Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Taylor County, Texas
Taylor County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 131,506, its county seat is Abilene. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1878, it is named for Edward Taylor, George Taylor, James Taylor, three brothers who died at the Battle of the Alamo. Taylor County is included in the Abilene, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area, is considered part of West Texas. Among first inhabitants were the Penteka. 1849 Capt. Randolph Marcy, U. S. Army engineer passes through scouting out West Texas to California routes. 1858 The Texas legislature establishes Taylor County from Travis counties. The county is named for Alamo defenders Edward and George Taylor. Butterfield Overland Mail establishes the Mountain Pass Station at Merkel, in continual use until 1861. 1872 First cattlemen venture into present Taylor County. 1878 Taylor County is organized. Buffalo Gap is named county seat. 1880 Texas & Pacific Railroad signs an agreement to run tracks through the future city of Abilene.
1881 Abilene is named after Abilene, Kansas. 1883 Abilene becomes the county seat. Wagon train of ten Baptist families arrives in the county. 1890 Abilene Board of Trade is organized. There are 587 ranches in the county. 1891 Hardin-Simmons University is established as Abilene Baptist College by the Sweetwater Baptist Association. 1897 Lytle Lake is created. 1904 State Epileptic Colony opens in Abilene. 1906 Abilene Christian University opens its doors as Childers Classical Institute. 1924 Hendricks Medical Center opens in Abilene as West Texas Baptist Sanitarium. West Texas Historical Association is chartered in Abilene. 1926 The first senior class of McMurry University graduates. 1929 Oil is discovered in the county. 1933 Abilene donates land for use by the Civilian Conservation Corps. 1942 Dyess Air Force Base is established as Abilene AFB. It is named in honor of Texas native and Bataan Death March survivor Lieutenant Colonel William Dyess. 1950 The Abilene Philharmonic Orchestra is created, with Jay Dietzer as the first conductor.
1956 Buffalo Gap Historic Village opens. 1998 The Ranch Horse Association of America is formed in Abilene. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 919 square miles, of which 916 square miles are land and 3.8 square miles are water. Interstate 20 Interstate 20 Business U. S. Highway 83 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 277 State Highway 36 State Highway 153 State Highway 351 Loop 322 Jones County Shackelford County Callahan County Coleman County Runnels County Nolan County Mitchell County As of the census of 2000, 126,555 people, 47,274 households, 32,524 families resided in the county; the population density was 138 people per square mile. The 52,056 housing units averaged 57 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.61% White, 6.73% Black or African American, 0.58% Native American, 1.25% Asia], 0.07% Pacific Islander, 8.35% from other races, 2.42% from two or more races. About 17.64% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 47,274 households, 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.80% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.20% were not families.
About 25.70% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was distributed as 26.60% under the age of 18, 13.80% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 19.30% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,035, for a family was $40,859. Males had a median income of $28,964 versus $21,021 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,176. About 10.40% of families and 14.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.60% of those under age 18 and 9.20% of those age 65 or over. Abilene Tuscola Tye Buffalo Gap Impact Lawn Merkel Trent Potosi Caps Ovalo View Wylie Dyess AFB Abilene State Park, recreational facility Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center, the world's largest wind farm Gary D. McCaleb, former mayor of Abilene List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Taylor County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Taylor County Charles Perry, member of the Texas Senate from Lubbock, was born in Taylor County in 1962.
Taylor County Official Site Central Appraisal District of Taylor County Taylor County from the Handbook of Texas Online Taylor at Curlie Zachry, Juanita Daniel A History of Rural Taylor County Nortex Press, 1980. ISBN 089015239X
The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation; the Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, being annexed by the United States. The revolution began in October 1835, after a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the large population of American settlers in Texas; the Mexican government had become centralized and the rights of its citizens had become curtailed regarding immigration from the United States.
Colonists and Tejanos disagreed on whether the ultimate goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation debated the war's motives, Texians and a flood of volunteers from the United States defeated the small garrisons of Mexican soldiers by mid-December 1835; the Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texian Army. In March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexico's honor, Santa Anna vowed to retake Texas, his Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered.
Santa Anna led a larger force to San Antonio de Béxar, where his troops defeated the Texian garrison in the Battle of the Alamo, killing all of the defenders. A newly created Texian army under the command of Sam Houston was on the move, while terrified civilians fled with the army, in a melee known as the Runaway Scrape. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groce's Landing on the Brazos River, for the next two weeks, the Texians received rigorous military training. Becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houston's army staged a surprise assault on Santa Anna and his vanguard force at the Battle of San Jacinto; the Mexican troops were routed, vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage. Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s; the annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, led directly to the Mexican–American War.
After a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the late 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region. On its southern edge, along the Medina and Nueces Rivers, Spanish Texas was bordered by the province of Coahuila. On the east, Texas bordered Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the United States claimed the land west of the Sabine River, all the way to the Rio Grande. From 1812 to 1813 anti-Spanish republicans and U. S. filibusters rebelled against the Spanish Empire in what is known today as the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition during the Mexican War of Independence. They won battles in the beginning and captured many Texas cities from the Spanish that led to a declaration of independence of the state of Texas as part of the Mexican Republic on April 17, 1813; the new Texas government and army met their doom in the Battle of Medina in August 1813, 20 miles south of San Antonio, where 1,300 of the 1,400 rebel army were killed in battle or executed shortly afterwards by royalist soldiers.
It was the deadliest single battle in Texas history. 300 republican government officials in San Antonio were captured and executed by the Spanish royalists shortly after the battle. What is significant is a Spanish royalist lieutenant named Antonio López de Santa Anna fought in this battle and followed his superiors' orders to take no prisoners. Another interesting note is two founding fathers of the Republic of Texas and future signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence in 1836, José Antonio Navarro and José Francisco Ruiz, took part in the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition. Although the United States renounced that claim as part of the Transcontinental Treaty with Spain in 1819, many Americans continued to believe that Texas should belong to their nation, over the next decade the United States made several offers to purchase the region. Following the Mexican War of Independence, Texas became part of Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, which defined the country as a federal republic, the provinces of Texas and Coahuila were combined to become the state Coahuila y Tejas.
Texas was granted only a single seat in the state legislature, which met in Saltillo, hundreds of miles away. After months of grumbling by Tejanos outraged at the loss of their political autonomy, state officials agreed to make Tex
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Jones County, Texas
Jones County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 20,202, its county seat is Anson. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1881. Both the county and its county seat are named for Anson Jones, the fifth president of the Republic of Texas. Jones County is included in TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 937 square miles, of which 929 square miles are land and 8.6 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 83 U. S. Highway 180 U. S. Highway 277 State Highway 6 State Highway 92 Haskell County Shackelford County Callahan County Taylor County Fisher County Stonewall County As of the census of 2000, 20,785 people, 6,140 households, 4,525 families resided in the county; the population density was 22 people per square mile. The 7,236 housing units averaged 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.80% White, 11.51% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 7.46% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races.
About 20.9% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 6,140 households, 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.60% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.30% were not families. About 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was distributed as 22.50% under the age of 18, 11.10% from 18 to 24, 31.50% from 25 to 44, 21.00% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 150.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 159.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,572, for a family was $35,391. Males had a median income of $26,892 versus $17,829 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,656. About 13.10% of families and 16.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 16.60% of those age 65 or over.
The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Robertson Unit prison, the Middleton Unit transfer unit is in Abilene and in Jones County. Susan King has been since 2007 the Republican state representative from Jones County, as well as Nolan and Taylor Counties. Up until 2000, Jones County was Democratic similar to numerous counties in the Solid South, only voting for Republican presidential candidates five times from 1912 to 1996. Starting in 2000, the county has become Republican, with the margin of victory for the party's candidates increasing with each passing election. Charles Stenholm, former member of the United States House of Representatives Dry counties List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Jones County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Jones County Jones County government's website Jones County from the Handbook of Texas Online Jones County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties