Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye
The Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye is an American all-weather, carrier-capable tactical airborne early warning aircraft. This twin-turboprop aircraft was designed and developed during the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Grumman Aircraft Company for the United States Navy as a replacement for the earlier, piston-engined E-1 Tracer, becoming obsolete; the aircraft's performance has been upgraded with the E-2B, E-2C versions, where most of the changes were made to the radar and radio communications due to advances in electronic integrated circuits and other electronics. The fourth major version of the Hawkeye is the E-2D, which first flew in 2007; the E-2 was the first aircraft designed for its role, as opposed to a modification of an existing airframe, such as the Boeing E-3 Sentry. Variants of the Hawkeye have been in continuous production since 1960, giving it the longest production run of any carrier-based aircraft; the E-2 received the nickname "Super Fudd" because it replaced the E-1 Tracer "Willy Fudd".
In recent decades, the E-2 has been referred to as the "Hummer" because of the distinctive sounds of its turboprop engines, quite unlike that of turbojet and turbofan jet engines. In addition to U. S. Navy service, smaller numbers of E-2s have been sold to the armed forces of Egypt, Israel, Mexico and Taiwan. Continual improvements in airborne radars through 1956 led to the construction of AEW airplanes by several different countries and several different armed forces; the functions of command and control and sea & air surveillance were added. The first carrier-based aircraft to perform these missions for the U. S. Navy and its allies was the Douglas AD Skyraider, replaced in US Navy service by the Grumman E-1 Tracer, a modified version of the S-2 Tracker twin-engine anti-submarine warfare aircraft, where the radar was carried in an aerofoil-shaped radome carried above the aircraft's fuselage. In 1956, the U. S. Navy developed a requirement for an airborne early warning aircraft where its data could be integrated into the Naval Tactical Data System aboard the Navy's ships, with a design from Grumman being selected to meet this requirement in March 1957.
Its design designated W2F-1, but redesignated the E-2A Hawkeye, was the first carrier plane, designed from its wheels up as an AEW and command and control airplane. The problems facing the design engineers at Grumman were immense, were compounded by having to constrain the design to enable the aircraft to operate from the older modified Essex-class aircraft carriers; these ‘smaller’ carriers were built during World War II and modified to allow them to operate jet aircraft. Various height and length restrictions had to be factored into the E-2A design, resulting in some handling characteristics which were less than ideal; the E-2A never operated from the modified Essex class carriers. The first prototype, acting as an aerodynamic testbed only, flew on 21 October 1960; the first equipped aircraft followed it on 19 April 1961, entered service with the US Navy as the E-2A in January 1964. By 1965 the major development problems delaying the E-2A Hawkeye got so bad that the aircraft was cancelled after 59 aircraft had been built.
Particular difficulties were being experienced due to inadequate cooling in the packed avionics compartment. Early computer and complex avionics; these failures continued long after the aircraft entered service and at one point reliability was so bad that the entire fleet of aircraft was grounded. After Navy officials had been forced to explain to Congress why four production contracts had been signed before avionics testing had been completed, action was taken; the unreliable rotary drum computer was replaced by a Litton L-304 digital computer and various avionics systems were replaced – the upgraded aircraft were designated E-2Bs. In total, 49 of the 59 E-2As were upgraded to E-2B standard; these aircraft replaced the E-1B Tracers in the various US Navy AEW squadrons. Although the upgraded E-2B was a vast improvement on the unreliable E-2A, it was an interim measure; the US Navy knew the design had much greater capability and had yet to achieve the performance and reliability parameters set out in the original 1957 design.
In April 1968, a reliability improvement program was instigated. In addition, now that the capabilities of the aircraft were starting to be realized, more were desired. Improvements in the new and upgraded aircraft were concentrated in the radar and computer performance. Two E-2A test machines were modified as E-2C prototypes, the first flying on 20 January 1971. Trials proved satisfactory and the E-2C was ordered into production, the first production machine performed its initial flight on 23 September 1972; the original E-2C, known as Group 0, consisted of 55 aircraft. US Navy Reserve used some aircraft for tracking drug smugglers; the type was used in conjunction with Grumman F-14 Tomcat fighters. The next production run, between 1988 and 1991, saw 18 aircraft built to the Group I standard. Group I aircraft replaced the E-2's older APS-125 radar and T56-A-425 turboprops with their successors, the APS-139 radar system and T56-A-427 turboprops; the first G
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium. In Britain, cranberry may refer to the native species Vaccinium oxycoccos, while in North America, cranberry may refer to Vaccinium macrocarpon. Vaccinium oxycoccos is cultivated in central and northern Europe, while Vaccinium macrocarpon is cultivated throughout the northern United States and Chile. In some methods of classification, Oxycoccus is regarded as a genus in its own right, they can be found in acidic bogs throughout the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Cranberries are low, creeping vines up to 2 meters long and 5 to 20 centimeters in height; the flowers are dark pink, with distinct reflexed petals, leaving the style and stamens exposed and pointing forward. They are pollinated by bees; the fruit is a berry, larger than the leaves of the plant. It is edible, but with an acidic taste that overwhelms its sweetness. In 2016, 98% of world production of cranberries resulted from the United States and Chile.
Most cranberries are processed into products such as juice, sauce and sweetened dried cranberries, with the remainder sold fresh to consumers. Cranberry sauce is a traditional accompaniment to turkey at Christmas dinner in the United Kingdom, at Christmas and Thanksgiving dinners in the United States and Canada. There are three to four species of cranberry, classified into two sections: Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. OxycoccusVaccinium oxycoccos or Oxycoccus palustris is widespread throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere, including northern Europe, northern Asia, northern North America, it has small 5–10 mm leaves. The flowers are dark pink, with a purple central spike, produced on finely hairy stems; the fruit is a small pale pink berry, with a refreshing sharp acidic flavor. Vaccinium microcarpum or Oxycoccus microcarpus occurs in northern North America, northern Europe and northern Asia, differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being more triangular, the flower stems hairless. Some botanists include it within V. oxycoccos.
Vaccinium macrocarpon or Oxycoccus macrocarpus native to northern North America across Canada, eastern United States, south to North Carolina at high altitudes). It differs from V. oxycoccos in the leaves being larger, 10–20 mm long, in its apple-like taste. Subgenus Oxycoccus, sect. OxycoccoidesVaccinium erythrocarpum or Oxycoccus erythrocarpus native to southeastern North America at high altitudes in the southern Appalachian Mountains, in eastern Asia. Cranberries are related to bilberries and huckleberries, all in Vaccinium subgenus Vaccinium; these differ in having bell-shaped flowers, the petals not being reflexed, woodier stems, forming taller shrubs. Some plants of the unrelated genus Viburnum are sometimes called "highbush cranberries". Cranberries are susceptible to false blossom, a harmful but controllable phytoplasma disease common in the eastern production areas of Massachusetts and New Jersey; the name, derives from the German, first named as cranberry in English by the missionary John Eliot in 1647.
Around 1694, German and Dutch colonists in New England used the word, cranberry, to represent the expanding flower, stem and petals resembling the neck and bill of a crane. The traditional English name for the plant more common in Europe, Vaccinium oxycoccos, originated from plants with small red berries found growing in fen lands of England. In North America, the Narragansett people of the Algonquian nation in the regions of New England appeared to be using cranberries in pemmican for food and for dye. Calling the red berries, the Narragansett people may have introduced cranberries to colonists in Massachusetts. In 1550, James White Norwood made reference to Native Americans using cranberries. In James Rosier's book The Land of Virginia there is an account of Europeans coming ashore and being met with Native Americans bearing bark cups full of cranberries. In Plymouth, there is a 1633 account of the husband of Mary Ring auctioning her cranberry-dyed petticoat for 16 shillings. In 1643, Roger Williams's book A Key Into the Language of America described cranberries, referring to them as "bearberries" because bears ate them.
In 1648, preacher John Elliott was quoted in Thomas Shepard's book Clear Sunshine of the Gospel with an account of the difficulties the Pilgrims were having in using the Indians to harvest cranberries as they preferred to hunt and fish. In 1663, the Pilgrim cookbook appears with a recipe for cranberry sauce. In 1667, New Englanders sent to King Charles ten barrels of cranberries, three barrels of codfish and some Indian corn as a means of appeasement for his anger over their local coining of the Pine Tree shilling. In 1669, Captain Richard Cobb had a banquet in his house, serving wild turkey with sauce made from wild cranberries. In the 1672 book New England Rarities Discovered author John Josselyn described cranberries, writing: Sauce for the Pilgrims, cranberry or bearberry, is a small trayling plant that grows in salt marshes that are overgrown with moss; the berries are of a pale yellow color, afterwards red, as big as a cherry, some round, others oval, all of them hollow with sower as
Calverton was a station stop along the Greenport Branch of the Long Island Rail Road in Calverton, New York. The station was built in 1880 and closed in 1981. Calverton station was built around 1880 as Baiting Hollow, it was intended to be the terminus of one of two proposed extensions of the Wading River Branch. The depot closed and moved to undisclosed location around 1922 and second depot built further east around same year, located on Railroad Avenue between North River Road and Edwards Avenue. Calverton was the site of the deadly Golden's Pickle Works wreck on Friday, August 13, 1926; the station closed in 1981. The disused metal station shelter remains. West of the station, a spur to the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant used by Grumman closed in the early 1990s. In February 2010 plans were announced to reactivate the spur in a $3.5 million rehabilitation for freight trains of the New York & Atlantic Railway to serve an industrial park at the airport. Funds come from the federal stimulus funding.
The spur parallels Connecticut Avenue to the airport. At the same spot as Calverton there was a previous station named Hulse Turnout. Hulse Turnout first appears on the 1852 timetable and is gone by 1858. Calverton Station overall history
Northrop Grumman Corporation is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by Northrop's 1994 purchase of Grumman. The company reported revenues in excess of $30 billion in 2018 and was the fourth-largest arms trader in the world in 2017 with about 84% of all revenue coming from defense related activities. Northrop Grumman is made up of four main business sectors: Aerospace Systems, Mission Systems, Technology Services and Innovation Systems; the corporate headquarters is located in Virginia. Northrop Grumman ranks number 118 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of America's largest corporations, it ranks in the top ten military-friendly employers and top 50 companies for diversity. Northrop Grumman and its industry partners have won the Collier Trophy eight times, most for developing the Northrop Grumman X-47B, the first unmanned, autonomous air system operating from an aircraft carrier. In 2004, Scaled Composites, a subsidiary of Northrop Grumman, won the Collier Trophy for the SpaceShipOne, successful developed for the first financed and flown space vehicle.
Northrop Grumman has been the sponsor of the Military Bowl since 2010. Northrop Grumman is made up of four main business sectors: Aerospace Systems, Mission Systems, Technology Services, Innovation Systems. Aerospace Systems, headquartered in Redondo Beach, produces aircraft, high-energy laser systems and microelectronics for the U. S. and other nations. This includes surveillance and reconnaissance, protected communications, battle management, strike operations, electronic warfare, missile defense to Earth observation, space science and space exploration; the B-2 Spirit strategic bomber, the E-8C Joint STARS surveillance aircraft, the RQ-4 Global Hawk, the T-38 Talon supersonic trainer are used by the US Air Force. The US Army uses Northrop Grumman's RQ-5 Hunter unmanned air vehicle, in operational use since 1995; the U. S. Navy uses Northrop Grumman-built aerial vehicles such as the BQM-74 Chukar, RQ-4 Global Hawk based MQ-4C Triton, MQ-8 Fire Scout, Grumman C-2 Greyhound, Grumman E-2 Hawkeye, the EA-6B Prowler.
Northrop Grumman provides major components and assemblies for different aircraft such as F/A-18 Hornet, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, EA-18G Growler. and the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II. Aerospace systems serves as the contractor for numerous space payloads and is the prime contractor for the James Webb Space Telescope Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, headquartered in Linthicum, Maryland creates military radar and related products, including C4I radar systems for air defense, Airspace Management radar systems such as AMASS, battlefield surveillance systems like the Airborne Reconnaissance Low. Tactical aircraft sensors include the AN/APG-68 radar, the AN/APG-80 AESA radar, the AN/APG-83 AESA radar upgrade for the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the AN/APG-77 AESA radar for the F-22 Raptor, the AN/APG-81 AESA radar for the F-35 Lightning II, the AN/AAQ-37 electro-optical Distributed Aperture System for the F-35, the APQ-164 Passive Electronically Scanned Array radar for the B-1 Lancer. Mission Systems produces and maintains the AWACS aerial surveillance systems for the U.
S. the United Kingdom, NATO, others. Northrop Grumman is the prime contractor for the development and integration of the Air Force's $2-billion Multi-Platform Radar Technology Insertion Program. Northrop Grumman supports the U. S. ballistic missile program, integrates various command and intelligence systems and provides technical and management services to governmental and military customers, all with an emphasis on cyber security. Many other smaller products are made by Northrop Grumman, such as night vision goggles and secure communications equipment; the Technology Services sector headquartered in McNair, works on "the entire life cycle of civil and defense platforms and capabilities through a range of services". Vinnell, a Northrop Grumman subsidiary, provides training and communications for the military. In 2003, it landed a $48 million contract to train the Iraqi Army. In 2005 the company won a $2 billion contract with Virginia to overhaul most of the state's IT operations; that year, The United Kingdom paid $1.2 billion in a contract with the company to provide maintenance of the country's defensive radar.
Northrop Grumman performs various functions in the War on Drugs. The company sends planes to spray herbicides on suspected cocaine fields in Colombia and opium poppy fields in Afghanistan. On June 7, 2018, the acquisition of Orbital ATK was completed and the former company was absorbed in Northrop Grumman as a new business sector called Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems. Innovation system is headquartered in Virginia. Remotec, a subsidiary, is a manufacturer of remote control vehicles for explosive ordnance disposal and hazardous material handling. A UK-based subsidiary, Park Air Systems, provides VHF and UHF ground-to-air communications systems for the civil and defense markets. Northrop Grumman has worked with Antenna Associates, Inc. a manufacturer of Identification friend or foe /Secondary Surveillance Radar antennas located in Massachusetts. In August 2007, Northrop Grumman acquired Scaled Composites in which it had owned a 40% stake. In 2008, Northrop Grumman began working with DHS Systems LLC, manufacturer of the Deployable Rapid Assembly Shelter in New York, as part of the U.
S. Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System program. Northrop Grumman can trace its lineage back to the beginning of the 20th century and has created a myriad of products such as ballistic missiles, all-weather radars, Apollo Lunar Mo
Long Island Rail Road
The Long Island Rail Road abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday ridership of 354,800 passengers in 2016, it is the busiest commuter railroad in North America, it is one of the world's few commuter systems that runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, year-round. It is publicly owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which refers to it as MTA Long Island Rail Road; the LIRR logo combines the circular MTA logo with the text Long Island Rail Road, appears on the sides of trains. The LIRR is one of two commuter rail systems owned by the MTA, the other being the Metro-North Railroad in the northern suburbs of the New York area. Established in 1834 and having operated continuously since it is one of the oldest railroads in the United States still operating under its original name and charter. There are 124 stations and more than 700 miles of track on its two lines to the two forks of the island and eight major branches, with the passenger railroad system totaling 319 miles of route.
As of 2018, the LIRR's budgetary burden for expenditures was $1.6 billion, which it supports through the collection of taxes and fees. The Long Island Rail Road Company was chartered in 1834 to provide a daily service between New York and Boston via a ferry connection between its Greenport, New York, terminal on Long Island's North Fork and Stonington, Connecticut; this service was superseded in 1849 by the land route through Connecticut that became part of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. The LIRR refocused its attentions towards serving Long Island, in competition with other railroads on the island. In the 1870s, railroad president Conrad Poppenhusen and his successor Austin Corbin acquired all the railroads and consolidated them into the LIRR; the LIRR was unprofitable for much of its history. In 1900, the Pennsylvania Railroad bought a controlling interest as part of its plan for direct access to Manhattan which began on September 8, 1910; the wealthy PRR subsidized the LIRR during the first half of the new century, allowing expansion and modernization.
Electric operation began in 1905. After the Second World War, the railroad industry's downturn and dwindling profits caused the PRR to stop subsidizing the LIRR, the LIRR went into receivership in 1949; the State of New York, realizing how important the railroad was to Long Island's future, began to subsidize the railroad in the 1950s and 1960s. In June 1965, the state finalized an agreement to buy the LIRR from the PRR for $65 million; the LIRR was placed under the control of a new Metropolitan Commuter Transit Authority. The MCTA was rebranded the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in 1968 when it incorporated several other New York City-area transit agencies. With MTA subsidies the LIRR modernized further, continuing to be the busiest commuter railroad in the United States; the LIRR is one of the few railroads that has survived as an intact company from its original charter to the present. The LIRR operates out of three western terminals in New York City, with a fourth expected by the early 2020s.
Major terminals include: Pennsylvania Station, in Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest of the western terminals, serving 500 daily trains. It is reached via the Amtrak-owned East River Tunnels from the Main Line in Long Island City; the New York City Subway's 34th Street–Penn Station and 34th Street–Penn Station stations are next to the terminal. It connects LIRR with Amtrak and NJ Transit trains. Atlantic Terminal Flatbush Avenue, in Downtown Brooklyn serves most other trains, it is next to the New York City Subway's Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center station complex, providing easy access to Lower Manhattan. Rush-hour trains run to one of two stations in Long Island City, Queens: the Hunterspoint Avenue station, or the Long Island City station on the East River. From Hunterspoint Avenue, the Hunters Point Avenue subway station can be reached for Midtown Manhattan access; the same subway trains can be reached from Long Island City station at the Vernon Boulevard–Jackson Avenue subway station. It connects to the NYC Ferry's East River Ferry to Midtown or Lower Manhattan.
Access to a fourth major terminal is under construction. As early as 2022, the LIRR intends to start service to a new station under Grand Central Terminal via the East Side Access; the East Side Access project will reduce congestion while increasing the number of trains during peak hours. However, some February 2014 estimates push the opening date as far back as September 2024. In addition, the Jamaica station is a major hub transfer point in Jamaica, Queens, it has yard and bypass tracks. Passengers can transfer between trains on all LIRR lines except the Port Washington Branch. A sixth platform with two tracks is under construction and will serve Atlantic Branch shuttle trains to Brooklyn once completed. Transfer is made to separate facilities for three subway services at the Sutphin Boulevard–Archer Avenue–JFK station, a number of bus routes, the AirTrain automated electric rail system to JFK Airport; the railroad's headquarters are next to the station. The Long Island Rail Road system has eleven passenger branches
The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading 20th century U. S. producer of military and civilian aircraft. Founded on December 6, 1929, by Leroy Grumman and partners, it merged in 1994 with Northrop Corporation to form Northrop Grumman. Leroy Grumman and others worked for the Loening Aircraft Engineering Corporation in the 1920s, but when it was bought by Keystone Aircraft Corporation and the operations moved from New York City to Bristol, Pennsylvania and his partners started their own company in an old Cox-Klemin Aircraft Co. factory in Baldwin on Long Island, New York. All of the early Grumman employees were former Loening employees; the company was named after Grumman. The company filed as a business on December 5, 1929, opened its doors on January 2, 1930. Keeping busy by welding aluminum tubing for truck frames, the company eagerly pursued contracts with the US Navy. Grumman designed the first practical floats with a retractable landing gear for the Navy, this launched Grumman into the aviation market.
The first Grumman aircraft was for the Navy, the Grumman FF-1, a biplane with retractable landing gear. This was followed by a number of other successful designs. During World War II, Grumman became known for its "Cats", Navy fighter aircraft, F4F Wildcat and F6F Hellcat, the less well known Grumman F7F Tigercat and Grumman F8F Bearcat, for its torpedo bomber TBF Avenger. Grumman ranked 22nd among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Grumman's first jet aircraft was the F9F Panther; the company's big postwar successes came in the 1960s with the A-6 Intruder and E-2 Hawkeye and in the 1970s with the Grumman EA-6B Prowler and F-14 Tomcat. Grumman products were prominent in the film Top Gun and numerous World War II naval and Marine Corps aviation films; the U. S. Navy still employs the Hawkeye as part of Carrier Air Wings on board aircraft carriers, while the U. S. Marine Corps, the last branch of service to fly the Prowler retired it on March 8, 2019. Grumman was the chief contractor on the Apollo Lunar Module.
The firm received the contract on November 7, 1962, built 13 lunar modules. As the Apollo program neared its end, Grumman was one of the main competitors for the contract to design and build the Space Shuttle, but lost to Rockwell International; the company ended up involved in the shuttle program nonetheless, as a subcontractor to Rockwell, providing the wings and vertical stabilizer sections. In 1969 the company changed its name to Grumman Aerospace Corporation, in 1978 it sold the Grumman-American Division to Gulfstream Aerospace; the company built the Grumman Long Life Vehicle, a light transport mail truck designed for and used by the United States Postal Service. The LLV entered service in 1986. Grumman was responsible for a successful line of business aircraft including the Gulfstream I turboprop and Gulfstream II business jet which were operated by a number of companies and private individuals as well as by government agencies including various military entities and NASA. In addition, the Gulfstream I propjet was operated by several commuter/regional airlines in scheduled passenger services and included a stretched version, being the Gulfstream I-C which could transport 37 passengers.
Gulfstream business jets continue to be manufactured by Gulfstream Aerospace, a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics. For much of the Cold War period, Grumman was the largest corporate employer on Long Island. Grumman's products were considered so reliable and ruggedly built that the company was referred to as the "Grumman Iron Works"; as the company grew, it moved to Valley Stream, New York Farmingdale, New York to Bethpage, New York, with the testing and final assembly at the 6,000-acre Naval Weapons Station in Calverton, New York, all located on Long Island. At its peak in 1986 it employed 23,000 people on Long Island and occupied 6,000,000 square feet in structures on 105 acres it leased from the U. S. Navy in Bethpage; the end of the Cold War at the beginning of the 1990s reduced defense spending and led to a wave of mergers as aerospace companies shrank in number. The new company closed all of its facilities on Long Island and converted the Bethpage plant to a residential and office complex, with its headquarters becoming the corporate headquarters for Cablevision and the Calverton plant being turned into a business/industrial complex.
Former aircraft hangars have become a film and television production center. A portion of the airport property has been used for the Grumman Memorial Park. Northrop Grumman's remaining business at the Bethpage campus is the "Battle Management and Engagement Systems Division", which employs around 2,000 people; the "Cats" Grumman F4F Wildcat Grumman F6F Hellcat Grumman F7F Tigercat Grumman F8F Bearcat Grumman F9F Panther Grumman F9F, F-9 Cougar Grumman XF10F Jaguar Grumman F-11 Tiger Grumman F11F-1F Super Tiger Grumman F-14 Tomcat Other fighter aircraft Grumman FF1 Grumman F2F Grumman F3F Grumman XF5F Skyrocket Grumman XP-50 General Dynamics-Grumman F-111B Grumman G-17 project only Grumman G-25 project only Grumman G-29 project only Grumman G-30 project only Grumman G-35 project only Grumman G-49 project only Grumman G-57 project only Grumman G-62 proj