SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Caliphate

A caliphate is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph, a person considered a political-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah. The caliphates were polities based in Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate and the Abbasid Caliphate. In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517. During the history of Islam, a few other Muslim states all hereditary monarchies, have claimed to be caliphates. Prior to the rise of Muhammad, Arab tribes followed a pre-Islamic Arab polytheism and lived as self-governing sedentary and nomadic tribal communities. Following the early Muslim conquests by Muhammad, the region became politically unified under Islam; the first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate succeeded Muhammad after his death in 632.

The four Rashidun caliphs were chosen through shura, a process of community consultation that some consider to be an early form of Islamic democracy. The fourth caliph, who, unlike the prior three, was from the same clan as Muhammad, is considered by Shia Muslims to be the first rightful caliph and Imam after Muhammad. Ali reigned during the First Fitna, a civil war between supporters of Ali and supporters of the assassinated previous caliph, from Banu Umayya, as well as rebels in Egypt; the second caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate, was ruled by Banu Umayya, a Meccan clan descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. The caliphate continued the Arab conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula into the Muslim world; the caliphate had considerable acceptance of the Christians within its territory, necessitated by their large numbers in the region of Syria. Following the Abbasid Revolution from 746–750, which arose from non-Arab Muslim disenfranchisement, the Abbasid Caliphate was established in 750.

The third caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate was ruled by the Abbasids, a dynasty of Meccan origin descended from Hashim, a great-grandfather of Muhammad, via Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad. Caliph al-Mansur founded its second capital of Baghdad in 762, which became a major scientific and art centre, as did the territory as a whole, during the period known as the Islamic Golden Age. From the 10th century, Abbasid rule became confined to an area around Baghdad and saw several occupations from foreign powers. In 1258, the Mongol Empire sacked Baghdad, ending the Abbasid Caliphate, in 1261 the Mamluks in Egypt re-established the Abbasid Caliphate in Cairo. Though lacking in political power, the Abbasid dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until the Ottoman conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517; the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, was established after their conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517. The conquest gave the Ottomans control over the holy cities of Mecca and Medina controlled by the Mamluks.

The Ottomans came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representatives of the Muslim world and the Gunpowder empires. Following their defeat in World War I, their empire was partitioned by the United Kingdom and French Third Republic; the Turkish Republic was proclaimed on 29 October 1923, as part of the reforms of its first president, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey constitutionally abolished the institution of the caliphate on 3 March 1924. A few other states that existed through history have called themselves caliphates, including the Isma'ili Fatimid Caliphate in Northeast Africa, the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Iberia, the Berber Almohad Caliphate in Morocco and the Fula Sokoto Caliphate in present-day northern Nigeria; the Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a caliph was a selected or elected position. Followers of Shia Islam, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt. In simpler terms, the Sunni favour election.

In the early 21st century, following the failure of the Arab Spring and defeat of the self-proclaimed "Islamic State", there has been seen "a broad mainstream embrace of a collective Muslim identity" by young Muslims, the appeal of a caliphate as an "idealized future Muslim state" has grown stronger. Before the advent of Islam, Arabian monarchs traditionally used the title malik, or another from the same root; the term caliph, derives from the Arabic word khalīfah, which means "successor", "steward", or "deputy" and has traditionally been considered a shortening of Khalīfat Rasūl Allāh. However, studies of pre-Islamic texts suggest that the original meaning of the phrase was "successor selected by God". In the immediate aftermath of the death of Muhammad, a gathering of the Ansar took place in the Saqifah of the Banu Sa'ida clan; the general belief at the time was that the purpose of the meeting was for the Ansar to decide on a new leader of the Muslim community among themselves, with the intentional exclusion of the Muhajirun, though this has become the subject of debate.

Abu Bakr and Umar, both prominent companions of Muhammad, upon learning of the meeting became concer

Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot

Charles Deschamps de Boishébert was a member of the Compagnies Franches de la Marine and was a significant leader of the Acadian militia's resistance to the Expulsion of the Acadians. He tried to protect Acadians refugees along the rivers of New Brunswick. At Beaubears National Park on Beaubears Island, New Brunswick he settled refugee Acadians during the Expulsion of the Acadians. From October until 3 November 1746, Boishebert took part in the unsuccessful Siege of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, the British administrative and military headquarters in Acadia. After the first Siege of Louisbourg in May–June 1745, a British force composed of New England irregulars proceeded to seize Île Saint-Jean and its capital Port-la-Joye, which had a French garrison consisting of about 15 soldiers and 100 Mi'kmaq; the British force consisted of two Royal Navy ships and 200 New England soldiers stationed at Port-La-Joie. Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Roch de Ramezay was sent from Quebec to the region in 1746 to support the Duc d'Anville Expedition in its effort to regain Acadia.

Upon arriving at Fort Beauséjour on the Isthmus of Chignecto, he sent Boishébert to Île Saint-Jean on a reconnaissance to assess the size of the British force. After Boishébert returned, Ramezay sent Joseph-Michel Legardeur de Croisille et de Montesson along with over 500 men, 200 of whom were Mi'kmaq, to Port-la-Joye; the battle took place in July 1746 near Port-la-Joye on the bank of the Northeast River. Montesson and his troops captured the rest. Montesson was commended for having distinguished himself in his first independent command, he participated in the Siege of Annapolis Royal under Ramezay. Boishébert fought in the Battle of Grand Pre. In the winter of 1747, Ramezay who had marched from Quebec the previous year to support the d'Anville Expedition, ordered his subordinate Nicolas Antoine II Coulon de Villiers with two hundred and fifty Canadians and fifty Mi'Kmaq to fight against Arthur Noble, stationed at Grand Pré. Boishébert was wounded in the battle fought there on 11 February 1747.

Following this French victory he returned to Quebec with the rest of the troops. During Father Le Loutre's War, he contested the arrival of senior British naval officer John Rous when he arrived at the mouth of the Saint John River to claim it for Britain, he built Fort Boishebert and later, with the building of Fort Beausejour, Boishébert rebuilt Fort Menagoueche at the mouth of the river, disguised as a fisherman, went up and down the coasts of Acadia in order to assess the Acadians' loyalty to France. During the French and Indian War, in 1754 Boishebert became the commandant of Fort Menagoueche, at the mouth of the Saint John, there he resisted British efforts to establish themselves; the victory of the British in the Battle of Fort Beauséjour on 16 June 1755 by Monckton's forces marked a turning-point in Boishébert's career. For the remainder of the war, French Officer Boishébert led the Mi'kmaq and the Acadians in a guerrilla war against the British. After the fort fell, the British commander dispatched a large detachment against the handful of militiamen at Fort Menagoueche.

As there was no hope of a successful outcome, Boishébert burned his fort before the enemy arrived and sought refuge among the local populace, continuing meanwhile to fight the enemy. Shortly after the Battle of Fort Beauséjour Boishébert learned that the British intended to attack the villages of Chipoudy and Memramcook. On 3 Sept. 1755, however, he confronted a British detachment at Petitcodiac. After three hours of desperate struggle, during which they suffered heavy losses, the British fled. Boishébert, who had lost only one man, returned to the Saint John River with 30 of the most destitute families. However, in all, 200 families were able to escape the deportation, resettle between Shediac and Cocagne, he ordered the Raid on Lunenburg. On January 20, 1756, Boishebert sent Francois Boucher de Niverville to Baie Verte to burn a British schooner. Niverville took the sailors by surprise, killed seven of them, took one prisoner, burned the ship. At the same time, Boishebert himself led 120 men against Fort Cumberland.

On 12 Oct. 1756 he undertook an expedition against Fort Monckton, but the enemy evacuated the fort and set fire to it before he arrived. After Louisbourg fell on 26 July 1758, Boishébert withdrew, with the enemy in pursuit, he brought back a large number of Acadians from the region around Port-Toulouse to the security of his post on the Miramichi. For the Acadians fleeing the deportation, Boishebert created refugee camps at Shediac, on the Restitgouche River, he spent part of the winter of 1755–56 at with the 600 Acadians stationed there. The following year, Boishebert left Shediac and went to Miramichi and established Le Camp d'Esperance at Beaubears Island; this camp was reported to have between 3500 Acadians. By January 1757, the conditions at Campe d'Esperance were horrendous and riots began to break out over provisions. In January 1757 he went to Beaubears Island on the Miramichi River and there set up his headquarters and a refuge for the Acadians. With Father Charles Germain's help he tried to sustain the Acadians' resistance to the British.

He established a refugee camp on the Restitgouche River at Petit-Rochelle. After

Unión de Pequeños Agricultores

Unión de Pequeños Agricultores v Council of the European Union C-50/00 P is an EU law case, concerning judicial review in the European Union. The Unión de Pequeños Agricultores, representing small Spanish agricultural businesses, challenged Council Regulation 1638/98 that withdrew subsidies from olive oil producers. UPA admitted the measure was a true regulation, the applicants lacked individual concern, but argued that because it did not require implementation at national level, there was no way to challenge the action before national courts, it would be denied effective judicial protection unless it could bring a direct action; the Court of First Instance held UPA had no locus standi under TEC art 230. AG Jacobs' Opinion said the court's existing case law was incompatible with effective judicial protection. Non-privileged applicants should be regarded as individually concerned when a measure was liable to have substantial adverse effects on his or her interests, he Argued the law should be liberalised because the preliminary ruling procedure gave no right for individuals to make a reference, therefore had no right of access to the CJ only allowing standing when there is no national law way to trigger a preliminary ruling is not enough there could be, as here, an absence of remedy as of right when national law fails to contain any so the solution is to recognise standing where a measure has'a substantial adverse effect on his interests' objections to enlarge standing are flawed – there is nothing against it in the treaties the settled case law is ripe for change since member states have liberalised JR themselves.

The Court of Justice, rejecting AG Jacobs, upheld Plaumann & Co v Commission, but accepted the individuals should have redress. This could be achieved through national courts. If, not possible, it would be the member state's fault. UPA should to have standing for a direct action whenever a remedy did not exist in national law, because the CJ would have to rule on national law rules when it had no such jurisdiction. European Union law