, citizens established the Tulare Irrigation District and issued $500,000 in bonds to build an extensive canal system carrying water from the Sierra Nevada.
In 1903, when the bonds were paid off early, they celebrated by having a bond-burning celebration. Once the water system was established, Tulare burgeoned, becoming a center for farming and agriculture because of its central location. In 1912, Hulett C. Merritt founded Tagus Ranch; until its close, Tagus Ranch produce was known the world over, was served in the finest restaurants throughout America. At the end of World War II, a portion of Tagus Ranch served as a German POW camp. In 1940, famed aerobatic stunt pilot J. G. "Tex" Rankin secured a U. S. War Department contract to open and operate a civilian flying school to train United States Army Air Corps flight cadets. Rankin opened the Rankin Aeronautical Academy in Tulare in February 1941, where it operated throughout the duration of World War II. During its heyday Rankin Field, as it was otherwise known, trained 10,000 pilots in primary flight training, including twelve future Army Air Corps Aces and two Medal of Honor recipients. During World War II, in response to West Coast wartime hysteria, the U.
S. Army temporarily assumed control of the Tulare County Fairgrounds, converting it to the Tulare Assembly Center, a temporary detention center for Japanese Americans; the Assembly Center was administered by the Wartime Civil Control Administration, under the Western Defense Command and the U. S. 4th Army. The first internee was inducted on April 27, 1942, the last internee departed on September 4, 1942; the top population numbered 4,978 residents. In the latter part of 1942, internees began being moved to the ten more permanent "War Relocation Camps"; the majority of internees from the Tulare Assembly Center were sent to the Gila River War Relocation Center in Arizona. These temporary sites were located on fairgrounds or race tracks in public and visible locations. Tulare was the site of the National Championships for the Decathlon in Track and Field in 1949, 1950, 1952, 1962, as well as the Olympic Trials for the Decathlon in 1952. In the California State Legislature, Tulare is in the 16th Senate District, represented by Republican Shannon Grove, in the 26th Assembly District, represented by Republican Devon Mathis.
In the United States House of Representatives, Tulare is in California's 22nd congressional district, represented by Republican Devin Nunes. The Tulare City School District operates 10 elementary schools, five middle schools, two k-8 schools in Tulare; the ten elementary schools are Cypress, Garden, Lincoln, Mission Valley, Pleasant and Wilson. Lincoln and Kohn Elementary have Title I preschools; the five middle schools are Cherry, Live Oak, Los Tules and Community Day School. The K-8 school is Alpine Vista, opened in the 2013–14 school year. There is a private K-8 school called St. Aloysius. There are five K-8 country schools: Buena Vista, Oak Valley, Palo Verde and Sundale. Secondary education in Tulare is provided by the Tulare Joint Union High School District; the district operates five high schools in the city: Tulare Union, Tulare Western, Mission Oak, Tech Prep, Sierra Vista. Tulare students have two local area community colleges from which to choose: College of the Sequoias in Tulare, College of the Sequoias in nearby Visalia.
College of the Sequoias new Tulare Center for Agriculture and Technology campus, located on East Bardsley Ave in
Central Valley (California)
The Central Valley is a flat valley that dominates the geographical center of the U. S. state of California. It is 40 to 60 miles wide and stretches 450 miles from north-northwest to south-southeast, inland from and parallel to the Pacific Ocean coast, it covers 18,000 square miles, about 11% of California's total land area. The valley is bounded by the Sierra Nevada to the Coast Ranges to the west, it is California's single most productive agricultural region and one of the most productive in the world, providing more than half of the fruits and nuts grown in the United States. More than 7 million acres of the valley are irrigated via an extensive system of reservoirs and canals; the valley has many major cities, including the state capital Sacramento. The Central Valley watershed comprises over a third of California, it consists of three main drainage systems: the Sacramento Valley in the north, which receives well over 20 inches of rain annually. The Sacramento and San Joaquin river systems drain their respective valleys and meet to form the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, a large expanse of interconnected canals, stream beds, sloughs and peat islands.
The delta empties into the San Francisco Bay, ultimately flows into the Pacific. The waters of the Tulare Basin never flow to the ocean, though they are connected by man-made canals to the San Joaquin and could drain there again if they were to rise high enough; the valley encompasses all or parts of 18 Northern California counties: Butte, Glenn, Kings, Merced, San Joaquin, Shasta, Stanislaus, Tehama, Yuba and the Southern California county of Kern. The Central Valley is known to residents as "the Valley." Older names include "the Great Valley," a name still seen in scientific references, "Golden Empire," a booster name, still referred to by some organizations. The Central Valley is outlined by the Cascade, Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi mountain ranges on the east, the California Coast Ranges and San Francisco Bay on the west; the broad valley floor is carpeted by vast agricultural regions, dotted with numerous population centers. Subregions and their counties associated with the valley include: North Sacramento Valley Sacramento Metro North San Joaquin South San Joaquin There are four main population centers in the Central Valley, each equidistant from the next, from south to north: Bakersfield, Fresno and Redding.
While there are many communities large and small between these cities, these four cities act as hubs for regional commerce and transportation. About 6.5 million people live in the Central Valley today, it is the fastest growing region in California. There are 12 Metropolitan Statistical Areas and 1 Micropolitan Statistical Area in the Central Valley. Below, they are listed by μSA population; the largest city is the state capital Sacramento, followed by Fresno. The following metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas listed from largest to smallest: The flatness of the valley floor contrasts with the rugged hills or gentle mountains that are typical of most of California's terrain; the valley is thought to have originated below sea level as an offshore area depressed by subduction of the Farallon Plate into a trench further offshore. The San Joaquin Fault is a notable seismic feature of the Central Valley; the valley was enclosed by the uplift of the Coast Ranges, with its original outlet into Monterey Bay.
Faulting moved the Coast Ranges, a new outlet developed near what is now San Francisco Bay. Over the millennia, the valley was filled by the sediments of these same ranges, as well as the rising Sierra Nevada to the east; the one notable exception to the flat valley floor is Sutter Buttes, the remnants of an extinct volcano just to the northwest of Yuba City, 44 miles north of Sacramento. Another significant geologic feature of the Central Valley lies hidden beneath the delta; the Stockton Arch is an upwarping of the crust beneath the valley sediments that extends southwest to northeast across the valley. The Central Valley lies within the California Trough physiographic section, part of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the Pacific Mountain System; the "Central Valley grassland" is the Nearctic temperate and subtropical grasslands and shrub lands ecoregion, once a diverse grassland containing areas of desert grassland, savanna, riverside woodland, several types of seasonal vernal pools, large lakes such as now-dry Tulare Lake, Buena Vista Lake and Kern Lake.
However, much of the Central Valley environment
Orange Cove, California
Orange Cove is a small town in Fresno County, United States. The population was 9,078 at the 2010 census, up from 7,722 at the 2000 census. All of Orange Cove's residents are Hispanic, many of them farmers, about 1/3 of whom are not US Citizens from Latin America. Orange Cove is located in the San Joaquin Valley, 8 miles east-southeast of Reedley, at an elevation of 423 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles, all of its land. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Orange Cove has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate but a cold winter climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps. Elmer M. Sheridan founded the town in 1914, named it prior to large scale citrus growing; the first post office opened in 1914. The city incorporated in 1948; the 2010 United States Census reported that Orange Cove had a population of 9,078. The population density was 4,748.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Orange Cove was 3,940 White, 72 African American, 131 Native American, 101 Asian, 3 Pacific Islander, 4,481 from other races, 350 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8,413 persons. The Census reported that 9,078 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 2,068 households, out of which 1,459 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,202 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 430 had a female householder with no husband present, 222 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 207 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 10 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 174 households were made up of individuals and 88 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.39. There were 1,854 families; the population was spread out with 3,619 people under the age of 18, 1,113 people aged 18 to 24, 2,398 people aged 25 to 44, 1,435 people aged 45 to 64, 513 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.1 males.
There were 2,231 housing units at an average density of 1,167.0 per square mile, of which 2,068 were occupied, of which 893 were owner-occupied, 1,175 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.8%. 4,047 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 5,031 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,722 people, 1,694 households, 1,512 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,030.4 people per square mile. There were 1,767 housing units at an average density of 1,151.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 33.55% White, 0.31% Black or African American, 2.42% Native American, 1.49% Asian, 58.84% from other races, 3.38% from two or more races. 90.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,694 households out of which 62.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.2% were married couples living together, 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 10.7% were non-families.
7.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.56 and the average family size was 4.66. In the city, the population was spread out with 40.4% under the age of 18, 13.9% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 12.6% from 45 to 64, 5.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was US$22,357, the median income for a family was $22.5 thousand. Males had a median income of $21 thousand versus $16.8 thousand for females. The per capita income for the city was $7.13 thousand. About 39.9% of families and 44.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 54.6% of those under age 18 and 20.0% of those age 65 or over. The community of Orange Cove maintained its own police department for many years. In 1992 however, the city disbanded its police department, due to an inadequate budget and began contracting with the Fresno County Sheriff's Department for police services.
As of December 16, 2009, the city restarted its police department. Frank Steenport was the Chief. Marty Rivera became the Chief of Police. List of towns in California Official website
History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a large connected system began in 1912, after the state's voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways; the last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, after which only minor changes have been made. The first state road was authorized on March 26, 1895, when a law created the post of "Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner" to maintain the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, now US 50 from Smith Flat - 3 miles east of Placerville - to the Nevada state line; the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a stone bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. In 1895, on March 27, the legislature created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads; the bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896.
The legislature replaced the Bureau of Highways with the Department of Highways on April 1, 1897, three days after it passed a law creating a second state highway from Sacramento to Folsom - another part of what became US 50 - to be maintained by three "Folsom Highway Commissioners". This was the last highway maintained by a separate authority, as the next state road, the Mono Lake Basin State Road, was designated by the legislature in 1899 to be built and maintained by the Department of Highways. Several more state highways were legislated in the next decade, the legislature passed a law creating the Department of Engineering on March 11, 1907; this new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. On March 22, 1909 the "State Highways Act" was passed, taking effect on December 31, 1910 after a successful vote by the people of the state in November; this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a "continuous and connected state highway system" that would connect all county seats.
To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8, 1911 to take full charge of the construction and maintenance of this system. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, which ended up stretching about 3100 miles. Construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR 82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the system built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California and the Yolo Causeway west from Sacramento; because the first bond issue did not provide enough funding, the "State Highways Act of 1915" was approved by the legislature on May 20, 1915 and the voters in November 1916, taking effect on December 31. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system and $3 million for a further 680 miles specified by the law. At this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34.
In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, turned over the 750 miles of roads adopted by legislative act, until maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these - and routes subsequently added legislatively in 1917 and 1919 - were given numbers from 35 to 45. A third bond issue was approved by the voters at a special election on July 1, 1919, provided $20 million more for the existing routes and the same amount for new extensions totaling about 1800 miles, adding Routes 46 to 64 to the system; the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920. The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, the California Highway Commission was separated as its own department in 1923. In order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923; the legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925.
In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, placing guide and warning signs along state highways, marked the U. S. Highways along several of the most major state highways; the California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on state highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Carquinez Bridge. After 1927 and 1929, in which no highways were added to the system, the legislature authorized the construction of 23 new routes in 1931, which were numbered from 72 to 80 when not forming extensions of existing routes. Two years another 213 sections of highway were added doubling the total length of state highways to about 14000 miles. Many of these new routes, as well as a number of existing routes, were incorporated into the initial system of state sign routes in 1934 posted by the auto clubs; the Division of Highways took over signage on stat