The Callitrichidae are a family of New World monkeys, including marmosets and lion tamarins. At times, this group of animals has been regarded as a subfamily, called Callitrichinae, of the family Cebidae; this taxon was traditionally thought to be a primitive lineage, from which all the larger-bodied platyrrhines evolved. However, some works argue that callitrichids are a dwarfed lineage. Ancestral stem-callitrichids were "normal-sized" ceboids that were dwarfed through evolutionary time; this may exemplify a rare example of insular dwarfing in a mainland context, with the "islands" being formed by biogeographic barriers during arid climatic periods when forest distribution became patchy, and/or by the extensive river networks in the Amazon Basin. All callitrichids are arboreal, they are the smallest of the simian primates. They eat insects and the sap or gum from trees; the marmosets rely quite on tree exudates, with some species considered obligate exudativores. Callitrichids live in small, territorial groups of about five or six animals.
Their social organization is unique among primates and is called a "cooperative polyandrous group". This communal breeding system involves groups of multiple males and females, but only one female is reproductively active. Females mate with each shares the responsibility of carrying the offspring, they are the only primate group that produces twins, which constitute over 80% of births in species that have been studied. Unlike other male primates, male callitrichids provide as much parental care as females. Parental duties may include carrying, feeding and engaging in play behavior with offspring. In some cases, such as in the cotton-top tamarin, males those that are paternal, will show a greater involvement in caregiving than females; the typical social structure seems to constitute a breeding group, with several of their previous offspring living in the group and providing significant help in rearing the young. A 2017 review of callitrichid species and subspecies confirmed the existence of the following taxa: Family Callitrichidae Genus Cebuella Pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea Western pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea pygmaea Eastern pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea niveiventris Genus Callibella Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset, Callibella humilis Genus Mico Silvery marmoset, Mico argentatus White marmoset, Mico leucippe Black-tailed marmoset, Mico melanurus Hershkovitz's marmoset, Mico intermedius Emilia's marmoset, Mico emiliae Black-headed marmoset, Mico nigriceps Marca's marmoset, Mico marcai Santarem marmoset, Mico humeralifer Gold-and-white marmoset, Mico chrysoleucos Maués marmoset, Mico mauesi Sateré marmoset, Mico saterei Rio Acarí marmoset, Mico acariensis Rondon's marmoset, Mico rondoni Genus Callithrix Common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus Black-tufted marmoset, Callithrix penicillata Wied's marmoset, Callithrix kuhlii White-headed marmoset, Callithrix geoffroyi Buffy-tufted marmoset, Callithrix aurita Buffy-headed marmoset, Callithrix flaviceps Genus Callimico Goeldi's marmoset, Callimico goeldii Genus Saguinus Subgenus Leontocebus Black-mantled tamarin, Saguinus nigricollis Spix's black-mantle tamarin, Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis Hernández-Camacho's black-mantle tamarin, Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi Brown-mantled tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis Andean saddle-backed tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys Lesson's saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscus Cruz Lima's tamarin, Saguinus cruzlimai Weddell's tamarin, Saguinus weddelli Weddell's tamarin, Saguinus weddelli weddelli White-mantled tamarin, Saguinus weddelli melanoleucus Golden-mantled tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus Subgenus Saguinus Red-handed tamarin, Saguinus midas Western black tamarin, Saguinus niger Eastern black tamarin, Saguinus ursula Pied tamarin, Saguinus bicolor Martins's tamarin, Saguinus martinsi White-footed tamarin, Saguinus leucopus Cottontop tamarin, Saguinus oedipus Geoffroy's tamarin, Saguinus geoffroyi Subgenus Tamarinus Moustached tamarin, Saguinus mystax Spix's moustached tamarin, Saguinus mystax mystax Red-capped moustached tamarin, Saguinus mystax pileatus White-rump moustached tamarin, Saguinus mystax pluto White-lipped tamarin, Saguinus labiatus Geoffroy's red-bellied tamarin, Saguinus labiatus labiatus Gray's red-bellied tamarin, Saguinus labiatus rufiventer Thomas's red-bellied tamarin, Saguinus labiatus thomasi Emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator Emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator imperator Bearded emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator subgrisescens Mottle-faced tamarin, Saguinus inustus Genus Leontopithecus Golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia Golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas Black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus Superagui lion tamarin, Leontopithecus caissara Media related to Callitrichinae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Callitrichinae at Wikispecies
Nativity: A Life Story is an African American Christmas-themed musical based on the Black Nativity written by Langston Hughes, intended to become a holiday tradition, appearing annually in various venues in New York City since its inception in the mid-1990s. The performances have been sponsored by the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Bruce Weber of The New York Times called it "a quirky combination of spiritual fervor, showbiz glamour, African-American pride and a celebration of women". Created in the mid-1990s, performances were held in a variety of auditoriums in New York City. In 2001, the musical was performed at Riverside Church, where crowds were in excess of the church's capacity of 1,900. Starting in 2002, Nativity found a home at the United Palace Theater, a venue owned by Reverend Ike and the United Christian Evangelistic Association located at 175th Street and Broadway in Washington Heights, Manhattan that provides seating for 3,500 for the three performances presented that year.
Howard Dodson announced at the time. The show was created by Harold Wheeler and Hattie Winston, together with producer James Stovall, executive director of the Ministry of the Arts & Culture at the Palace Theater. "Black Nativity", a gospel song-play by Langston Hughes first performed in 1961, was a major inspiration for Nativity. The show's producers planned for the show to become an annual tradition to rival the Christmas show at Radio City Music Hall and A Christmas Carol at the Theater at Madison Square Garden, though Weber in his 2002 review felt it "doesn't yet have the polish of its downtown cousins"; the 2002 production of Nativity featured a cast accompanied by three choirs and a company that totaled 125 performers. Several of the performers had appeared in Nativity in several previous year's productions, with Ebony Jo-Ann and Lillias White having contract clauses written into their agreements to perform elsewhere guaranteeing that they would be allowed to perform in Nativity. White, who performed the spiritual "No Room" said that "This is something I have to do every year".
BeBe Winans, who played Joseph, Stephanie Mills as Mary did a duet of Joseph Joubert's "Love Is a Miracle". The song "Have You Heard About the Baby" was performed by an a cappella trio led by Freddie Jackson. Composer William L. Dawson's hymn "Behold the Star" was led by Priscilla Baskerville together with the Ebony Ecumenical Ensemble and the Broadway Inspirational Voices. Narration was provided by Keith David and Phylicia Rashad; the closing number is "Spread the Word", described as "a rollicking gospel chorale" that had "the audience was on its feet and roaring as though a rock concert was ending" serving as "a fitting conclusion to this grandly spirited and wholly contemporary show, whose creators have persevered with a faith of their own". A 2003 review recognized the "powerful singing voices" and "dance that delivers the goose bumps", but said that "the production values are reminiscent of an elementary-school pageant, rickety scenery and all". Two performances of Nativity were presented in December 2006 at the nightclub Joe's Pub, featuring George Faison and Lillias White
Angel and Apostle is a novel written by Deborah Noyes and published in 2005. It is viewed as a sequel to The Scarlet Letter, a novel by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne, but it is more like a companion due to the overlap of events between the novels; the story begins with Pearl in their cabin in the woods. The reader learns that Hester has little discipline for her child, Pearl runs wild and free most of the time doing as little work as possible. Pearl visits a blind boy named Simon who lives in a house close to her own, they become friends, Hester lets Pearl help out Liza, the caretaker of Simon’s sickly mother, with the chores around Simon’s house. However, Pearl has been stigmatized as the child of "the temptress," and this reputation follows her everywhere, she isn’t fazed by this until Simon begins repeating things that his older brother told him about Hester. This makes Pearl feel horrible, she runs away to the graveyard to visit the grave of Simon’s mother who died shortly after Pearl started helping out around the house.
She talks to the minister. Pearl runs back to her mother, Hester tells her that the doctor is a "devil." One night Governor Winthrop lay dying, Hester was called upon to tend to him. Pearl ran away from the Governor’s mansion, she found Devlin standing on the scaffold, he invites Pearl up until the minister, Arthur and takes Devlin away. Pearl continues to strengthen her relationship with Simon, at one point Nehemiah, Simon’s only brother, gives his blessing to the friendship when he lets Pearl take Simon to the beach. However, Pearl soon learns that Simon and his family are moving back to London, Hester and she are moving to Holland to be with her mother’s relatives. Pearl was supposed to leave the night of Election Day, but instead Arthur the minister collapses and dies. Hester is put in the stocks thus preventing any escape by sea. Doctor Devlin comes to taunt Hester for, he asks her if the minister fathered the child because of her reaction to his death. Hester doesn't give in to him. However, Hester gets depressed when she arrives home, Pearl is forced to bring Simon’s dad, Mr. Milton and Doctor Devlin to help Hester.
Hester agrees to travel on Milton’s boat to England, she agrees to a seven-year work contract with Milton’s sister. Hester and Pearl work with Milton's sister. Pearl receives the news that Devlin gave her property in New England, she sells the English property and purchases a home in the English countryside where Nehemiah and she get married. Pearl and Nehemiah argue about Simon’s welfare, Pearl takes it upon herself to improve Simon’s quality of life. In the meantime Caleb Milton, the father, Liza both die so Pearl is in charge of running the household now. Simon reveals his lust for Pearl, the two of them have sex while Nehemiah is away. Pearl becomes pregnant, at first she claims the child to be Nehemiah’s, but he soon learns the truth. Nehemiah indirectly killed Simon for doing this; this was covered up, Pearl grieved for a long time. Her child, was sent to live with Mag, her servant, in London with Nehemiah; the plague that ravaged London was over soon, both Nehemiah and Pearl moved back to London with Abigail who refuses to speak to love Pearl or call her "mother."
While in London Pearl learns that Nehemiah has cheated on her many times with Mag while drunk. He goes on to have an affair with the widow of a general in the English army. Pearl doesn't know, he explains the entire story of her conception to Pearl, he gives her the scarlet “A” that her mother wore. Soon afterward London burns all of Nehemiah's trading goods. Pearl lets Nehemiah leave her for someone with fewer traumas. Pearl and Devlin leave with Abigail for New England to make a new life. Pearl - the illegitimate child of Hester, wife of Nehemiah, mother of Abigail, she is the main character. Hester - the mother of Pearl, forced by law to wear a scarlet "A" on her chest because she committed adultery Doctor Devlin - the physician for the local minister and the man who had sex with Hester and claims to be the father of Pearl Liza - the servant of Caleb Milton, the father of Simon and Nehemiah, she is Pearl's friend. Simon - a blind boy whom Pearl befriends, she moves to England with him and has sex with him.
He is the father of Abigail. Nehemiah - the older brother of Simon whom Pearl marries, he is a merchant like his father. Mag - the servant of Pearl and Nehemiah in London who had an affair with Nehemiah. Mary Whippe of mostlyfiction.com gave a positive review, saying "Noyes imbues her debut novel with energy and literary weight, continuing Pearl's story while remaining faithful to the original which inspired it. Her ability to include period detail and to reproduce the religious beliefs and practices of the period give additional credence to her story, the character of Pearl is free-spirited enough to strike a chord with modern readers" and finished by saying "pacing parallels that of Hawthorne, her exploration of behavior as a series of good acts or acts inspired by the Devil is consistent with his. Lovers of literary novels will admire Noyes's thoughtful reconstruction of its beliefs, her care in reproducing the language and style of the period are extraordinary, her development of the character of Pearl shows the emotional tensions inherent in a life lived under a theocracy".
Jill Grinberg of Publisher Weekly complimented the book by saying "engages with atmospheric charms of time an