California uses a postmile highway location marker system on all of its state highways, including U. S. Routes and Interstate Highways; the postmile markers indicate the distance a route travels through individual counties, as opposed to milestones that indicate the distance traveled through a state. The postmile system is the only route reference system used by the California Department of Transportation. California was the last state in the country to adopt mile markers, exit numbers were not implemented until 2002; the state started the Cal-NExUS program in 2002, which would create a uniform exit numbering system for freeways. Included was a pilot program for the placing of mile markers along rural freeways. Three freeway segments are a part of the experimental program: the Route 14 Freeway, the Route 58 Freeway in Kern County, State Route 180 in Fresno. Caltrans has not decided. Regardless, Caltrans will still maintain the postmile system on all freeways. A postmile marker is placed along the state highway.
Each marker is stenciled with the route and postmile at that location. One of the common formats for postmiles are located on a freeway on bridges over cross streets. According to Caltrans, it displays the name of the bridge, the county and route number, the postmile; the postmile is painted onto the piers and/or abutments of bridges and overpasses. These are the white metal paddle markers placed at one-mile intervals, with additional markers placed at significant features along the highway such as bridges and overpasses, junctions, or culverts; the markers are the same size as a standard milepost used elsewhere, but they are white with black text. These markers indicate turnouts and cross streets ahead. Postmiles are shown on callboxes. A blue placard is mounted on each of the state's callboxes, the top of which shows which county the callbox is in, on the bottom, it shows the 2-letter county abbreviation, along with the route number and the location's postmile. Postmiles on callboxes are approximate due to a convention that all callboxes on the northbound or eastbound side of a divided roadway are assigned numbers while all those on the southbound or westbound side are assigned odd numbers though the call boxes are located directly across from one another.
Alphabetic prefixes on postmile markers and bridges differ from callbox prefixes because the callbox system is maintained by each county, while Caltrans maintains postmile markers and bridge signs. The following table lists callbox prefixes by county. Listed in miles, postmile values increase from south to north or west to east depending upon the general direction the route follows within the state; the postmile values increase from the beginning of a route within a county to the next county line. The postmile values start over again at each county line. Enforcement officers, maintenance forces and others use the postmile markers in the field to locate specific incidents or features with reference to the postmile system. On some stretches of road, the following prefixes may precede the mileage on a postmile marker: Sonoma County, California uses a postmile system on its county roads, but the numbering starts at 10.00 rather than at a zero point. Los Angeles County uses a postmile system similar to the state’s, but their postmile markers contain a red bar on its topThe states of Nevada and Ohio use reference markers similar to California's postmile markers.
Like California, these two states record mileages through individual counties in their respective route logs. Ohio's system is nearly identical to California's with its reference markers listing the route number, 3-letter county abbreviation, mileage through the county; the Nevada system is similar, utilizing 2-letter county abbreviations. However, Ohio uses standard mileposts in addition to reference markers on freeways, while Nevada uses standard mileposts in conjunction with postmile panels on Interstate highways only. All non-Interstates in Illinois and Kentucky have markers showing mileage from the western or southern border of the county. California Roads portal Milestone Reference marker Caltrans Postmile Services
B. R. Cohn Winery is a winery in California in the United States. Bruce Cohn, former manager of the California rock band, The Doobie Brothers, purchased the original area in 1974, he named the property the Olive Hill Estate Vineyards after the grove of 145-year-old olive Picholine Olive trees, from which he continues to make ultra-premium olive oil. After selling grapes to other wineries for several years, Cohn founded his own winery, B. R. Cohn, in 1984, his first winemaker was the now-famous Helen Turley. Like other wineries in the area it maintains a wine club and public tasting room, hosts weddings and other events. In 2015, the winery was bought by Vintage Wine Estates; the vineyards surrounding the winery are planted in cabernet sauvignon grapes, with some pinot noir, petite sirah, cabernet franc, petit verdot, malbec. Syrah and Chardonnay is grown in the carneros region; the winery's flagship 1985 and 1986 Olive Hill Cabernets were ranked among the top ten in America and top 50 in the World by Wine Spectator, which gave each a rating of 94 out of 100.
The 2003 vintage was rated 93. The North Coast Petit Syrah was one of two red "sweepstakes winners" at the prestigious 2007 San Francisco Chronicle Wine Competition; the winery produces merlot, rosé, port. Starting in the 1990s, B. R. Cohn was among the first companies involved in the re-emergence of artisan olive oil production in California. Today it produces flavored and unflavored oils, including an organic variety, balsamic vinegars and other unique gourmet foods; the company produces vinegar on-site from cabernet and sparkling wine, using the French "Orleans" method whereby batches of vinegar are produced by adding a "mother" dose of old vinegar to fresh wine aging 18–22 months in oak barrels. It bottles a 25, 15 and a 12-year-old balsamic vinegar imported from Modena, Italy. Cohn's oil and vinegar is available in premium grocery stores nationally, although some limited-production varieties are sold only directly. List of celebrities who own wineries and vineyards Official website
Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp was a series of protest camps established to protest nuclear weapons being placed at RAF Greenham Common in Berkshire, England. The camp began in September 1981 after a Welsh group, Women for Life on Earth, arrived at Greenham to protest against the decision of the British government to allow cruise missiles to be stored there. After realising that the march alone was not going to get them the attention that they needed to have the missiles removed, women began to stay at Greenham to continue their protest; the first blockade of the base occurred in March 1982 with 250 women protesting, during which 34 arrests were made. The camp was active for 19 years and disbanded in 2000; the first act of resistance by the Greenham Common Peace Camps came about when, in September 1981, 36 women chained themselves to the base fence in protest against nuclear weapons. On 29 September 1982, the women were evicted by Newbury District Council but set up a new camp nearby within days.
In December 1982, 30,000 women responded to a chain letter sent out and joined hands around the base at the Embrace the Base event. The camps became well-known when on 1 April 1983, about 70,000 protesters formed a 14-mile human chain from Greenham to Aldermaston and the ordnance factory at Burghfield; the media attention surrounding the camp inspired people across Europe to create other peace camps. Another encircling of the base occurred with 50,000 women attending. Sections of the fence were cut and there were hundreds of arrests. On 4 April 1984, the women were again evicted from the Common. In January 1987, although Parliament had been told that there were no longer any women at Greenham, small groups of women cut down parts of the perimeter fence at Greenham Common every night for a week; the protestors consisted of nine smaller camps at various gates around the base. Camps were named after the colours of the rainbow, as a way of contrasting against the green shades of the base; the first camp was called Yellow Gate, others included Blue Gate with its New Age focus.
The last missiles left the base in 1991 as a result of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, but the camp remained in place until 2000, after protesters won the right to house a memorial on the site. Although the missiles had been removed from the base, the camp was continued as part of the protest against the forthcoming UK Trident programme. Sarah Hipperson, a part of the protest for all nineteen of its years, was among the last four women to leave the camp; the old camp was inaugurated as a Commemorative and Historic Site on 5 October 2002. There are seven standing stones encircling the'Flame' sculpture representing a camp fire. Next to this there is a stone and steel spiral sculpture, engraved with the words "You can't kill the Spirit." There is a plaque there for activist Helen Wyn Thomas, killed near the site. The site has since been given to the Greenham Common Trust to care for, it was well-known among the Greenham women that their actions and presence were not welcome. Anne Seller, one of the Greenham women, remarked in article that the local pubs around Greenham refused to serve the women.
She said that dissenters would meet there to think of ways to disturb the protest. Seller noted; these actions made many of the Greenham women afraid to venture into the town. The local police were not friendly toward the Greenham women. Officers would release Greenham women from arrest in the middle of the night. If the women were driven back to the base, they would be dropped off far from any established camp, be forced to walk long distances to get back to the protest; the Ministry of Defence called for an increased police presence at the base. They justified this on the grounds that terrorists might be trying to infiltrate the base, pretending to be Greenham protesters. To the Greenham women, this was seen as another attempt to infringe on their protest; the women at Greenham used actions and songs to protest against the nuclear missiles and gain attention. The first protest action undertaken at Greenham involved women chaining themselves to the fence of the base in September 1981; the most well-known protest actions that the Greenham women undertook were the Embrace the Base event and their human chain protests.
At Embrace the Base, 30,000 women held hands around the perimeter fence. In April 1983, the Greenham women and their supporters created a 14-mile human chain. In December of that year, another human chain was created, circling around the fence, while some parts of the fence were cut. In at least once instance, the women attempted to cut down the base's fence; the Greenham women would often'keen'. They would dress in black, say that they were mourning for children who would be lost to nuclear war in the future. Posters were used by the women at Greenham, featured the symbol of a spider web, meant to symbolise the fragility and perseverance of the Greenham women. Singing was another protest strategy used by the Greenham women. Popular songs were sometimes used with their lyrics rewritten to support the anti-nuclear cause; some of the songs were original. In 1988, "Greenham Women Are Everywhere", the official songbook of the camp, was published. In February 1982 it was decided; this was important as the women were using their identity as mothers to legitimise the protest against nuclear weapons, all in the name of the safety of their children and future generations.
Andrew Henley redirects here. For Sir Andrew Henley, 3rd Baronet, see Henley Baronets Sir Andrew Henley, 1st baronet, of Bramshill, Hampshire was an English politician and the first of the Henley baronets, he is best remembered for his celebrated quarrel with the future Duke of Bolton, recorded in the Diary of Samuel Pepys. He was the son of Robert Henley of Henley and his second wife Anne Eldred, his father was Chief Clerk in the King's Bench, in which office he amassed a fortune which enabled him to purchase lands in three counties, his country seat at Bramshill House. As a Royalist he was forced to pay heavy fines after the English Civil War, but Andrew nonetheless came into a substantial inheritance on his father's death in 1656, which he wasted through his extravagance, he was educated at Oxford. He entered the Inner Temple and was called to the Bar in 1646, he was a Member of the Parliament of England for Portsmouth in 1660. He seems to have played no part in the Commons debates in that crucial year, was not returned to the Cavalier Parliament the following year.
He was notoriously extravagant, although in his defence it should be said that the fortune his father accumulated had been decreased by the fines imposed on him as a Royalist. Despite his debts Andrew was able to buy the manor of Eversley, adjacent to Bramshill, he was accused by the local vicar of the sin of gluttony, although the only evidence of this seems to be that he employed a French chef. He appears to have been a hot-tempered man, his temper led in November 1666 into a quarrel which might have had the most serious consequences. Samuel Pepys records in his Diary that at Westminster Hall Henley became engaged in a fracas with Lord St. John the 1st Duke of Bolton, while the Court of Common Pleas was in session, struck him on the head with his cane, he was arrested and charged with contempt coram rege. He was not pardoned until 1668, a year after St. John received his pardon. Pepys does not give any reason for the quarrel: St. John, who like Henley was quarrelsome and hot-tempered, appears to have provoked the quarrel said that he had been "in a passion" at the time.
Pepys, who had a poor opinion of St. John, thought it was a pity that Henley had retaliated, for if he had not the judges might have dealt with St. John as he deserved, he married firstly Mary Gayer, daughter of Sir John Gayer, Lord Mayor of London and his wife Katherine Hopkins, secondly Constance Bromfield, daughter of Thomas Bromfield, widow of Thomas Middleton. By his first wife he had four children, including Robert, his heir, Mary, who married as his third wife Sir Nicholas Slanning, 1st Baronet
Eleanor Searle Whitney McCollum was an independent woman of means, married to two important American men, Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney and Leonard "Mac" McCollum. She achieved a unique and separable identify as a philanthropist and community organizer in Houston, TX, her contributions included the establishment of the Eleanor McCollum Competition for Young Singers of Houston Grand Opera, patronage for Orbis International, together with her second husband, an important role in the development of Baylor College of Medicine. She was born in Ohio to Bertha Fenner Searle and Dr. George James Searle, her vocal and performing skills led to enrollment in Florida Southern College where she focused on theatrical and voice skills. She subsequently became a student of voice in New York City and an opera singer until her first marriage. In 1957, after her divorce, she resumed her singing career, with an emphasis on faith-based activities including a stint with Billy Graham Ministries. An autobiography "Invitation to Joy" was published in 1971 by Row.
Her years were consumed with raising funds for a historic restoration, the Heritage Center Museum, in Plymouth, the Eleanor McCollum Competition for Young Singers Concert of Arias, a continuation of fund raising for Orbis International initiated by her husband. The Orbis International DC-10 converted to a "state of the art" eye hospital provides care for surgically correctable eye disease, it brings unique and technically demanding eye surgery to many third world countries and functions as a classroom to teach local physicians and health care providers techniques to prevent blindness. Although she lived a colorful life, the trait that characterized this exceptional woman was enthusiasm for charitable activity. In her 90s she remained active in fund raising for her favorite charities, she was best known for the establishment of a national competition for young opera singers. The Houston Grand Opera Studio was established by Houston Grand Opera to provide young singers with the opportunity to further develop skills as an interim step between university or music school training and development of a career.
The Eleanor McCollum Competition for Young Singers is used to select aspiring singers for this program. The finalists are selected at an annual concert, the "Concert of Arias"; those who attended the Concert of Arias event featuring the finalists of the Competition for Young Singers remember the flourish that characterized Eleanor McCollum's stage entrance for the final awards in her 90s. She was indefatigable in her efforts to raise funds for her favorite charities, she attracted the attention of Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney and they married in 1941. They had one son: Cornelius Searle WhitneyThe marriage ended in 1957, she resumed her singing career. In 1975, she married Texas oilman Leonard F. "Mac" McCollum, President of Continental Oil Company, a predecessor of ConocoPhillips. They remain married until his death in 1993, she died August 12, 2002 at the age of 94 following a stroke
Swanport Bridge is a road bridge on Highway 1 in South Australia, spanning the Murray River about 4 km southeast of Murray Bridge. Opened on 30 May 1979 by transport minister Geoff Virgo, the bridge connects the communities of Murray Bridge and Tailem Bend; the bridge itself is one kilometre in length with two lanes, one for each direction of traffic, no separating median. It is constructed from prestressed concrete. There is a footpath on the northern side, with no barrier from the roadway, signposted as being for emergency use only; the bridge serves as a link between the South Eastern Freeway to the west and the Princes Highway continuing to the east, as such is an integral part of the Adelaide–Melbourne road transport corridor. The bridge was intended to be a four lane bridge but to save costs only a two lane bridge was built. Both the South Eastern Freeway to the west of the bridge and the Princes Highway to its east are two lanes each way with a wide median and speed limit of 110 kilometres per hour.
The bridge itself is only one lane each way with no median strip, has a speed limit of 80 kilometres per hour since 2015