National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics is a college athletics association for small colleges and universities in North America. For the 2018–2019 season, it has 251 member institutions, of which two are in British Columbia, one in the U. S. Virgin Islands, the rest in the conterminous United States; the NAIA, whose headquarters is in Kansas City, sponsors 26 national championships. The CBS Sports Network called CSTV, serves as the national media outlet for the NAIA. In 2014, ESPNU began carrying the NAIA Football National Championship. In 1937, Dr. James Naismith and local leaders staged the first National College Basketball Tournament at Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City—one year before the first National Invitation Tournament and two years before the first NCAA Tournament; the goal of the tournament was to establish a forum for small colleges and universities to determine a national basketball champion. The original eight-team tournament expanded to 32 teams in 1938. On March 10, 1940, the National Association for Intercollegiate Basketball was formed in Kansas City, Missouri.
In 1952, the NAIB was transformed into the NAIA, with that came the sponsorship of additional sports such as men's golf and outdoor track and field. Football in the NAIA was split based on enrollment; the 1948 NAIB national tournament was the first intercollegiate postseason to feature a black student-athlete, Clarence Walker of Indiana State under coach John Wooden. Wooden had withdrawn from the 1947 tournament; the association furthered its commitment to African-American athletes when, in 1953, it became the first collegiate association to invite black colleges and universities into its membership. In 1957, Tennessee A&I became the first black institution to win a collegiate basketball national championship; the NAIA began sponsoring intercollegiate championships for women in 1980, the second coed national athletics association to do so, offering collegiate athletics championships to women in basketball, cross country, gymnastics and outdoor track and field, softball and diving, tennis and volleyball.
The National Junior College Athletic Association had established a women's division in the spring of 1975 and held the first women's national championship volleyball tournament that fall. In 1997, Liz Heaston became the first female college athlete to play and score in a college football game when she kicked two extra points during the 1997 Linfield vs. Willamette football game. Launched in 2000 by the NAIA, the Champions of Character program promotes character and sportsmanship through athletics; the Champions of Character conducts clinics and has developed an online training course to educate athletes and athletic administrators with the skills necessary to promote character development in the context of sport. In 2010, the association opened the doors to the NAIA Eligibility Center, where prospective student-athletes are evaluated for academic and athletic eligibility, it delivers on the NAIA’s promise of integrity by leveling the playing field, guiding student-athlete success, ensuring fair competition.
Membership – The NAIA was the first association to admit colleges and universities from outside the United States. The NAIA began admitting Canadian members in 1967. Football – The NAIA was the first association to send a football team to Europe to play. In the summer of 1976, the NAIA sent Henderson State and Texas A&I to play 5 exhibition games in West Berlin, Nuremberg and Paris; the NAIA sponsors 14 sports. The NAIA recognizes three levels of competitions: "emerging", "invitational", "championship"; the association conducts, or has conducted in the past, championship tournaments in the following sports. Men's Basketball Division I Division II Women's Basketball Division I Division II The NAIA men's basketball championship is the longest-running collegiate National Championship of any sport in the United States; the tournament was the brainchild of creator of the game of basketball. The event began in 1937 with the inaugural tournament at Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, MO; the 2017 men's championship marked the 80th edition of what has been tabbed College Basketball’s Toughest Tournament.
The tournament has awarded the Chuck Taylor Most Valuable Player award since 1939, as well as the Charles Stevenson Hustle Award, the basis for Pete Rose's nickname, given to him by Whitey Ford. Basketball is the only NAIA sport in which the organization's member institutions are aligned into divisions. Effective with the 2020–21 school year, the NAIA will return to a single division for both men's and women's basketball; the NAIA has 21 member conferences, including 9 that sponsor football, the Association of Independent Institutions. Central States Football League Mid-States Football Association Al Ortolani Scholarship The $500 undergraduate scholarship is awarded to an outstanding student trainer, at least a junior and has maintained a GPA of 3.00. Athletic Trainer of the
United States Merchant Marine
The United States Merchant Marine refers to either United States civilian mariners, or to U. S. civilian and federally owned merchant vessels. Both the civilian mariners and the merchant vessels are managed by a combination of the government and private sectors, engage in commerce or transportation of goods and services in and out of the navigable waters of the United States; the Merchant Marine transports cargo and passengers during peacetime. Merchant Marine officers may be commissioned as military officers by the Department of Defense; this is achieved by commissioning unlimited tonnage Merchant Marine officers as Strategic Sealift Officers in the Naval Reserves. Merchant mariners move cargo and passengers between nations and within the United States, operate and maintain deep-sea merchant ships, towboats, dredges, excursion vessels, charter boats and other waterborne craft on the oceans, the Great Lakes, canals and other waterways; as of October 1, 2018, the United States merchant fleet had 181 owned, self-propelled vessels of 1,000 gross register tons and above that carry cargo from port to port.
Nearly 800 American-owned ships are flagged in other nations. The federal government maintains fleets of merchant ships via organizations such as Military Sealift Command and the National Defense Reserve Fleet, managed by the United States Maritime Administration. In 2004, the federal government employed 5% of all American water transportation workers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, various laws fundamentally changed the course of American merchant shipping; these laws put an end to common practices such as flogging and shanghaiing, increased shipboard safety and living standards. The United States Merchant Marine is governed by more than 25 international conventions to promote safety and prevent pollution. P. L. 95–202, approved November 23, 1977, granted veteran status to Women Airforce Service Pilots and "any person in any other situated group" with jurisdiction for determination given to the Secretary of Defense who delegated that determination to the Secretary of the Air Force. Although the Merchant Marine suffered a per capita casualty rate greater than those of the US Armed Forces, merchant mariners who served in World War II were denied such veterans recognition until 1988 when a federal court ordered it.
The Court held that "the Secretary of the Air Force abused its discretion in denying active military service recognition to American merchant seamen who participated in World War II." Captains and pilots supervise ship operations on domestic waterways and the high seas. A captain is in overall command of a vessel, supervises the work of other officers and crew. A captain has the ability to take the conn from a pilot at any time he feels the need. On smaller vessels the captain may be a regular watch-stander, similar to a mate, directly controlling the vessel's position. Captains and department heads ensure that proper procedures and safety practices are followed, ensure that machinery is in good working order, oversee the loading and discharging of cargo and passengers. Captains directly communicate with the company or command, are overall responsible for cargo, various logs, ship's documents, efforts at controlling pollution and passengers carried. Mates direct a ship's routine operation for the captain during work shifts, which are called watches.
Mates stand watch for specified periods in three duty sections, with four hours on watch and eight hours off. When on a navigational watch, mates direct a bridge team by conning, directing courses through the helmsman and speed through the lee helmsman; when more than one mate is necessary aboard a ship, they are designated chief mate or first mate, second mate and third mate. In addition to watch standers, mates directly supervise the ship's crew, are assigned other tasks; the chief mate is in charge of cargo and the deck crew, the second mate in charge of navigation plans and updates and the third mate as the safety officer. They monitor and direct deck crew operations, such as directing line handlers during moorings, anchorings, monitor cargo operations and supervise crew members engaged in maintenance and the vessel's upkeep. Harbor pilots guide ships in and out of confined waterways, such as harbors, where a familiarity with local conditions is of prime importance. Harbor pilots are independent contractors who accompany vessels while they enter or leave port, may pilot many ships in a single day.
Engine officers, or engineers, operate and repair engines, generators and other machinery. Merchant marine vessels have four engine officers: a chief engineer and a first and third assistant engineer. On many ships, Assistant Engineers stand periodic watches, overseeing the safe operation of engines and other machinery. However, most modern ships sailing today utilize Unmanned Machinery Space automation technology, Assistant Engineers are Dayworkers. At night and during meals and breaks, the engine room is unmanned and machinery alarms are answered by the Duty Engineer. Able seamen and ordinary seamen operate the vessel and its deck equipment under officer supervision and keep their assigned areas in good order, they watch for other vessels and obstructions in the ship's path, as well as for navigational aids such as buoys and lighthouses. They steer the ship, measure water depth in shallow
Golden Bear (ship)
The TS Golden Bear is the training ship of the California State University Maritime Academy, a campus of the California State University. The first training ship of the then–California Nautical School was known as the Training Ship California State as the T. S. Golden State. Since there have been three ships to bear the name T. S. Golden Bear; the current Training Ship Golden Bear was transferred to the United States Maritime Administration from the US Navy in 1994. She was converted for use by the then–California Maritime Academy and transferred there in 1996, her sister ship, the TS State of Maine resides as the training ship of Maine Maritime Academy. The first training ship of the California Maritime Academy was the T. S. Golden State. Planned to be named the SS Lake Fellowship, after construction, the ship was launched on October 19, 1919. After completion, she was commissioned in November 1920 as the SS Henry County. In the mid-1920s, the SS Henry County was placed out of service in the James River Reserve Fleet.
The Navy transferred it to the then-named California Nautical School. Commissioned as the C. T. S. California State on January 23, 1931, the cadets who lived aboard gave her the nickname "Iron Mother." In December 1941, the ship was renamed the T. S. Golden State, she sailed on 12 major ocean cruises, including one around the world in 1933. She was in service when the California Nautical School became the California Maritime Academy. After being decommissioned on August 12, 1946, she was placed in the National Defense Reserve Fleet in Suisun Bay, California. In 1948, she was sold into private trade, was operated under various names including Isle of Patmos and Santa Rosa until she was scrapped in Brazil in August 1962. On September 25, 1944, the keel was laid for the USS Mellena, the twelfth of the Artemis-class attack cargo ship, at the Walsh-Kaiser Company Shipyard in Providence, Rhode Island, she was hull #1893. After construction, she was launched on December 11, 1944, commissioned as the USS Mellena on January 10, 1945.
After serving the Navy in the Western Pacific during World War II, she was decommissioned on June 11, 1946, at Mare Island Naval Shipyard. After her decommissioning, she was transferred to the CMA and commissioned as the Training Ship Golden Bear on September 7, 1946. After serving as the T. S. Golden Bear, sailing on 24 major ocean cruises, the first Golden Bear was decommissioned on May 14, 1971, sold for scrap. Named the SS Delorleans, the ship was contracted on December 16, 1938, by Maritime Commission as a Type C3 ship hull #49; the keel was laid May 8, 1939, by the Bethlehem Steel Company, Sparrows Point Maryland, where she was launched on February 17, 1940, delivered to Delta Lines on August 23, 1940. This was the third of a series of six ships designed by the Mississippi Shipping Company, as a modification of the standard C3 design, to carry both passengers and cargo between New Orleans and Buenos Aires on the so-called "Coffee Run". Twenty six staterooms accommodated 67 passengers on the shelter deck.
The US Government requisitioned the SS Delorleans on June 3, 1941. The Navy assumed control on June 9, 1941, stripped the ship to prepare her for war duty, she was commissioned on October 10, 1941, as the USS Crescent City. After involvement in all the major campaigns in the Western Pacific during WWII, the USS Crescent City was redesignated as APA-21 in 1943. Before being decommissioned in San Francisco on April 30, 1948, she earned a Navy Unit Commendation and 10 battle stars for her service in WWII; the ship was transferred to CMA for conversion to a training ship. She was commissioned in June 1971 as the T. S. Golden Bear sailed on 28 major ocean cruises, over 24 years; the "Golden Bear II" was placed in the reserve fleet. In 1999, the City of Oakland, California purchased the ship and renamed it "Art Ship" as part of a failed art colony project, she was sold for scrap in 2004, but dismantling was halted because of high PCB levels and because she was considered too historic. Thereafter, she was owned and plans were put in place to convert her into a luxury hotel and museum.
She had been laid up at Mare Island Naval Shipyard in Vallejo, California since 2004 pending these plans. On November 7, 2011, she was publicly sold to Esco Marine, Inc.. She was renamed Pacific Star and she departed Mare Island for scrapping at Brownsville, Texas on January 15, 2012. On July 29, 1986, the keel was laid for hull #4667, ordered under a MARAD contract for the Navy, at Bethlehem Steel in Sparrows Point, Maryland. After launching on September 4, 1987, she was delivered to the Navy on March 31, 1989, entered service as the USNS Maury. At the time, the USNS Maury was the fastest and largest oceanographic ship in the United States fleet, she featured a number of advanced oceanographic tools and technologies, including a "multi-beam, wide-angle precision sonar for continuous charting of a broad strip of ocean floor under the ship's track." In addition, the main engines, two Enterprise R5 V-16 diesel engines, were mounted on "rafts", isolated from the hull by rubber cushions, similar in nature to the acoustic isolation aboard nuclear submarines.
The USNS Maury was placed "out of service" in September 1994, laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet in Suisun Bay, California. On October 1, 1994, she was stricken from the Navy rolls and transferred to MARAD under agreement that she would be transferred to CMA after retrofitting. After conversion of the living spaces aboard, she was transferred to CMA on May 4, 1996 and rechristened as the TS Golden Bear. Since that time, the ship has c
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
C. C. Young
Clement Calhoun Young was an American teacher and politician, affiliated with the original Progressive Party and the Republican Party. He was elected to five consecutive terms in the California State Assembly, serving from 1909 to 1919 as the 28th lieutenant governor of California, holding that office from 1919 to 1927. In the 1926 general election, he was elected in a landslide victory as the 26th governor of California and served from 1927 to 1931. Young is considered to have been one of the last governors from the Progressive movement. Born in Lisbon, New Hampshire, Young moved to California at an early age, graduated from the University of California, Berkeley in 1892. After his graduation, Young embarked on a career as a high school teacher, teaching in Santa Rosa from 1892 to 1893 and at Lowell High School in San Francisco from 1893 to 1906, heading the school's English department. While at Lowell, Young participated in the National Education Association and speaking at its conferences, including giving a speech entitled "The Use of a Library" at the association's conference in Los Angeles in 1899, arguing for greater cooperation between public schools and public libraries.
Students at Lowell popularly nicknamed Young "C-Square," due to his initializing of his first and middle names, Clement Calhoun. In 1904, along with Charles Mills Gayley, published The Principles and Progress of English Poetry. Published and distributed by the Macmillan Company. While teaching, he established his home in Berkeley, where he lived until his death, except for the years he served as governor. Young was a close friend of realtor and conservationist Duncan McDuffie, worked for Mason-McDuffie, a real estate general partnership based in Berkeley. Young would work or consult for Mason-McDuffie until 1944, he helped McDuffie, who had served as president of the Save the Redwoods League and Sierra Club, establish the State Parks system upon his election as governor. After his departure from Lowell in 1906, Young became involved in state politics. In 1908, he was elected to the California State Assembly for the district. In the Assembly, Young became a political ally of Governor Hiram Johnson and rose through the chamber's ranks, becoming Assembly Speaker in 1913.
In the following year's legislative elections, Young was elected as a member of the Progressive Party. His flirtation with the party lasted for a single term before its dissolution in 1916 and he returned to Republican ranks, though he remained sympathetic to the Progressive movement for much of the rest of his political career. In the 1918 general elections, Young won the race for Lieutenant Governor of California, a position to which he was re-elected in 1922. In the 1920 U. S. presidential election, Young was a member of the Electoral College. By 1926, frustration within inner Republican ranks with the fiscally conservative governorship of Friend Richardson had reached its zenith. In the gubernatorial primary election, Progressive Republicans overcame conservative and corporate opposition to win the nomination for Young, knocking Richardson out of the general election. In the 1926 general election campaign, Young earned vocal support from former governor Hiram Johnson and prominent banker Amadeo Giannini.
Young won in a landslide, garnering 71.3 percent of the vote and crushing his rivals, who included Democrat Justus S. Wardell and Socialist author Upton Sinclair. Beginning his governorship on January 4, 1927, Young's agenda included reorganizing the state's various commissions and departments into his cabinet to better coordinate state governmental affairs. "Some system like this would, I believe, be far more businesslike and effective than such haphazard and infrequent consultations as must otherwise take place between a Governor and our numerous unrelated boards and commissions," Young said. Among his other priorities were: the financing of the state highway system through a fuel tax rather than by state bonds. Headed by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. the survey commission investigated lands across the state suitable for state protection and developed plans for their future financing. A year in a voter initiative supported by Young, state voters approved the creation of California State Park system.
In late June 1927, Young intervened for Charlotte Anita Whitney, a member of the Communist Party of the United States, convicted under the 1919 Criminal Syndicalism Act passed under Governor William Stephens. In 1919, Whitney had been arrested in Oakland after defying civic authorities in making a speech in behalf of John McHugh, a member of the Industrial Workers of the World; the anti-syndicalism law used to prosecute her had been upheld by the U. S. Supreme Court which held that threats of violence against the state and individuals did not constitute free speech and was not protected by the First Amendment. Following the high court's decision, Young granted Whitney an unconditional pardon, believing that putting her into a cell was "unthinkable." Young added that the law under which she was convicted was undoubtedly constitutional, but that "abnormal conditions attending the trial" influenced the jury and that "under ordinary circumstances" the case never would have been prosecuted. On
Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of two or more races. The term may include Americans of mixed race ancestry who self-identify with just one group culturally and socially. In the 2010 US census 9 million individuals or 2.9% of the population, self-identified as multiracial. There is evidence. Historical reasons, including slavery creating a racial caste and the European-American suppression of Native Americans led people to identify or be classified by only one ethnicity that of the culture in which they were raised. Prior to the mid-20th century, many people hid their multiracial heritage because of racial discrimination against minorities. While many Americans may be biologically multiracial, they do not know it or do not identify so culturally, any more than they maintain all the differing traditions of a variety of national ancestries. After a lengthy period of formal racial segregation in the former Confederacy following the Reconstruction Era and bans on interracial marriage in various parts of the country, more people are forming interracial unions.
In addition, social conditions have changed and many multiracial people do not believe it is advantageous to try to "pass" as white. Diverse immigration has brought more mixed race people into the United States, such as a significant population of Hispanics identifying as mestizos. Since the 1980s, the United States has had a growing multiracial identity movement; because more Americans have insisted on being allowed to acknowledge their mixed racial origins, the 2000 census for the first time allowed residents to check more than one ethno-racial identity and thereby identify as multiracial. In 2008, Barack Obama was elected as the first biracial President of the United States. Today, multiracial individuals are found in every corner of the country. Multiracial groups in the United States include many African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Métis Americans, Louisiana Creoles, Melungeons, Lumbees and several other communities found in the Eastern US. Many Native Americans are multiracial in ancestry while identifying as members of federally recognized tribes.
The American people are multi-ethnic descendants of various culturally distinct immigrant groups, many of which have now developed nations. Some consider themselves multiracial, while acknowledging race as a social construct. Creolization and integration have been continuing processes; the Civil Rights Movement and other social movements since the mid-twentieth century worked to achieve social justice and equal enforcement of civil rights under the constitution for all ethnicities. In the 2000s, less than 5% of the population identified as multiracial. In many instances, mixed racial ancestry is so far back in an individual's family history, that it does not affect more recent ethnic and cultural identification. Interracial relationships, common-law marriages and marriages occurred since the earliest colonial years before slavery hardened as a racial caste associated with people of African descent in the British colonies. Virginia and other English colonies passed laws in the 17th century that gave children the social status of their mother, according to the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, regardless of the father's race or citizenship.
This overturned the principle in English common law by which a man gave his status to his children – this had enabled communities to demand that fathers support their children, whether legitimate or not. The change increased white men's ability to use slave women sexually, as they had no responsibility for the children; as master as well as father of mixed-race children born into slavery, the men could use these people as servants or laborers or sell them as slaves. In some cases, white fathers provided for their multiracial children, paying or arranging for education or apprenticeships and freeing them during the two decades following the American Revolution. Many other white fathers abandoned their mothers to slavery; the researcher Paul Heinegg found that most families of free people of color in colonial times were founded from the unions of white women, whether free or indentured servants and African men, indentured or free. In the early years, the working-class peoples worked together, their children were free because of the status of the white women.
This was in contrast to the pattern in the post-Revolutionary era, in which most mixed-race children had white fathers and slave mothers. Anti-miscegenation laws were passed in most states during the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, but this did not prevent white slaveholders, their sons or other powerful white men from taking slave women as concubines and having multiracial children with them. In California and the western US, there were greater numbers of Asian residents; these were prohibited from official relationships with whites. White legislators passed laws prohibiting marriage between European and Asian Americans until the 1950s. Interracial relationships have had a long history in North America and the United States, beginning with the intermixing of European explorers and soldiers, who took native women as companions. After European settlement increased and fur trappers married or had unions with women of native tribes. In the 17th century