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Californium

Californium is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol Cf and atomic number 98. The element was first synthesized in 1950 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by bombarding curium with alpha particles, it is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye. The element was named after the state of California. Two crystalline forms exist for californium under normal pressure: one above and one below 900 °C. A third form exists at high pressure. Californium tarnishes in air at room temperature. Compounds of californium are dominated by the +3 oxidation state; the most stable of californium's twenty known isotopes is californium-251, which has a half-life of 898 years. This short half-life means. Californium-252, with a half-life of about 2.645 years, is the most common isotope used and is produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States and the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in Russia.

Californium is one of the few transuranium elements. Most of these applications exploit the property of certain isotopes of californium to emit neutrons. For example, californium can be used to help start up nuclear reactors, it is employed as a source of neutrons when studying materials using neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. Californium can be used in nuclear synthesis of higher mass elements. Users of californium must take into account radiological concerns and the element's ability to disrupt the formation of red blood cells by bioaccumulating in skeletal tissue. Californium is a silvery white actinide metal with a melting point of 900 ± 30 °C and an estimated boiling point of 1,745 K; the pure metal is malleable and is cut with a razor blade. Californium metal starts to vaporize above 300 °C. Below 51 K californium metal is either ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic, between 48 and 66 K it is antiferromagnetic, above 160 K it is paramagnetic, it forms alloys with lanthanide metals but little is known about them.

The element has two crystalline forms under 1 standard atmosphere of pressure: a double-hexagonal close-packed form dubbed alpha and a face-centered cubic form designated beta. The α form exists below 600–800 °C with a density of 15.10 g/cm3 and the β form exists above 600–800 °C with a density of 8.74 g/cm3. At 48 GPa of pressure the β form changes into an orthorhombic crystal system due to delocalization of the atom's 5f electrons, which frees them to bond; the bulk modulus of a material is a measure of its resistance to uniform pressure. Californium's bulk modulus is 50±5 GPa, similar to trivalent lanthanide metals but smaller than more familiar metals, such as aluminium. Californium exhibits oxidation states of 4, 3, or 2, it forms eight or nine bonds to surrounding atoms or ions. Its chemical properties are predicted to be similar to other 3+ valence actinide elements and the element dysprosium, the lanthanide above californium in the periodic table; the element tarnishes in air at room temperature, with the rate increasing when moisture is added.

Californium reacts when heated with nitrogen, or a chalcogen. Californium is only water-soluble as the californium cation. Attempts to reduce or oxidize the +3 ion in solution have failed; the element forms a water-soluble chloride, nitrate and sulfate and is precipitated as a fluoride, oxalate, or hydroxide. Californium is the heaviest actinide to exhibit covalent properties, as is observed in the californium borate. Twenty radioisotopes of californium have been characterized, the most stable being californium-251 with a half-life of 898 years, californium-249 with a half-life of 351 years, californium-250 with a half-life of 13.08 years, californium-252 with a half-life of 2.645 years. All the remaining isotopes have half-lives shorter than a year, the majority of these have half-lives shorter than 20 minutes; the isotopes of californium range in mass number from 237 to 256. Californium-249 is formed from the beta decay of berkelium-249, most other californium isotopes are made by subjecting berkelium to intense neutron radiation in a nuclear reactor.

Although californium-251 has the longest half-life, its production yield is only 10% due to its tendency to collect neutrons and its tendency to interact with other particles. Californium-252 is a strong neutron emitter, which makes it radioactive and harmful. Californium-252 undergoes alpha decay 96.9% of the time to form curium-248 while the remaining 3.1% of decays are spontaneous fission. One microgram of californium-252 emits 2.3 million neutrons per second, an average of 3.7 neutrons per spontaneous fission. Most of the other isotopes of californium decay to isotopes of curium via alpha decay. Californium was first synthesized at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, by the physics researchers Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr. Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg on or about February 9, 1950, it was the sixth transuranium element to be dis

Old Town Bridge

Old Town Bridge is located in Trondheim, Trøndelag County, Norway. Gamle Bybro crosses the Nidelva River from the south end of the main street Kjøpmannsgata connecting to the Trondheim neighborhood of Bakklandet. Gamle Bybro was constructed by Johan Caspar von Cicignon in 1681 in conjunction with the reconstruction of Trondheim after the great fire of 1681. Johan Caspar von Cicignon laid out plans for the reconstruction of Trondheim as well as its fortification. Kristiansten Fortress was built at this time after his plans; the bridge location was of military-strategic significance. King Christian V of Denmark assumed the cost of construction, it was completed in 1685. The bridge was built in the vicinity of the original Elgeseter Bridge; when it was opened the older bridge was allowed to decay and collapse. Since Gamle Bybro has undergone many changes. Gamle Bybro was constructed of wood, but the wood was supported on three stone piers. In the middle of the bridge, an iron gate was placed; this remained a guarded city gate until 1816.

At each end of the bridge there was a guardhouse. The access house on the west end still stands, but that on the east side was taken down in 1824. Gamle Bybro was reconstructed in 1861 by the engineer Carl Adolf Dahl. Today Gamle Bybro is one of Trondheim's characteristic landmarks. Gamle Bybro is known as Lykkens portal, after the lyrics of the popular waltz Nidelven stille og vakker du er by Norwegian singer and composer Kristian Oskar Hoddø. According to tradition, Hoddø wrote the waltz about the Nidelva River one night in late April 1940 while he was standing at Gamle Bybro. Oskar Hoddø was a member of the resistance movement against the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, he was executed in Trondheim on 17 November 1943 along with eight other Norwegian resistance fighters. Øksendal, Asbjørn Lurøy-affæren - Operasjon Oleander: Gestapo i Trondheim og Leksvik-affæren 1942-44 ISBN 978-82-7005-023-9 Nidelven stille og vakker du er by Oskar Hoddø

Max Schneider (music historian)

Max Schneider was a German music historian. Born in Eisleben, Schneider studied musicology at the University of Leipzig with Hermann Kretzschmar and Hugo Riemann and composition with Salomon Jadassohn. After his time as second Kapellmeister in Halle from 1897 to 1901 he continued his studies of music history with Kretzschmar. In 1904 he moved to Berlin, where he worked from 1905 to 1915 as a "scientific assistant" at the Alte Bibliothek. At the Königliches Musik-Institut Berlin Schneider lernte orchestration and received the title of professor in 1913. In 1915 he accepted a professorship at the University of Breslau. In Breslau he was from 1927 director of the Hochschule für Kirchenmusik der Evangelischen Kirche der schlesischen Oberlausitz. In 1928 he succeeded Arnold Schering as professor for musicology at the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg. After 1933, Schneider was member of the organizations National Socialist Teachers League, Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Dozentenbund, Nationalsozialistischer Altherrenbund, the Reichsluftschutzbund.

In December 1938 he resigned from his post as Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy, which he had held since 1936, "because of the consequences of the "Rosenberg Politic". After 1945 he joined the Free German Trade Union Federation, he taught far beyond his Emeritus in 1950 until 1962. Furthermore he taught music history and score playing at the Staatliche Hochschule für Theater und Musik Halle founded in 1947. Schneider took on the editorship of the Bach-Jahrbuch of the Neue Bachgesellschaft; this annual publication had been suspended during the war years and the previous editor Arnold Schering had died. The Jahrbuch covering the years 1940-1948 came out in 1947 as Volume 37. Schneider was co-editor of the Archiv für Musikwissenschaft, the Händel-Jahrbuch, the Hallische Händel-Ausgabe as well as the series Musikgeschichte in Bildern, he dealt exclusively with the history of music from the late 16th to the middle of the 18th century, in particular with performance practice and source material. Schneider published important studies on Johann Sebastian Bach's biography and the sources of his works and helped to rehabilitate Georg Philipp Telemann.

From 1955 to 1967 he was president of the Georg-Friedrich-Händel-Gesellschaft in Halle. In 1961 he was awarded the Handel Prize. Schneider died in Halle at age 91, his grave is located on the Laurentius-Cemetery in Halle. Christoph Wolff: Schneider, Max. In Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd edition, edited by Stanley Sadie. Macmillan, London 2001, ISBN 0-333-60800-3 Richard Schaal: Schneider, Max. In Ludwig Finscher: Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Second edition, personal part, volume 14. Bärenreiter/Metzler, Kassel among others 2005, ISBN 3-7618-1134-9 Gerhard Scheuermann: Das Breslau-Lexikon, Band 2. Laumann-Verlag, Dülmen 1994, ISBN 3-87466-157-1, p. 1515. Literature by and about Max Schneider in the German National Library catalogue Max Schneider in Catalogus Professorum Halensis Max Schneider in Encyclopedia Britannica

University of Duisburg-Essen

The University of Duisburg-Essen is a public university in Duisburg and Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a member of the newly founded University Alliance Metropolis Ruhr. It was founded in 1654 and re-established on 1 January 2003, as a merger of the Gerhard Mercator University of Duisburg and the University of Essen; until 1994, the name of the Gerhard Mercator University was Comprehensive University of Duisburg. With its 12 departments and around 40,000 students, the University of Duisburg-Essen is among the 10 largest German universities. Since 2014, research income has risen by 150 percent; the universities origins date back to the 1555 decision of Duke Wilhelm V von Jülich-Kleve-Berg, to create a university for the unified duchies at the Lower Rhine. To this end, it was necessary to obtain a permission of the pope. Although the permission of the pope was granted in 1564 and of the emperor in 1566, the university was founded about ninety years in 1654, after the acquisition of the Duchy of Cleves by Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg.

It opened on 14 October 1655 by Johannes Claudberg as their first rector. The university had four faculties: Theology, Medicine and Arts. During its period of activity it was one of the central and leading universities of the western provinces of Prussia. Only a few decades the university was in competition with the much better equipped Dutch universities. Since only about one third of the population in the western provinces of Prussia were member of The Reformed Church, most Lutheran and Catholic citizens in the second half of the 18th century sent their sons to other universities; the university declined and was closed on 18 October 1818, due to a Cabinet Order of Friedrich Wilhelm III. At the same time, the University of Bonn was founded. Large parts of the Duisburg University Library were relocated to Bonn and formed the basis of the newly formed Bonn Library; the sceptre of the University of Duisburg was given to the University of Bonn, where it is still located today. In 1891, the Rheinisch-Westfälische Hüttenschule was relocated from Bochum to Duisburg.

Subsequently, the school was transformed into the Königlich-Preußischen Maschinenbau- und Hüttenschule, in 1938 was renamed to Public School of Engineering. After a decision of the federal state government in 1960, the teacher training college of Kettwig was settled to Duisburg and was named Pedagogical University Ruhr. In 1968, the university was founded again in Duisburg, related to the old one, bearing the name: Comprehensive University of Duisburg. Only small, the university was developed in the 1970s up to about 15,000 students. In 1972 the Pedagogical University Ruhr and the Public School of Engineering, renamed in 1971 to University of applied sciences Duisburg. Other schools were relocated to Duisburg; the University of Duisburg was called Comprehensive University of Duisburg. In 1994 the university was renamed Gerhard Mercator University. In 2003, Gerhard Mercator University merged with the University of Essen to form the University of Duisburg-Essen, today one of the largest universities in Germany with about 40,000 students.

In March 2007 the three universities of Bochum and Duisburg-Essen founded the University Alliance Metropolis Ruhr, which now includes more than 120,00 students and 1,300 professors and is modelled after the University of California system. In May 2018, the three members of the University Alliance Metropolis Ruhr launched the Research Academy Ruhr, an inter- and university overarching program for the development and support of young scientists; the program is funded by the State of North Rhine-Westfalia and the Mercator Research Center Ruhr with €800,000 over the next four years and an additional €1 million being added by the three participating members of the University Alliance. The university has two main campus locations in Essen; the University of Duisburg-Essen today has twelve faculties, listed below: Faculty of Art and Design Faculty of Biology and Geography Faculty of Business Administration and Economics Mercator School of Management – Faculty of Business Administration Faculty of Chemistry Faculty of Engineering Department of Building sciences Department of Electrical engineering and Information technology Department of Computer sciences and Applied Cognitive Sciences Department of Mechanical and Process engineering Faculty of Humanities Faculty of Mathematics Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Essen Faculty of Social sciences Institute for Political Sciences NRW School of Governance Institute for Educational sciences Institute for Development and Peace Institute for Sociology Faculty of Physics Centre for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen German-French Institute for Automation and Robotics Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Essen College of Gender Studies Institute for Experimental Mathematics Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities Institute of East Asian Studies Institute for Labor/ Labour and Qualification Interdisciplinary center for analytics on the nanoscale Centre for Logistics and Transport Centre for Medical Biotechnology Centre for Water and Environmental Research Centre for empirical research in education The NRW School of Governance is a central institution within the Institute for Political science and was founded in 2006 under the direction of Karl-Rudolf Korte.

It aims, through research and teaching, to promote the scientifically sound understanding of political processes. It does so by educating and training students in three main programs: Masters program: "Politica

Jeremy Ware (American football)

Jeremy Ware is an American football defensive back, a free agent. Ware was drafted in the seventh round of the 2010 NFL Draft by the Oakland Raiders after playing at Michigan State University and at Lehigh Senior High School in his hometown, he played in eight games for the Raiders in 2010, recording three passes defended. He was placed on injured reserve during the 2011 season, was released at the end of the season. Ware was signed by the Bears on July 28, 2012. On August 11, 2012, Ware was waived by the Bears. In 2015, Ware played with the Florida Tarpons of X-League Indoor Football, he was released on April 1, 2016, but re-signed with the team on April 26, 2016. In 2013 he DESTROYED a local Fort Myers kid, in a speed ladder competition. Oakland Raiders bio

Jeff Alm

Jeffrey Lawrence Alm was an American football player who played defensive tackle for the Houston Oilers of the National Football League. He played college football at Notre Dame. A depth player for the Oilers and former All-American, Alm made national headlines for his suicide following a car accident that killed his best friend, caused by driving under the influence, his death was one of several incidents in a turmoil-filled season for the Oilers franchise. Born in New York City, Alm grew up in Orland Park, Illinois, a wealthy suburb of Chicago, he had three siblings and was raised by his mother and stepfather after his biological parents divorced. Alm played for the Carl Sandburg High School football team. During his junior year, he met Sean P. Lynch, a transfer student, while playing on the football field together. Alm and Lynch became best friends despite their differences in both personality and stature and were inseparable; as Alm's mother, described: "I always described them as Mutt and Jeff.

Sean was so little. They looked so funny together."Alm earned a football scholarship to Notre Dame. Alm was described by his teammates and friends as introspective and intellectual, completing a degree in marketing, he was praised for his work ethic by teammates and was named a second-team All-American during his senior year. Alm was selected by the Houston Oilers with their second-round pick in the 1990 NFL Draft. Throughout his career, Alm felt lonely in Houston and kept in touch with a handful of close friends from home and college, including Lynch, his final year was marred by injury. According to a witness, while Lynch was visiting Alm, the pair had dinner at a Houston-area steakhouse on December 13, 1993. At 2:45 a.m. Central Standard Time the following day, speeding, lost control of his 1993 Cadillac Eldorado heading south on Interstate 610 southbound at the 59 North exit ramp and Lynch was thrown out of the car, because the convertible top was down. After the crash Alm ran across the ramp and looked down an embankment towards the Southwest Freeway, discovering that his boyhood friend had been thrown to his death 30 feet below.

Distraught by his best friend's death, Alm took out a pistol grip shotgun, fired two shots into the air the first to announce the death of Lynch, the second as a warning shot, shot himself in the head. Alm had made a frantic 911 call to summon help after the car crash prior to his suicide. Alm shouted "Sean are you all right?" at the beginning of the call. In the ensuing moments, he tries to tell the operator the location of the accident. "Yes, I had an accident on, uh," Alm said. "I had an accident on 59, uh, on 59 north. We're at... 59 north. Loop, uh, 610. I have a buddy dying!"Toxicology reports have stated that Alm had a blood alcohol-level of.14, over the.10 legal limit. Lynch's blood-alcohol level was.30. Alm was taking the prescription barbiturate, Fiorinal prescribed for tension headaches. According to the report by Joseph A. Jachimczyk, Chief Medical Examiner for Harris County, the barbiturate level was within therapeutic range. Josh Brent List of American football players who died during their careers Jeff Alm at Find a Grave