Sierra Madre (Philippines)
The Sierra Madre is the longest mountain range in the Philippines. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east, some of communities east of the mountain range and along the coast are so remote they are only accessible by plane or boat. The countrys largest protected area, the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, is situated at the part of the range in the province of Isabela. The Sierra Madre is the longest mountain range in the Philippines, in the north, the range starts in the province of Cagayan and ends in the south in the province of Quezon. In the province of Nueva Vizcaya, the Caraballo Mountains connect Sierra Madre Mountain range with the Cordillera Central range, towns like Palanan and Maconacon, Isabela can only be reached by plane from Cauayan City or a boat ride from Aurora province, south of Isabela. The ranges highest point is unclear, and several peaks are attributed as the highest, Mount Anacuao in Aurora province stands at 6,069 feet, while Mount Cetaceo in Cagayan is of similar altitude.
However, an expedition in April 2012 to Mount Guiwan preliminarily measured an altitude of 6,283 feet on the summit, Ecoregions in the range are in the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests and tropical and subtropical coniferous forests biomes. The Sierra Madre mountain range forest habitat is threatened by human activities, settlers living at the lower portions of the slopes generally are supported by work in logging and charcoal-making. Some portions of the forest cover are already second growth forest, geography of the Philippines Ecoregions in the Philippines Sierra Madre Biodiversity Corridor
Tuguegarao, is a 3rd-class component city in the Philippines. It is the capital of the province of Cagayan and the regional and institutional center of Cagayan Valley Region, the population of the city as of the 2015 census is 153,502 people. Most of the inhabitants are Ilocanos and Itawes, some are of Chinese and Indian descent. The highest temperature recorded in the Philippines --42.2 °C —was recorded in Tuguegarao on April 29,1912. Average temperature during March and April is 38 °C, one of the highest in the country, the city is politically subdivided into 49 barangays. 31 of these barangays have been classified by the city as urban, most of the rural barangays have agricultural territories, although some of the urbanized ones have mixed commercial and agricultural sites. There are several versions of legends looming about the origin of the name of the city of Tuguegarao, one is the abundance of tarrao trees in the area. Another is from the word meaning fire. Another recorded version is, the town was formerly called Tuerao by the people of the northern towns, still another is that the name Tuguegarao comes from two Ibanag words tuggi and aggao, possibly referring to a daytime fire that happened in the town.
The settlement was a small in terms of population but was big in territory, as a mission pueblo and with assigned encomendero to Tuguegarao, the inhabitants were made to pay taxes in the form of poultry products and other food products. Resentments flared and the people of Tuguegarao revolted in 1605, the people of Tuguegarao revolted in 1718 and 1761 under a leader named Rivera. The present chapel is the latest in a process of rebuilding started in 1724 when it was rebuilt by Fr. Bernabe de la Magdalena, O. P. Tuguegarao became the capital of Cagayan province in 1839 when the seat of power was relocated from Lal-lo. The decline of Lal-lo became the transformation of Tuguegarao as the most important town in Cagayan, Tuguegarao was occupied by American troops on December 12,1899. During World War II, the city and its airfield of some significance was captured by the Japanese Imperial Army on December 12,1941 as part of the Japanese invasion of Aparri. The General Headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, Philippine Constabulary, the city and airfield were bombed by the US and Philippine regularly between January and May 1945, and attacked by Donald Blackburns guerrilla forces in June 1945.
Sitio Capatan was elevated into a barrio Capatan of Tuguegarao on April 3,1959, Tuguegarao was once the only first-class municipality in the province of Cagayan. It has served as the capital of Cagayan since 1839 because of the notable socio-economic progress of the town
A stalactite is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling of caves, hot springs, or manmade structures such as bridges and mines. Any material which is soluble, can be deposited as a colloid, or is in suspension, or is capable of being melted, Stalactites may be composed of amberat, minerals, peat, pitch and sinter. A stalactite is not necessarily a speleothem, though speleothems are the most common form of stalactite because of the abundance of limestone caves, the corresponding formation on the floor of the cave is known as a stalagmite. The most common stalactites are speleothems, which occur in limestone caves and they form through deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the form of calcium carbonate rock which is dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide. When the solution comes into contact with air the chemical reaction that created it is reversed, the reversed reaction is, Ca 2 → CaCO3 + H 2O + CO2 An average growth rate is 0.13 mm a year.
The quickest growing stalactites are formed by a constant supply of slow dripping water rich in calcium carbonate and carbon dioxide. The drip rate must be enough to allow the CO2 to degas from the solution into the cave atmosphere. Too fast a drip rate and the solution, still carrying most of the CaCO3, falls to the floor where degassing occurs. All limestone stalactites begin with a single drop of water. When the drop falls, it deposits the thinnest ring of calcite, each subsequent drop that forms and falls deposits another calcite ring. Eventually, these form a very narrow, hollow tube commonly known as a soda straw stalactite. Soda straws can grow long, but are very fragile. If they become plugged by debris, water flowing over the outside, depositing more calcite. The same water drops that fall from the tip of a stalactite deposit more calcite on the floor below, unlike stalactites, stalagmites never start out as hollow soda straws. Given enough time, these formations can meet and fuse to create pillars of calcium carbonate known as a column, another type of stalactite is formed in lava tubes while lava is still active inside.
The mechanism of formation is similar to that of limestone stalactites, a key difference with lava stalactites is that once the lava has ceased flowing, so too will the stalactites cease to grow. This means that if the stalactite were to be broken it would never grow back, the generic term lavacicle has been applied to lava stalactites and stalagmites indiscriminately and evolved from the word icicle
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
A circadian rhythm /sɜːrˈkeɪdiən/ is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These 24-hour rhythms are driven by a clock, and they have been widely observed in plants, fungi. The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning around, the formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, weekly and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology. Processes with 24-hour oscillations are generally called diurnal rhythms, strictly speaking. Although circadian rhythms are endogenous, they are adjusted to the environment by external cues called zeitgebers. The earliest recorded account of a circadian process dates from the 4th century B. C. E, when Androsthenes, a ship captain serving under Alexander the Great, described diurnal leaf movements of the tamarind tree. The first recorded observation of an endogenous circadian oscillation was by the French scientist Jean-Jacques dOrtous de Mairan in 1729, in 1896, Patrick and Gilbert observed that during a prolonged period of sleep deprivation, sleepiness increases and decreases with a period of approximately 24 hours.
Szymanski showed that animals are capable of maintaining 24-hour activity patterns in the absence of external cues such as light, in the early 20th century, circadian rhythms were noticed in the rhythmic feeding times of bees. Extensive experiments were done by Auguste Forel, Ingeborg Beling, ron Konopka and Seymour Benzer isolated the first clock mutant in Drosophila in the early 1970s and mapped the period gene, the first discovered genetic determinant of behavioral rhythmicity. Joseph Takahashi discovered the first mammalian circadian clock mutation using mice in 1994, recent studies show that deletion of clock does not lead to a behavioral phenotype, which questions its importance in rhythm generation. The term circadian was coined by Franz Halberg in the 1950s, to be called circadian, a biological rhythm must meet these three general criteria, The rhythm has an endogenous free-running period that lasts approximately 24 hours. The rhythm persists in constant conditions, with a period of about 24 hours, the period of the rhythm in constant conditions is called the free-running period and is denoted by the Greek letter τ.
The rationale for this criterion is to distinguish circadian rhythms from simple responses to external cues. A rhythm cannot be said to be endogenous unless it has been tested, in diurnal animals, in general τ is slightly greater than 24 hours, whereas, in nocturnal animals, in general τ is shorter than 24 hours. The rhythm can be reset by exposure to external stimuli, a process called entrainment, the external stimulus used to entrain a rhythm is called the Zeitgeber, or time giver. In other words, they maintain circadian periodicity over a range of physiological temperatures, many organisms live at a broad range of temperatures, and differences in thermal energy will affect the kinetics of all molecular processes in their cell. In order to track of time, the organisms circadian clock must maintain roughly a 24-hour periodicity despite the changing kinetics. The Q10 Temperature Coefficient is a measure of this compensating effect, if the Q10 coefficient remains approximately 1 as temperature increases, the rhythm is considered to be temperature-compensated
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
A speleothem, commonly known as a cave formation, is a secondary mineral deposit formed in a cave. Speleothems typically form in limestone or dolostone solutional caves, the term speleothem as first introduced by Moore, is derived from the Greek words spēlaion cave + théma deposit. The definition of speleothem in most publications, specifically excludes secondary mineral deposits in mines, the cave environment has influenced the minerals deposition. More than 250 cave mineral deposits exist, the vast majority of speleothems are calcareous, composed of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite, or calcium sulfate in the form of gypsum. Calcareous speleothems form via carbonate dissolution reactions, calthemites which occur on concrete structures, are created by completely different chemistry to speleothems. Speleothems take various forms, depending on whether the water drips, condenses, many speleothems are named for their resemblance to man-made or natural objects. Speleogens are formations within caves that are created by the removal of bedrock, although sometimes similar in appearance to speleothems in caves formed by dissolution, these are formed by the cooling of residual lava within the lava tube.
Speleothems formed from salt and other minerals are known, most cave chemistry revolves around calcium carbonate, the primary mineral in limestone and dolomite. It is a slightly soluble mineral whose solubility increases with the introduction of carbon dioxide and it is paradoxical in that its solubility decreases as the temperature increases, unlike the vast majority of dissolved solids. This decrease is due to interactions with the carbon dioxide, whose solubility is diminished by elevated temperatures, as the dioxide is released. Most other solution caves that are not composed of limestone or dolostone are composed of gypsum, samples can be taken from speleothems to be used like ice cores as a proxy record of past climate changes. A particular strength of speleothems in this regard is their ability to be accurately dated over much of the late Quaternary period using the uranium-thorium dating technique. These can provide clues to past precipitation and vegetation changes over the last ~500,000 years, the radiation centers must be stable on geologic time, i. e. to have a very large lifetime, to make dating possible.
Many other artifacts, such as, e. g. surface defects induced by the grinding of the sample can preclude a correct dating, only a few percents of the samples tested are in fact suitable for dating. This makes the often disappointing for the experimentalists. ESR dating can be tricky and must be applied with discernment and it can never be used alone, One date only is No date, or in other words, multiple lines of evidence and multiple lines of reasoning are necessary in absolute dating. However, good samples might be if all the selection criteria are met. The occurrence of calthemites is often associated with degradation, but could be linked to leaching of lime
Flowstones are composed of sheetlike deposits of calcite or other carbonate minerals, formed where water flows down the walls or along the floors of a cave. They are typically found in caves, in limestone, where they are the most common speleothem. However, they may form in any type of cave where water enters that has picked up dissolved minerals, flowstones are formed via the degassing of vadose percolation waters. Flowstone may form on manmade structures as a result of calcium hydroxide being leached from concrete and these secondary deposits created outside the cave environment, which mimic the shapes and forms of speleothems, are classified as calthemites and are associated with concrete degradation. Flowing films of water that move along floors or down positive-sloping walls build up layers of carbonate, gypsum. The flowstone forms when thin layers of these deposits build on each other, there are two common forms of flowstones and travertine. Tufa is usually formed via the precipitation of carbonate, and is spongy or porous in nature.
Travertine is a calcium carbonate deposit often formed in creeks or rivers, its nature is laminated, the deposits may grade into thin sheets called draperies or curtains where they descend from overhanging portions of the wall. Some draperies are translucent, and some have brown and beige layers that look much like bacon, though flowstones are among the largest of speleothems, they can still be damaged by a single touch. The oil from human fingers causes the water to avoid the area. Flowstone derived from concrete, lime or mortar, can form on manmade structures, carbon dioxide is absorbed into the hyperalkaline leachate solution as it emerges from the concrete. This facilitates the chemical reactions which deposits calcium carbonate on vertical or sloping surfaces, concrete derived secondary deposits are classified as calthemites. These calcium carbonate deposits mimic the forms and shapes of speleothems and it is most likely that calthemite flowstone is precipitated from leachate solution as calcite, in preference to the other, less stable polymorphs and vaterite.
Other trace elements such as iron from rusting reinforcing or copper oxide from pipework may be transported by the leachate and this may cause the calthemites to take on colours of the leached oxides. Cave onyx is any of various kinds of flowstone considered desirable for ornamental architectural purposes, there are a number of US caves called Onyx Cave because of the presence in them of such deposits
A barangay, formerly referred to as barrio, is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. In colloquial usage, the term refers to an inner city neighbourhood. The word barangay originated from balangay, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian peoples when they migrated to the Philippines, as of June 2015, there were 42,029 barangays throughout the Philippines. When the first Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in the 16th century, the name barangay originated from balangay, a Malay word meaning sailboat. The first barangays started as small communities of around 50 to 100 families. By the time of contact with Spaniards, many barangays have developed into large communities, some of these barangays had large populations. In Panay, some barangays had 20,000 inhabitants, in Leyte,15,000 inhabitants, in Cebu,3,500 residents, in Vitis,7,000 inhabitants, there were smaller barangays with less number of people. But these were generally inland communities, or if they were coastal and these smaller barangays had around thirty to one hundred houses only, and the population varies from one hundred to five hundred persons.
According to Legazpi, he found communities with twenty to thirty people only, the original “barangays” were coastal settlements of the migration of these Malayo-Polynesian people from other places in Southeast Asia. Most of the ancient barangays were coastal or riverine in nature and this is because most of the people were relying on fishing for supply of protein and for their livelihood. They travelled mostly by water up and down rivers, trails always followed river systems, which were a major source of water for bathing and drinking. The coastal barangays were more accessible to trade with foreigners and these were ideal places for economic activity to develop. Business with traders from other countries meant contact with cultures and civilizations, such as those of Japan, Han Chinese, Indian people. These coastal communities acquired more cosmopolitan cultures, with developed social structures, during the Spanish rule, through a resettlement policy called the Reducción, smaller scattered barangays were consolidated to form compact towns.
Each barangay was headed by the cabeza de barangay, who formed part of the Principalía - the elite ruling class of the municipalities of the Spanish Philippines and this position was inherited from the first datus, and came to be known as such during the Spanish regime. The Spanish Monarch ruled each barangay through the Cabeza, who collected taxes from the residents for the Spanish Crown. When the Americans arrived, slight changes in the structure of government was effected. Later, Rural Councils with four councilors were created to assist, now renamed Barrio Lieutenant, it was renamed Barrio Council, the Spanish term barrio was used for much of the 20th century until 1974, when President Ferdinand Marcos ordered their renaming to barangays