The Brothertown Indians, located in Wisconsin, are a Native American tribe formed in the late 18th century from communities so-called "praying Indians", descended from Christianized Pequot and Mohegan tribes of southern New England and eastern Long Island, New York. In the 1780s after the American Revolutionary War, they migrated from New England into New York state, where they accepted land from the Iroquois Oneida Nation in Oneida County. Under pressure from the United States government, the Brothertown Indians, together with the Stockbridge-Munsee and some Oneida, removed to Wisconsin in the 1830s, taking ships through the Great Lakes. In 1839 they were the first tribe of Native Americans in the United States to accept United States citizenship and allotment of their communal land to individual households, in order to prevent another removal further west. Most of the neighboring Oneida and many of the Lenape were removed to Indian Territory in this period. Seeking to regain federal recognition, the Brothertown Indians filed a documented petition in 2005.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs notified the tribe in 2009 in a preliminary finding that they had not satisfied all seven criteria. In addition, the BIA said that the 1839 act granting the Brothertown United States citizenship and dissolving their communal reservation land, had terminated the people as a sovereign tribe. In September 2012, in the final determination on the Brothertown petition, the acting Assistant Secretary determined that the group had a relationship with the United States, but had its tribal status terminated by the 1839 act which could only be restored by a new act of Congress; because Brothertown could not satisfy one of the seven mandatory criteria for federal acknowledgment, the Department did not look to the other criteria in making its final determination. The Brothertown Indians are continuing to pursue federal recognition; the Brothertown Indians are one of twelve tribes residing in Wisconsin and the only one that does not have federal recognition. The tribe is estimated to have more than 4,000 members as of 2013.
The Brothertown Indian Nation was formed by three leaders of the Mohegan and Pequot tribes of New England and eastern Long Island: Samson Occom, a notable Presbyterian minister to New England Indians and fundraiser for Moor's Indian Charity School—although funds Occom raised for this school were used by Wheelock to found Dartmouth College. They organized as a new tribe the numerous remnant peoples who had survived the disruption of disease and warfare, including some Narragansett and Montauk. After the American Revolutionary War, the tribe formally organized on November 7, 1785 and included members of the so-called Christian tribes of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Long Island, New York; these included people of Mohegan, Pequot at Massachusetts. Under pressure from the victorious American settlers to move west, they began to migrate in the 1780s to land provided to them by the Oneida Nation of the Iroquois in Marshall, New York, where they formalized their new status; as allies to the Patriots, the Oneida were allowed to stay in New York on a small reservation.
Due to hostilities aroused by four of the Iroquois nations having allied with the British during the war, continuing land hunger by new settlers, New York and the United States governments pressured the tribes to remove west of the Mississippi River. By the 1830s, the Brothertown Indian Nation sold its land to the state of New York and purchased land in Wisconsin; the 3200-member tribe thrives in twenty-first century America. In 1821, numerous New York tribes signed a treaty with the federal government and acquired 860,000 acres in Wisconsin. In 1822, another delegation acquired an additional 6,720,000 acres, which consisted of the entire western shore of Lake Michigan; the Brothertown Indians were to receive about 153,000 acres along the southeastern side of the Fox River near present-day Kaukauna and Wrightstown. Some of the other tribes included in the 1821 treaty felt they were misled by the federal government; the treaty was hotly debated for eight years, was never ratified by the United States Senate.
The federal government mediated a settlement with three treaties signed in 1831 and 1832. The settlement with the Brothertown consisted of exchanging the agreed-upon lands for the 23,040 acres now referred to as the entire town of Brothertown in Calumet County along the east shore of Lake Winnebago; the Brothertown leadership led the move west so they could live in peace away from European-American influences. The Brothertown joined their neighbors, some of the Oneida tribe and the Stockbridge-Munsee, in planning the move to Wisconsin. Five groups of Brothertown people arrived in Wisconsin on ships at the port of Green Bay between 1831 and 1836, after having traveled across the Great Lakes. Upon arrival, the Brothertown cleared their communal land and began farming, after building a church near Jericho, they created a settlement called Eeyawquittoowauconnuck, which they renamed as Brothertown. Finding that their land was fertile, the federal government soon proposed to move the Brothertown west to Indian Territory in prese
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Chilton is a city in and county seat of Calumet County in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 3,933 at the 2010 census; the city is located within the Town of Chilton. The first residents of Chilton were African-American former slave Moses Stanton and his Native-American wife, who arrived in January 1845; the city formed around a grist mill a few years later. The village was called Stantonville. John Marygold bought the place in 1852 and called it "Chilington," referring to Chillington Hall in England, he sent a verbal message to have the name change recorded in Stockbridge the county seat. Because the middle ing in the name was accidentally omitted, the municipality was recorded as Chilton. An alternative explanation for the name is that it was a reference to a village called Chilton near Oxford, England; the county seat was changed to Chilton in December 1853 and the county's first courthouse was built. Most Chilton residents in the 19th century had German heritage. Chilton annexed the unincorporated community of Gravesville in the late twentieth century.
Gravesville was founded 1849 by Leroy Graves and the community was named after him. By 1881 it was one of the largest communities in the county behind Stockbridge. Gravesville had over 400 residents and it unsuccessfully vied for becoming the county seat. Graves built a sawmill in 1849 which remained in the community until he moved it to Fond du Lac in 1886. At its peak, the community had several general stores, a furniture factory, a saw/planing mill, it had a post office. Chilton is located at 44°1′50″N 88°9′31″W, along the South Branch of the Manitowoc River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.01 square miles, of which, 3.97 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,033 people, 1,687 households, 1,027 families residing in the city; the population density was 990.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,808 housing units at an average density of 455.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.8% White, 0.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.0% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.3% of the population. There were 1,687 households of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.1% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age in the city was 40 years. 24% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.3% male and 51.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,508 people, 1,012 households, 952 families residing in the city; the population density was 952.4 per square mile. There were 1,606 housing units at an average density of 412.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.49% White, 0.38% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 0.38% from two or more races.
0.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,512 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.0% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,401, the median income for a family was $51,581. Males had a median income of $35,163 versus $22,672 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,778. About 4.9% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.
Primary routes to the city are Wisconsin Highway 57/Wisconsin Highway 32 to the north and southeast, U. S. Route 151 to the west. Secondary routes are County Highway G to the south, County Highway F to the northwest, County Highway Y to the northeast; the south branch of the Manitowoc River snakes through Chilton. Some of the river is navigable. A widening of the river called. Chilton's public schools are administered by the Chilton Public Schools; the district has one high school, Chilton High School, one elementary school, Chilton Elementary School, one middle school, Chilton Middle School. Chilton Area Catholic School is a private Roman Catholic grade school in the city. Chilton's hospital is called Calumet Medical Center, its services are limited, although it does have two ambulances. Kaytee, a bird seed producer is headquartered in Chilton. Gravity Park USA, a motocross track, is located near Chilton. Briess Malt & Ingredients Co. a leading manufacturer of malted barley and other natural, speci
Appleton is a city in Outagamie and Winnebago counties in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. One of the Fox Cities, it is situated on the Fox River, 30 miles southwest of Green Bay and 100 miles north of Milwaukee. Appleton is the county seat of Outagamie County; the population was 72,623 at the 2010 census. Of this, 60,045 were in Outagamie County, 11,088 in Calumet County, 1,490 in Winnebago County. Appleton is the principal city of the Appleton, Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, Wisconsin Combined Statistical Area; the city possesses the two tallest buildings in Outagamie County, the Zuelke Building and 222 Building, at 168 and 183 feet, respectively. Appleton serves as the heart of the Fox River Valley, is home to the Fox Cities Exhibition Center, Fox Cities Performing Arts Center, Fox River Mall, Neuroscience Group Field at Fox Cities Stadium, Appleton International Airport, the Valley's two major hospitals: St. Elizabeth Hospital and ThedaCare Regional Medical Center–Appleton.
It hosts a large number of regional events such as its Flag Day parade, Christmas parade and others. The territory where Appleton is today was traditionally occupied by the Menominee; the Menominee Nation ceded the territory to the United States in the Treaty of the Cedars in 1836, with Chief Oshkosh representing the Menominee. The treaty came at the end of several years of negotiations between the Menominee, the Ho-Chunk and the federal government about how to accommodate the Oneida, Stockbridge-Munsee, Brothertown peoples who were removed from New York to Wisconsin; the Ho-Chunk never ratified the final treaty as only the Menominee ceded land. In the Menominee language, Appleton is known as Ahkōnemeh, or "watches for them place". Fur traders seeking to do business with Fox River Valley Native Americans were the first European settlers in Appleton. Hippolyte Grignon built the White Heron in 1835 to house his family and serve as an inn and trading post. Appleton was settled in 1847 and incorporated as a village in 1853.
John F. Johnston was the first village president. Lawrence University founded in 1847, was backed financially by Amos A. Lawrence and known as the Lawrence Institute. Samuel Appleton, Lawrence's father-in-law from New England who never visited Wisconsin, donated $10,000 to the newly founded college library, the town took his name in appreciation; the community was incorporated as a city on March 1857, with Amos Storey as its first mayor. Early in the 20th century, it adopted the commission form of government. In 1890, 11,869 people lived in Appleton; the paper industry, beginning with the building of the first paper mill in the city in 1853, has been at the forefront of the development of Appleton. In order to provide electricity to the paper industry, the nation's first hydro-electric central station, the Vulcan Street Plant on the Fox River, began operation on September 30, 1882; the power plant powered the Hearthstone House, the first residence in the world powered by a centrally located hydroelectric station using the Edison system.
Shortly thereafter, in August 1886, Appleton was the site for another national first, the operation of a commercially successful electric streetcar company. Electric lights replaced gas lamps on College Avenue in 1912. Appleton had the first telephone in Wisconsin, the first incandescent light in any city outside of the East Coast. Appleton's tallest building, the 222 Building was built in 1952; the Valley Fair Shopping Center, built in 1954, laid claim to being the first enclosed shopping mall in the United States, although this claim is disputed by other malls. In 2007 most of the structure was demolished, leaving only a movie theater. A Pick'n Save Food Center now stands in its place. From 1930–1970, Appleton was a sundown town: black people were not allowed to stay overnight. There was no official city ordinance, only an unwritten law enforced informally, such as by police encouraging black people to leave town after dark. In 1936, the Institute of Paper Chemistry tried to hire the famous chemist Percy Julian but couldn't figure out how to get around the sundown law.
A partial exception was made for opera singer Marian Anderson when she sang at Lawrence University in 1941: she was allowed to stay overnight in the Conway Hotel but was not allowed to eat dinner in public. In May 2016, a report by 24/7 Wall St. found that Appleton had the highest rate of self-reported binge and heavy drinking in the country. In a Vanity Fair interview and Appleton native Willem Dafoe referred to Appleton as a "favela". Appleton is located at 44°16′N 88°24′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.82 square miles, of which, 24.33 square miles is land and 0.49 square miles is water. Appleton has a humid continental climate typical of Wisconsin. Summers are warm to hot and winters are rather cold in comparison. Precipitation is moderate compared to other areas close to the Great Lakes, which means lesser snowfall in winter than in many other cold areas. A dew point of 90 °F was observed at Appleton at 5 p.m. on July 13, 1995. This is tied for the second highest dew point observed in the United States.
Appleton is the principal city of the Appleton–Oshkosh–Neenah CSA, a Combined Statistical Area which includes the Appleton and Oshkosh–Neenah metropolitan areas, which had a combined population of 367,365 at the 2010 census. As of the census of
Neenah is a city in Winnebago County, Wisconsin, in the north central United States. It is situated on the banks of Lake Winnebago, Little Lake Butte des Morts, the Fox River forty miles southwest of Green Bay. Neenah is bordered by the Town of Neenah; the city is the southwestern-most of the Fox Cities of northeast Wisconsin. It is the smaller of the two principal cities of the Oshkosh-Neenah Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah Combined Statistical Area, it is sometimes referred to as a twin city with Menasha. Neenah's population was 25,501 at the 2010 census. Neenah was named by Governor James Duane Doty from the Hoocąk word for "water" or "running water", it was the site of a Ho-Chunk village in the late 18th century. It is Nįįňą in the Hoocąk language; the government designated this area in 1835 as an industrial and agricultural mission to the Menominee Indians of the area. Early settlement by European Americans began a few years stimulated in large part by the proximity of the area to the Fox River.
Kimberly-Clark corporation was formed here in 1872. It founded a major paper mill here in 1873. Profits from lumber stimulated a variety of professions; some people relocated to Neenah after the disastrous fire in Oshkosh in 1875. Neenah is located at 44°10′26″N 88°28′6″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.61 square miles, of which, 9.23 square miles is land and 0.38 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 25,501 people, 10,694 households, 6,700 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,762.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,313 housing units at an average density of 1,225.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.7% White, 1.3% African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 1.3% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.8% of the population. There were 10,694 households of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.6% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.3% were non-families.
30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 37.1 years. 25% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 24,507 people, 9,834 households and 6,578 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,971.7 people per square mile. There were 10,198 housing units at an average density of 1,236.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.08% White, 0.34% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.96% Asian, 0.86% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races. 2.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Thirty-five percent of the households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families.
27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,773, the median income for a family was $55,329. Males had a median income of $39,140 versus $25,666 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,280. About 3.3% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.4% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over. Interstate 41 runs north to south through the center of the city. Bus service is operated by Valley Transit. Brennand Airport provides general aviation service for the city.
Appleton International Airport provides commercial airline service for the city. Neenah hosts significant paper industries; some paper companies include SCA Tissue, Kimberly-Clark and Neenah Paper. Kimberly-Clark was founded in Neenah and maintains significant operations there, though its headquarters moved to Irving, Texas, in the 1980s. Manhole covers manufactured at Neenah Foundry can be found throughout the central United States and parts of Europe. Neenah is the headquarters of Plexus, a developer and manufacturer of electronic products, which has engineering and manufacturing operations in the city. Headquartered here are Cobblestone Hotel Group, Bemis Co, Inc. Miron Construction, Menasha Corporation, Theda Clark Hospital, NM Transfer, Checker Logistics. Business process outsourcing organizations contributed to the economy of the city. Founded in 1959, Neenah's Bergstrom-Mahler Museum has a collection of glass art comprising over 3,000 pieces, it concentrates in Germanic glasswork. City of Neenah Neenah Public Library Local History Collection at the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections center Sanborn fire insurance maps at the Wisconsin
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may