Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Eduard Meyer was a German historian. He was the brother of Celticist Kuno Meyer. Meyer was born in Hamburg and educated at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums and at the universities of Bonn and Leipzig. After completing his studies, he spent one year in Istanbul. In 1879, he went to the University of Leipzig as privatdocent, he was appointed professor of ancient history at Breslau in 1885, at Halle in 1889, at Berlin in 1902. He lectured at Harvard in 1909 and the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign in 1910. Honorary degrees were given him by Oxford, St. Andrews and Chicago universities, he died in Berlin. In 1904 Meyer was the first to note the Sothic cycle of the Heliacal rising of Sirius, which forms the basis for the traditional chronology of Egypt, his principal work is his "Geschichte des Altertums". He published: Forschungen zur alten Geschichte – Research of ancient history. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Gracchen – Investigations on the history of the Gracchi. Wirtschaftliche Entwicklung des Altertums – Economic development of the ancient world.
Die Entstehung des Judentums – The origins of Judaism. Zur Theorie und Methodik der Geschichte – Theory and methodology of history. Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme – The Israelites and their neighboring tribes. Theopomps Hellenika – Theopompus' Hellenics. Der Papyrosfund in Elephantine – The papyrus discovery from Elephantine. Ursprung und Geschichte der Mormonen – Origin and history of the Mormons. Nordamerika und Deutschland – North America and Germany. In English translation "Alexander the Great and Universal Monarchy," The International Quarterly, Vol. VIII. England, he was a contributor to the Encyclopaedia Biblica and 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Meyer, Eduard". Encyclopedia Americana. Calder, William Musgrave and Alexander Demandt, ed..
Eduard Meyer: Leben und Leistung eines Universalhistorikers. Leiden: BRILL. Works written by or about Eduard Meyer at Wikisource Works by or about Eduard Meyer at Internet Archive Complete German text of Meyer's Geschichte des Altertums Newspaper clippings about Eduard Meyer in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Karl Krumbacher was a German scholar, an expert on Byzantine Greek language, literature and culture. He was one of the principal founders of Byzantine Studies as an independent academic discipline in modern universities. Krumbacher was born at Kürnach im Allgäu in the Kingdom of Bavaria, he studied Classical Philology and Indo-European linguistics at the Universities of Munich and Leipzig. In 1879 he passed the State Exam and was thereafter active as a school teacher until 1891. In 1883 he in 1885 his Habilitation in Medieval and Modern Greek philology. From 1897 he was professor of Medieval and Modern Greek Language and Literature at the University of Munich and held the newly created Chair of Byzantine Studies, the first professorial chair in this subject in the world. Krumbacher founded the Byzantinische Zeitschrift, the oldest academic journal of Byzantine Studies, the Byzantinisches Archiv, his collaborator at the time was the renowned Belgrade Byzantinist. He died in Munich in 1909, his successor as Professor of Byzantine Studies was August Heisenberg, father of physicist Werner Heisenberg.
His most important work is Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur von Justinian bis zum Ende des oströmischen Reiches in 1891. A second edition was published in 1897, with the collaboration of Albert Ehrhard and Heinrich Gelzer; the value of the work was enhanced by its lengthy bibliographies and it remained a standard textbook for decades. Krumbacher's extensive travels in Greece and the Ottoman Empire became the basis of his Griechische Reise, his notable works include studies of the poetry of Kassia and Populäre Aufsätze. In Das Problem der neugriechischen Schriftsprache he opposed the efforts of the Katharevousa purists to introduce the classical style into modern Greek language and literature. A full list of his works was published in the memorial edition of Byzantinische Zeitschrift. Alexander Kazhdan K. Dieterich,'Zum Gedächtnis an Karl Krumbacher', Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum, Geschichte und deutsche Literatur und für Pädagogik 13 279–295. A. Heisenberg,'Karl Krumbacher', Allgäuer Geschichtsfreund NF 24 1–26.
F. Dölger,'Karl Krumbacher' in Chalikes. Festgabe für die Teilnehmer am XI. Internationalen Byzantinistenkongreß, München 15. – 20. September 1958 121–135. J. Aufhauser:'Karl Krumbacher. Erinnerungen' in Chalikes. Festgabe für die Teilnehmer am XI. Internationalen Byzantinistenkongreß, München 15. – 20. September 1958 161–187. P. Wirth,'Krumbacher, Karl' in M. Bernath and K. Nehring Biographisches Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas. 2: G – K 515–516. G. Prinzing,'Ad fontem. Zum Gründungsjahr des Münchner "Seminars für Mittel- und Neugriechische Philologie"' in H. Lamm, 40 Jahre Deutsch-Griechische Gesellschaft, Germano-Helleniko Syllogos, Wiesbaden. 1959–1999 14–16. P. Schreiner and E. Vogt, Karl Krumbacher. Leben und Werk. Works written by or about Karl Krumbacher at Wikisource Literature by and about Karl Krumbacher in the German National Library catalogue Themenportal bei Propylaeum
The Suda or Souda is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world attributed to an author called Soudas or Souidas. It is an encyclopedic lexicon, written in Greek, with 30,000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, derived from medieval Christian compilers; the derivation is from the Byzantine Greek word souda, meaning "fortress" or "stronghold", with the alternate name, stemming from an error made by Eustathius, who mistook the title for the author's name. The Suda is somewhere between an encyclopedia in the modern sense, it explains the source and meaning of words according to the philology of its period, using such earlier authorities as Harpocration and Helladios. It is a rich source of ancient and Byzantine history and life, although not every article is of equal quality, it is an "uncritical" compilation. Much of the work is interpolated, passages that refer to Michael Psellos are deemed interpolations which were added in copies.
This lexicon contains numerous biographical notices on political and literary figures of the Byzantine Empire to the tenth century, those biographical entries being condensations from the works of Hesychius of Miletus, as the author himself avers. Other sources were the encyclopedia of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus for the figures in ancient history, excerpts of John of Antioch for Roman history, the chronicle of Hamartolus for the Byzantine age; the biographies of Diogenes Laërtius, the works of Athenaeus and Philostratus. Other principal sources include a lexicon by "Eudemus," derived from the work On Rhetorical Language by Eudemus of Argos; the lexicon copiously draws from scholia to the classics, for writers, Josephus, the Chronicon Paschale, George Syncellus, George Hamartolus, so on. The Suda paraphrases these sources at length. Since many of the originals are lost, The Suda serves an invaluable repository of literary history, this preservation of the "literary history" is more vital than the lexicographical compilation itself, by some estimation.
The lexicon is arranged alphabetically with some slight deviations from common vowel order and place in the Greek alphabet according to a system called antistoichia. The order is: α, β, γ, δ, αι, ε, ζ, ει, η, ι, θ, κ, λ, μ, ν, ξ, ο, ω, π, ρ, σ, τ, οι, υ, φ, χ, ψIn addition, double letters are treated as single for the purposes of collation; the system is not difficult to learn and remember, but some editors—for example, Immanuel Bekker – rearranged the Suda alphabetically. Little is known about the author, named "Suidas" in its prefatory note, he lived in the second half of the 10th century, because the death of emperor John I Tzimiskes and his succession by Basil II and Constantine VIII are mentioned in the entry under "Adam", appended with a brief chronology of the world. At any rate, the work must have appeared by before the 12th century, since it is quoted from and alluded to by Eustathius who lived from about 1115 AD to about 1195 or 1196; the work deals with biblical as well as pagan subjects, from which it is inferred that the writer was a Christian.
The standard printed edition was compiled by Danish classical scholar Ada Adler in the first half of the twentieth century. A modern translation, the Suda On Line, was completed on 21 July 2014; the Suda has the Kitab al-Fehrest of Ibn al-Nadim. Compare the Latin Speculum Maius, authored in the 13th century by Vincent of Beauvais. Suidas. Gaisford, Thomas. Lexicon: post Ludolphum Kusterum ad codices manuscriptos. A - Theta. 1. Typographeo Academico. Volume 2, volume 3 Adler, Ada Suidae Lexicon. Reprinted 1967-71, Stuttgart. Citations Bibliography Index of the Suda on lineSuda On Line. An on-line edition of the Ada Adler edition with ongoing translations and commentary by registered editors. Suda lexicon at the Online Books Page Suda Lexicon in three volumes, Cambridge, 1705.
Arrian of Nicomedia was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period. The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian is considered the best source on the campaigns of Alexander the Great. However, more even though modern scholars have preferred Arrian to other extant primary sources, this attitude towards Arrian is beginning to change in the light of studies into Arrian's method. Arrian was born in the provincial capital of Bithynia. Dio called him Flavius Arrianus Nicomediansis. In respect of his birth date, sources provide similar dates for his birth; the line of reasoning for dates belonging to 85-90 AD is from the fact of Arrian being made a consul around 130 AD, the usual age for this, during this period, being forty-two years of age.. His family was from the Greek provincial aristocracy, his full name, L. Flavius Arrianus, indicates that he was a Roman citizen, suggesting that the citizenship went back several generations to the time of the Roman conquest some 170 years before.
Sometime during the 2nd century AD while in Epirus Nicopolis, Arrian attended lectures of Epictetus of Nicopolis, proceeded within a time to fall into his pupillage, a fact attested to by Lucian. All, known about the life of Epictetus is due to Arrian, in that Arrian left an Encheiridion of Epictetus' philosophy. After Epirus he went to Athens, while there he became known as the young Xenophon as a consequence of the similarity of his relation to Epictetus as Xenophon had to Socrates. For a period, some time about 126 AD, he was a friend of the emperor Hadrian, who appointed him to the Senate, he was appointed to the position consul suffectus around 130 AD, in 132 AD, he was made prefect or legate of Cappadocia by Hadrian, a service he continued for six years. When he retired, Arrian went to live in Athens, where he became archon sometime during 145 or 146, he died in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Arrian referred to himself as the second Xenophon, on account of his reputation and the esteem in which he was held.
Lucian stated him to be: a Roman of the first rank with a life-long attachment to learning Τhis quality is identified as paideia, the quality considered to be of one, known as an educated and learned personage, i.e. one, esteemed and important. There are eight extant works; the Indica and the Anabasis are the only works intact. His entire remaining oeuvre is known as FGrH 156 to designate those collected fragments; this work is the earliest extant work, dated with any confidence. It is a writing addressed to the Emperor Hadrian. Arrian was a pupil of Epictetus around 108 AD, according to his own account, he was moved to publish his notes of Epictetus' lectures, which are known as Discourses of Epictetus, by their unauthorized dissemination. According to George Long, Arrian noted from Epictetus' lectures for his private use and some time made of these, the Discourses. Photius states that Arrian produced two books the Discourses; the Discourses are known as Diatribai and are a verbatim recording of Epictetus' lectures.
The Enchiridion is a short compendium of all Epictetus' philosophical principles. It is known as a handbook, A Mehl considers the Enchiridion to have been a vade mecum for Arrian; the Enchiridion is a summary of the Discourses. JB Stockdale considered that Arrian wrote eight books of which four were lost by the Middle Ages and the remaining ones became the Discourses. In a comparison of the contents of the Enchiridion with the Discourses, it is apparent that the former contains material not present within the latter, suggesting an original lost source for the Enchiridion. Friendly conversations with Epictetus is a 12 book work mentioned by Photius in his Bibliotheca, of which only fragments remain; the Anabasis of Alexander comprises seven books. Arrian used Xenophon's account of the March of Cyrus as the basis for this work. History of the Diadochi or Events after Alexander is a work of ten books. Three extant fragments are the Vatican Palimpsest, PSI 12.1284, the Gothenburg palimpsest, these stemming from Photius.
The writing is about the successors of Alexander the Great, circa 323 – 321 or 319. A lost work of seventeen books, fragments of Parthica were maintained by the Suda and Stephen of Byzantium; the work survives only in adaptations made by Photius and Syncellus. Translated, the title is History of the Parthians. Arrian's aim in the work was to set forth events of the Parthian war of Trajan; the writing mentioned that the Parthians trace their origins to Artaxerxes II. A work of eight books, Bibliotheca states. A work translated a Nicodemian script. Indica is a work on a variety of things pertaining to India, the voyage of Nearchus in the Persian Gulf; the first part of Indica was based on the work of the same name of Megasthenes, the second part based on a journal written by Nearchus. Written 136/137 AD, Techne Taktike is a treatise on Roman cavalry and military tactics, includes information on the nature and disciplin