Calisthenics is a form of exercise consisting of a variety of movements which exercise large muscle groups, such as running, grasping, etc. These exercises are performed rhythmically and with minimal equipment, as bodyweight exercises, they are intended to increase strength and flexibility, through movements such as pulling, bending, jumping, or swinging, using one's bodyweight for resistance. Calisthenics can provide the benefits of muscular and aerobic conditioning, in addition to improving psychomotor skills such as balance and coordination. Urban calisthenics are a form of street workout. Individuals and groups train to perform advanced calisthenics skills such as muscle-ups and various freestyle moves such as spins and flips. Sports teams and military units perform leader-directed group calisthenics as a form of synchronized physical training to increase group cohesion and discipline. Calisthenics are popular as a component of physical education in primary and secondary schools over much of the globe.
In addition to general fitness, calisthenic exercises are used as baseline physical evaluations for military organizations around the world. Two examples are the U. S. Army Physical Fitness Test and the U. S. M. C. Physical Fitness Test; the word calisthenics comes from the ancient Greek words kallos, which means "beauty" or "beautiful", sthenos, meaning "strength". It is the art of using one's bodyweight as resistance; the practice was recorded in use in Ancient Greece, including the armies of Alexander the Great and the Spartans at the Battle of Thermopylae. Disciples of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn brought their version of gymnastics to the United States, while Catherine Beecher and Dio Lewis set up physical education programs for women in the 19th century. Organized systems of calisthenics in America took a back seat to competitive sports after the Battle of the Systems, when the states mandated physical education systems; the Royal Canadian Air Force's calisthenics program published in the 1960s helped to launch modern fitness culture.
Calisthenics is associated with the growing international sport called street workout. Street workout consists of athletes performing calisthenics routines in timed sessions in front of a panel of judges; the World Street Workout & Calisthenics Federation based in Riga, Latvia orchestrates the annual National Championships and hosts the World Championships for all the national champions to compete at one competition. The World Calisthenics Organization based in Los Angeles, CA. promotes a series of competitions known globally as the Battle of the Bars. The WCO created the first set of rules for formal competitions, including weight classes, timed round system, original judging criteria and a 10-point must system - giving increasing number of athletes worldwide an opportunity to compete in these global competitions. In addition to the various stretches, some of the more common calisthenic exercises include: Muscle-upsOne of the basic calisthenics routines. Performed by a combination routine of a pull-up followed by a dip.
May be done on pullup rings. Front leverA front lever is performed by performing a lat pulldown of the bar with straight arms until the body is parallel to the ground, with the front of the body facing upwards. May be done on rings or pull-up bar. Push-upsPerformed face down on the floor, palms against floor under the shoulders, toes curled upwards against the floor; the arms are used to lift the body while maintaining a straight line from head to heel. The arms go from extended in the high position to nearly flexed in the low position, while avoiding resting on the floor. Chest and triceps are trained with this exercise. Pull-upsAn overhead bar is grasped using a shoulder-width grip; the subject lifts their body up, chin level with the bar, keeping the back straight throughout. The bar remains in front of the subject at all times; the subject slowly returns to starting position in a slow controlled manner. This trains the lats or upper back muscles, as well as the forearms. An underhand grip variation or chin-up trains both biceps.
Chin-upsSimilar to pull-ups but the hand placement is reversed. The palms of the hands are facing the person; the chin-up focuses on the biceps muscles, rather than the Latissimus dorsi muscle, the focus of the pull-up. SquatsStanding with feet shoulder width apart, the subject squats down as far as possible, bringing the arms forward parallel to the floor; the subject returns to standing position. Squats train the quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteal muscles. Squat jumpsA variant of the Squat. Performed by entering a squatting position using a plyometric jumping movement to jump as high as possible. Back leverA back lever is performed by lowering from an inverted hang from rings or bar, until the gymnast's body is parallel to the ground and facing towards the floor. Handstand A handstand is the act of supporting the body in a stable, inverted vertical position by balancing on the hands. In a basic handstand the body is held straight with arms and legs extended, with hands spaced shoulder-width apart.
DipsDone between parallel bars or facing either direction of trapezoid bars found in some gyms. Feet are crossed with either foot in front and the body is lowered until the elbows are in line wit
Laurie Faria Stolarz is an American author of young adult fiction novels, best known for her Blue is for Nightmares series. Her works, which feature teenage protagonists, Stolarz grew up in Salem, Massachusetts, a city known for the Salem witch trials of 1692, the influence of which can be seen in the magical and witchcraft/Wiccan elements of her books, she attended Merrimack College and Emerson College, both in Massachusetts. Stolarz found sales success with her first novel, Blue is for Nightmares, followed it up with three more titles in the series, White is for Magic, Silver is for Secrets, Red is for Remembrance; the four novels in the "BIFN" series have sold over 500,000 copies collectively. Stolarz has announced a graphic novel entry into the series titled Black is for Beginnings, which she published in summer 2009. Stolarz published Bleed in September 2006 and a companion novel, Project 17, in December 2007. Bleed has a cult following, Project 17 is set at the former Danvers State Hospital.
The demolition happened in 2007 as well. The Touch series is Stolarz's newest series, it is expected to have five books. The first book, Deadly Little Secret, was released late 2008, the second book Deadly Little Lies on November 10, 2009, the third book, Deadly Little Games, in December 2010; the fourth book in the series, Deadly Little Voices, is expected to be released on December 6, 2011 and Deadly Little Lessons in December 2012. It takes place in Massachusetts. Blue is for Nightmares series Blue is for Nightmares, Llewellyn Publications, November 2003, ISBN 0-7387-0391-5 White is for Magic, Llewellyn Publications, May 2004, ISBN 0-7387-0443-1 Silver is for Secrets, Llewellyn Publications, January 2005, ISBN 0-7387-0631-0 Red is for Remembrance, Llewellyn Publications, August 2005, ISBN 0-7387-0760-0 A box set of these four novels was published as The Blue is for Nightmares Collection by Llewellyn's new young adult imprint, Flux, in September 2006 Black is for Beginnings, September 2009, ISBN 0-7387-1438-0 Bleed, September 2006, ISBN 0-7868-3854-X Project 17, December 2007, ISBN 0-7868-3856-6 Touch series Deadly Little Secret, December 2008, ISBN 1-4231-1144-3 Deadly Little Lies, November 2009, ISBN 1-4231-1145-1 Deadly Little Games, December 28, 2010 ISBN 9781423131601 Deadly Little Voices, December 6, 2011, ISBN 9781423131618 Deadly Little Lessons, December 18, 2012, ISBN 1-4231-3162-2 Shattered: The Amanda Project #3, HarperTeen, December 27, 2011, ISBN 9780061742170 Dark House series Welcome to the Dark House, July 22, 2014, ISBN 9781423181736 Return to the Dark House, July 21, 2015, ISBN 9781423181736 Shutter, October 18, 2016, ISBN 9781484727904 Jane Anonymous, Wednesday Books, January 7, 2020, ISBN 9781250303707 Official Laurie Stolarz Website Laurie Stolarz MySpace page Laurie Stolarz LiveJournal blog https://www.facebook.com/#/profile.php?id=597050025&ref=nf
The August 2012 Sinai attack occurred on 5 August 2012, when armed men ambushed an Egyptian military base in the Sinai Peninsula, killing 16 soldiers and stealing two armored cars, which they used to infiltrate into Israel. The attackers broke through the Kerem Shalom border crossing to Israel, where one of the vehicles exploded, they engaged in a firefight with soldiers of the Israel Defense Forces, during which six of the attackers were killed. No Israelis were injured; the attack led to sharp condemnations from Egyptian authorities. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu expressed his condolences for the Egyptian soldiers killed, praised IDF troops for their preparedness and handling of the attack. Israeli Defense Minister Ehud Barak warned that the incident should be a "wake up call" for Egypt in dealing with terrorists in the Sinai Peninsula, while Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi vowed to retake the Sinai Peninsula and declared three days of mourning; the Egyptian government closed the Rafah Border Crossing to the Gaza Strip.
Following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, militant organizations increased their activity in the Sinai Peninsula, some al-Qaeda-linked groups were established as well. These militants have been attacking and bombing gas pipelines in the Sinai running between Egypt and Israel; as of July 2012, there have been 15 bombings on these gas pipelines since the 2011 uprising. In August 2011, a series of cross-border attacks were carried out in southern Israel on Highway 12 near the Egyptian border via the Sinai Peninsula; the terrorists opened fire on an Egged No. 392 bus near Eilat, soon thereafter, a bomb was detonated next to an Israeli army patrol along the Egypt–Israel border. A third attack occurred. Eight Israelis – six civilians, one Yamam Special Unit police officer, one Golani Brigade soldier – were killed during the multi-pronged attack; the Israeli security forces reported eight attackers killed, Egyptian security forces reported killing another two. In July 2012, IDF intelligence chief Aviv Kochavi told the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee that the IDF has stopped a dozen attacks against Israel from the Sinai Peninsula.
On 31 July 2012, the United States Department of State's Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism warned in a report, "The smuggling of humans, weapons and other contraband through the Sinai into Israel and Gaza created criminal networks with possible ties to terrorist groups in the region. The smuggling of weapons from Libya through Egypt has increased since the overthrow of the Qaddafi regime." Haaretz reported that forces from al-Qaeda, supported by the local Bedouin, have been stationed in the Sinai. It reported that several other terrorist groups in Gaza have been assisting these forces, were smuggling weapons and goods into Gaza. In early August 2012, Israel's National Security Council's counter-terrorism bureau renewed its travel advisory against visiting the Sinai Peninsula, due to information on potential terrorist attacks against tourists, including kidnappings; the warning may have been due to Hamas' release of Abu Walid al-Maqdisi, a Salafi leader of an al-Qaeda-affiliated terrorist group, responsible for three bombings in Dahab in 2006, and, believed to have close ties with terror cells operating in the Sinai Peninsula.
The following day, the United States issued a travel warning to Americans to "take precautions in travel to the Sinai" and warned that "overland travel from Israel to the Sinai in particular is discouraged."Over the weekend prior to the attack on the border, various intelligence reports reaching the IDF's Southern Command warned of an impending attack. Specific information regarding the time and location of the attack could not be ascertained. Still, Southern Command Maj.-Gen. Tal Russo prepared his troops in case of an attack. Armored and Infantry soldiers were placed on high alert while the Israeli Air Force was deployed in the area as reinforcement. Russo evacuated troops from the Kerem Shalom border crossing, where the militants would break through, in anticipation of them coming under attack. Egyptian intelligence chief Morad Mowafi said that Egypt had received comprehensive intelligence warnings before the attack took place. However, the Egyptian authorities never imagined that this type of attack would happen, in which "a Muslim would kill a Muslim on the hour of breaking the fast in Ramadan."
The attackers approached an Egyptian military base in the Sinai Peninsula in three Land Rovers at sundown, during the iftar meal, which breaks the day's fast during the Muslim month of Ramadan, succeeded in taking control of the base while the soldiers were sitting down in the dining hall for the iftar meal. The attackers were attacked with guns and rocket-propelled grenades. Thirty-five attackers took part in this attack on the Egyptian base. After firing on the police, the gunmen commandeered two Fahd wheeled armored personnel carriers and attempted to break through the Kerem Shalom checkpoint into Israel. A few minutes before the gunmen infiltrated across the border, IDF troops received an alert regarding a possible breach of the Egyptian–Israeli border; this followed intelligence informing the IDF that an Egyptian border patrol post had been surrounded. One of the APCs was driven into the checkpoint, where it exploded booby-trapped; the other vehicle crossed into Israel and drove for 100 meters on the highway before encountering troops from the IDF Bedouin Reconnaissance Battalion, which opened fire on the vehicle but failed to stop its advance.
The IDF sent three tanks onto the highway, but the vehicle a
The 1981 Chengdu–Kunming rail crash occurred on July 9, 1981, when train number 442 passed the failed Liziyida bridge near Ganluo County, Sichuan province. More than 200 died in the accident, it is the worst train disaster in the history of the People's Republic of China. At 1:30 am, a mudslide occurred at the Liziyida gully, a tributary of the Dadu River, destroying the 17-metre high, 110-metre long Liziyida bridge. At 1:41 am, the route 442 passenger train from Geliping to Chengdu was dispatched from the Niri station after passing Route 221. A minute staffs of Niri station discovered that they had lost phone contact to the next station Wusi River station when reporting the departure of route 442. At 1:45 am, the train entered the Nainaibao tunnel at a speed of 40 km/h. After passing the tunnel curve, the driver Wang Mingru discovered that the building near the tunnel exit had collapsed and the light reflections from the rails were missing from the Liziyida bridge, he failed due to steep gradients of the rail before the bridge.
As a result, the two diesel locomotives, baggage car No. 13, post office van No. 12, passenger car No. 11 fell into the river. Passenger car No. 10 and No. 9 crashed into the river bank. Passenger car No. 8 overturned outside of the tunnel exit. 360 people were killed including 4 crew. The railway was blocked until a temporary bridge was completed on July 24. After the opening of a new tunnel in May 1984, the temporary bridge was dismantled and the Nainaibao tunnel was abandoned. Historic pictures: 1981 Sichuan severe mudslide
The Second Follett Ministry was the third ministry of the Government of the Australian Capital Territory, was led by Labor Chief Minister Rosemary Follett and her deputy, Wayne Berry. It was sworn in on 18 June 1991, after a successful resolution of no confidence in the Trevor Kaine led Liberal Party was passed in the Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly. Following the 1989 ACT general election, with a plurality of seats, led a minority government following the failure of an Alliance government between the Liberals and Residents Rally; this ministry covers the period from 18 June 1991 until the 1992 ACT general election. There was one minor change during this period when, on 20 December 1991, a new ministry for industrial relations was created with Berry as minister and the ministries of education and arts divided into separate ministries, with Woods remaining as minister. Paul Whalan, Follett's Deputy in the First Follett Ministry resigned from the Assembly on 30 April 1990 and was replaced by Terry Connolly who stepped straight into the ministry
Massimo Oddo is an Italian professional football manager and a former full-back. Oddo played for several Italian clubs throughout his career, although he is remembered for his time with Lazio, where he won the Coppa Italia, in particular, where he won several titles, including the UEFA Champions League and the Scudetto. At international level he represented the Italian squad at UEFA Euro 2004, was part of the team that won the 2006 FIFA World Cup, he started his career at Renato Curi Angolana of Serie D, moved to A. C. Milan youth team in 1993. After spending two years on the bench, in hope of more playing opportunities he moved to Serie C team Fiorenzuola on loan, it was followed by other three Serie C groups. He returned to promoted Serie B team Monza in 1998, left a year for Napoli, he made his debut in Serie A when Milan sold him to Hellas Verona in 2000. After two successful seasons with Verona, S. S. Lazio got hold of Oddo. At Lazio he had the opportunity to play in the UEFA Champions League in the season 2003–04 and the UEFA Cup competition in the seasons 2002–03 and 2004–05.
The team made it to the semi finals in 2003. Moreover, his third season with Lazio earned him the Coppa Italia winner title, he became the captain of Lazio for the first half of the 2006–07 season following the departure of Fabio Liverani to Fiorentina. On 23 January 2007, it was announced that Milan and Lazio had reached an accord for Oddo's transfer to the Rossoneri, after a long period of negotiation; the overall price was €10.75 million and Oddo waived some of his wage, made the deal worth €12 million in total. He signed a contract until 30 June 2011. Months Oddo was the starting right back in the 2007 UEFA Champions League Final and helped Milan gain their seventh European Cup in a 2–1 win over Liverpool, as well as the club's fifth UEFA Super Cup in August when they had to face 2007 UEFA Cup winners, Sevilla. Since arrival of Gianluca Zambrotta, Oddo had to compete with Zambrotta on the right back position. On 28 August 2008, Oddo moved to Bayern Munich on a one-year loan with the option of making the move permanent, however, at the end of the 2008–09 season, the German club confirmed that it would not take that option, he has since returned to Milan, with Zambrotta moved to left back and Oddo competed with Ignazio Abate for the right back position.
On 21 July 2010, he added one more year to his current contract to last until 30 June 2012. A day after, Zambrotta signed a new deal. After being frozen out of the Milan squad during the starting part of the 2010–11 season, he made his season debut against Napoli after an early first half head injury to left back Luca Antonini, furthermore he provided two assists, one to Robinho for the opening goal and another for Zlatan Ibrahimović. On 31 August 2011, Oddo joined Lecce on a season-long loan. Following the 2011–12 season, Oddo put an end to his career saying "I leave football; when you reach a certain age, you face a crossroad". Oddo made his national debut on 21 August 2002, in a 1–0 home defeat to Slovenia, replacing Matteo Brighi during the second half, as part of a reformed squad after the unsuccessful 2002 FIFA World Cup performance of the Azzurri, under Giovanni Trapattoni, he was a starter at seven Euro 2004 qualifying matches. During the main competition in Portugal, he made one appearance, playing as a substitute in Italy's final group game against Bulgaria.
Subsequently, Oddo was a member of Italy's championship winning squad during the 2006 FIFA World Cup under Marcello Lippi, as back up to Gianluca Zambrotta, making one substitute appearance in Italy's 3–0 win over Ukraine in the quarter-finals of the tournament. At the end of 2006 FIFA World Cup Final match in Germany, in which Italy defeated France 5–3 in a penalty shoot-out, Oddo chopped off a large chunk of his teammate Mauro Camoranesi's long hair as the rest of the squad danced around them in a circle. Oddo scored his first and only international goal for Italy from the penalty spot in a Euro 2008 qualifying match on 7 October 2006 against Ukraine, under manager Roberto Donadoni, which ended in a 2–0 victory for the Italians. Oddo made his 34th and final appearance for Italy in a 3–1 win over Portugal on 6 February 2008. Oddo was deployed on the right flank as an offensive full-back or wing-back, or as a wide-midfielder on occasion, due to his stamina, work-rate, defensive consistency, attacking drive, crossing ability.
In his career, he was deployed in a more defensive role as a central-defender. Despite being a defender, Oddo was known for his ability on set penalties. After retirement, he decided to pursue a coaching career accepting an offer as youth coach of the Allievi Regionali B for Genoa in August 2013, he left his job in July 2014 to accept an offer to guide the Primavera squad of hometown club Pescara. On 23 May 2015, he was promoted as head coach of Pescara after the dismissal of Marco Baroni with only one game remaining, a home match against Livorno, with both teams still involved in the race for a promotion playoff spot; the game ended with a 3–0 win for Pescara, which qualified the team to the Serie A promotion playoffs. On 9 June 2016, Oddo led Pescara to Serie A promotion after beating out Trapani 3–1 on a