The California chaparral and woodlands is a terrestrial ecoregion of lower northern and southern California and northwestern Baja California, located on the west coast of North America. It is an ecoregion of the Mediterranean forests and scrub Biome, part of the Nearctic ecozone; the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion is subdivided into three smaller ecoregions. California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion: In southern coastal California and northwestern coastal Baja California, as well as all the Channel Islands of California and Guadalupe Island. California montane chaparral and woodlands: In southern and central coast adjacent and inland California, covering some of the mountains of: the Coast Ranges. California interior chaparral and woodlands: In central interior California surrounding the California Central Valley cover the foothills and the Transverse Ranges and Sierra Nevada. Most of the population of California and Baja California lives in these ecoregions, which includes the San Francisco Bay Area, Ventura County, the Greater Los Angeles Area, San Diego County, Tijuana.
The California Central Valley grasslands ecoregion, as well as the coniferous Sierra Nevada forests, Northern California coastal forests, Klamath-Siskiyou forests of northern California and southwestern Oregon, share many plant and animal affinities with the California chaparral and woodlands. Many botanists consider the California chaparral and woodlands, Sierra Nevada forests, Klamath-Siskiyou forests, Northern California coastal forests as a single California Floristic Province, excluding the deserts of eastern California, which belong to other floristic provinces. Many Bioregionalists, including poet Gary Snyder, identify the central and northern Coast Ranges, Klamath-Siskiyou, the Central Valley, Sierra Nevada as the Shasta Bioregion or the Alta California Bioregion; the ecoregion includes a great variety of plant communities, including grasslands, oak savannas and woodlands and coniferous forests, including southern stands of the tall coast redwood. The flora of this ecoregion includes tree species such as Gray or foothill pine, Scrub oak, California buckeye, the rare Gowen cypress, the rare Monterey cypress, a wealth of endemic plant species, including the rare San Gabriel Mountain liveforever, Catalina mahogany, the threatened most beautiful jewel-flower.
Hesperoyucca whipplei, colloquially known as Chaparral Yucca, is commonplace throughout the lower elevations of the climate zone. There are two types of chaparral: hard chaparral. Hard chaparral is evergreen, located at higher elevation and is harder to walk through. Soft chaparral tends to be drought deciduous, live at lower elevations and tends to be easier to walk through. Species include the California gnatcatcher, Costa's hummingbird, coast horned lizard, rosy boa. Other animals found here are the Heermann kangaroo rat, Santa Cruz kangaroo rat, the endangered white-eared pocket mouse. Another notable insect resident of this ecoregion is the rain beetle It spends up to several years living underground in a larval stage and emerges only during wet-season rains to mate. Chaparral, like most Mediterranean shrublands, is fire resilient and burned with high-severity, stand replacing events every 30 to 100 years. Native Americans burned chaparral to promote grasslands for textiles and food. Though adapted to infrequent fires, chaparral plant communities can be exterminated by frequent fires with climate change induced drought.
Today, frequent accidental ignitions can convert chaparral from a native shrubland to nonnative annual grassland and drastically reduce species diversity under global-change-type drought. The historical fire return interval for chaparral communities used to be 30-50 years, but has now decreased to 5-10 years due to human interference; the region has been affected by grazing, logging and water diversions, intensive agriculture and urbanization, as well as competition by numerous introduced or exotic plant and animal species. Some unique plant communities, like southern California's Coastal Sage Scrub, have been nearly eradicated by agriculture and urbanization; as a result, the region now has many endangered species, including the California condor. World Wildlife Fund: California Chaparral and Woodlands ecoregion California Chaparral Institute website California Coastal Sage and Chaparral images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu California Interior Chaparral and Woodlands images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu — California Montane Chaparral and Woodlands images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu —
Blyderivierpoort Dam is a gravity-arch dam on the Blyde River, in the lower Blyde River Canyon, near Hoedspruit in Mpumalanga, South Africa. It floods the lower reaches of the Blyde's Ohrigstad River tributary; the dam was completed in 1974. The 71 m high dam wall and 22 m deep is situated 3 km from Swadini resort by road, its key purpose is to provide a stable water supply for irrigators of the Blyde River Irrigation district and to provide additional water for mining and industry at Phalaborwa. Orchards and croplands were established along the lower Blyde in the latter half of the 20th century, with 23,521 ha devoted to irrigation in 1995. During 1965 the community that lived at the site of the proposed dam was resettled by the government to nearby towns including Buffelshoek, Acornhoek and Bushbuckridge; some stone walled settlements, cultural artefacts and graves are now submerged under the dam. List of reservoirs and dams in South Africa List of rivers of South Africa List of South African Dams from the South African Department of Water Affairs
Tatu Vanhanen was a Finnish political scientist and writer. He was a professor of political science at the University of Tampere in Finland. Vanhanen was a coauthor with Richard Lynn of IQ and the Wealth of Nations and IQ and Global Inequality, author of Ethnic Conflicts Explained by Ethnic Nepotism and many other works, his son, Matti Vanhanen, was Prime Minister of Finland from 2003 to 2010. Vanhanen developed an interest in evolutionary biology after studying E. O. Wilson's sociobiology and in his career wrote about intelligence and inequality. However, most of his academic work dealt with democratization, which he had studied with international comparative methods. Vanhanen was known for his Index of Democratization. In 2004, the Ombudsman of Minorities, Mikko Puumalainen, wanted the police to start an investigation regarding Vanhanen's interview with a Helsingin Sanomat magazine Kuukausiliite, in which he stated that "Whereas the average IQ of Finns is 97, in Africa it is between 60 and 70.
Differences in intelligence are the most significant factor in explaining poverty". The Finnish National Bureau of Investigations was considering launching a preliminary investigation on Vanhanen's speech but decided against it, not finding that he had incited hatred against an ethnic group or committed any other crime. Vanhanen died on 22 August 2015 after a long period of illness, aged 86. Vanhanen, Tatu. Political and social structures: American countries, 1850-1973. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press. ISBN 9789514403019. Vanhanen, Tatu. Political and social structures: Part 2: European countries 1850-1974. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press. ISBN 9780835702539. Vanhanen, Tatu. Multi-party democracy in action. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press. ISBN 9789514406935. Vanhanen, Tatu. Power and the means of power: a study of 119 Asian, European and African states, 1850-1975. University Microfilms International. ISBN 9780835703987. Vanhanen, Tatu; the process of democratization: A comparative study of 147 states 1980–1988.
Crane Russak. ISBN 9780844816401. Vanhanen, Tatu. Politics of ethnic nepotism: India as an example. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 9788120711761. Vanhanen, Tatu. Strategies of democratization. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780844817200. Vanhanen, Tatu. On the evolutionary roots of politics. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 9788120714212. Vanhanen, Tatu. Democratization in Eastern Europe: Domestic and international perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 9780415110648. Vanhanen, Tatu. Prospects of democracy: A study of 172 countries. Routledge. ISBN 9780415144063. Vanhanen, Tatu. Ethnic conflicts explained by ethnic nepotism. Research in Biopolitics. Emerald Group Publishing. ISBN 9780762305834. Vanhanen, Tatu. IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 9780275975104. Vanhanen, Tatu. Democratization: A comparative analysis of 170 countries. Routledge. ISBN 9780415318600. Vanhanen, Tatu; the limits of democratization: Climate and resource distribution. Washington: Washington Summit Publishers. ISBN 9781593680312. Vanhanen, Tatu. Intelligence: A unifying construct for the social sciences.
Ulster: Ulster Institute for Social Research. ISBN 9780956881175. Vanhanen, Tatu. Global inequality as a consequence of human diversity: A new theory tested by empirical evidence. Ulster: Ulster Institute for Social Research. ISBN 9780957391376. Ethnic nepotism Race and intelligence