Khánh Hòa Province
Khánh Hòa is a province of Vietnam located in the South Central Coast. It has a population of 1,066,300 and spans an area of 5,197 km², its capital is Nha Trang. Khánh Hòa is the site of Bảo Đại's summer home, the Pasteur Institute of Nha Trang, the Institute of Oceanography, the Institute of Vaccines and Biological Substances, was headquarters of the US Army's Special Forces during the Vietnam War in the late 1950s and 1960s. Cam Ranh Bay port is on land closest to a deep sea drop in Vietnam - the best site for submarine bases in Vietnam. An ancient temple of Champa is on the north side of Nha Trang; the site of what is now Khánh Hòa had been within the territory of the Champa Kingdom before it was annexed to Đại Việt's territory. In 1653, one of the Nguyễn lords, Nguyễn Phúc Tần, sent his troops to occupy Phan Rang; the Champa king Bà Tấm surrendered to Nguyen's troops and ceded an area from the east of the Phan Rang River to Phú Yên to the Nguyễn lord. The Nguyễn lord accepted the ceded territory and set up the Thái Khang garrison and divided it into two districts: Thái Khang and Diên Ninh.
In 1832, under the rule of emperor Minh Mạng, this area was renamed Khánh Hòa and was divided into two districts which included four counties: Phủ Diên Khánh inclusive of Phước Điền and Vĩnh Xương county. Under French Indochina, the provincial capital was located in Diên Khánh Citadel, but it was relocated in Nha Trang Town in 1945. During the Vietnam War, Khánh Hòa was a hub of military activity for the Republic of Vietnam army, the Republic of Vietnam Navy, the Republic of Vietnam Air Force, for the U. S. Pacific Air Forces in Cam Ranh Bay and at the Nha Trang Air Base; the II Corp. headquarters was located in Nha trang and populated by general and field officers, intelligence groups and ARVN liaisons. After the communists' victory and the Fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975, the communist regime merged two provinces, Phú Yên and Khánh Hòa, into Phú Khánh Province on 29 October 1975. In 1977, Nha Trang Town was upgraded to city status. In 1982, the National Assembly decided to incorporate the Spratly Islands into Phú Khánh Province.
On June 30, 1989, the National Assembly reversed its previous decision and split Phú Khánh Province into two provinces as they were before. Khánh Hòa Province has an area of 5,197 km², its geographical coordinates are 108°40’33" to 109°27’55" E and 11°42’50" to 12°52’15" N. The provincial coastline spreads from Đại Lãnh Commune to the end of Cam Ranh Bay with a total length of coastline of 385 km featuring numerous creek mouths, river mouths, hundreds of islands and islets; the province administers large territorial waters. The Spratly Islands are part of the province's Truong Sa County; the coastline is indented by several bays, most notably the four bays Vân Phong Bay, Nha Phu Bay, Nha Trang Bay and Cam Ranh Bay, of which Cam Ranh Bay with its area of around 200 km², encompassed by a mountain range, is regarded as one of three best natural seaports in the world. Cam Ranh Bay is strategically important and has been used as a naval base by several major powers throughout history. Hòn Đôi Cliff on the Hòn Gốm Peninsula, Vạn Ninh District is the easternmost tip of Vietnam's mainland.
The province is mountainous. The highest peak is Vong Phu Mountain at the border to Đắk Lắk Province; the only large lowland area is located around Ninh Hòa town in the north of the province. As a result of this, not much land is available for agriculture. 87,100ha or 16.7% of Khánh Hòa's total area are used for farming, one of the lowest shares in the South Central Coast. Forests cover more than half of the province's area; the province enjoys a mild climate with an average annual temperature of 26.7°C. There are two distinct seasons: the rainy season lasts from April to December, with the other months being the dry season, except in Nha Trang where the rainy season lasts for just two months; the average relative humidity is 80.5%. The climate on the summit of Hòn Bà Mountain features a climate like that of Sa Pa.. As of 2007, the province had a population of 1.147 million, of which the majority are Kinh or Vietnamese people, the dominant ethnic group in Vietnam, who speak Vietnamese, an Austroasiatic language.
Minority groups dwelling in the province are the Cham Raglai people, the "Overseas Chinese" Hoa people, the Austroasiatic-speaking Koho people. Khánh Hòa had an urban population of 466,500 people or 40.7% of the total in 2007, making it the most urbanized province of the South Central Coast. Average population growth per year between 2000 and 2007 was 1.26%, close to the average of the region. Growth was particular strong in the towns. Khánh Hòa is subdivided into nine district-level sub-divisions: 6 districts: 1 district-level town: Ninh Hòa 2 provincial cities: They are further subdivided into six commune-level towns, 99 communes, 35 wards. With a GDP per capita of 16.1 million VND, Khánh Hòa is the economically most developed province of central Vietnam. It has a small agricultural sector, but strong industry and services; the province is endowed with beautiful natural landscapes and beaches, which attracts a large number of tourists. Khánh Hòa has had a significant trade surplus in recent years, with exports in 2007 of 503.3 million US$ and imports of 222.5 million.
Given its lack of flat land, Khánh Hòa has a small agricultural sector. Rice harvests are among the lowest in the South Central Coast with 188,500t in 2007. However, its output of sugar cane (738,200t in 2007, 4.25% of the na
The Russian Navy is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces. It has existed in various forms since 1696, the present iteration of, formed in January 1992 when it succeeded the Navy of the Commonwealth of Independent States; the first iteration of the Russian Navy was established by Peter the Great in October 1696. Ascribed to him is the oft quoted statement: "A ruler that has but an army has one hand, but he who has a navy has both." The symbols of the Russian Navy, the St. Andrew's ensign, most of its traditions were established by Peter I. Neither Jane's Fighting Ships nor the International Institute for Strategic Studies list any standard ship prefixes for the vessels of the Russian Navy; the U. S. government sometimes uses the exonymous prefix "RFS". However, the Russian Navy itself does not use this convention; the Russian Navy possesses the vast majority of the former Soviet naval forces, comprises the Northern Fleet, the Russian Pacific Fleet, the Russian Black Sea Fleet, the Russian Baltic Fleet, the Russian Caspian Flotilla, Naval Aviation, the Coastal Troops.
A rearmament program approved in 2007 placed the development of the navy on an equal footing with the strategic nuclear forces for the first time in Soviet and Russian history. This program, covering the period until 2015, expected to see the replacement of 45 percent of the inventory of the Russian Navy. Out of 4.9 trillion rubles allocated for military rearmament, 25 percent will go into building new ships. "We are building as many ships as we did in Soviet times," First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov said during a visit to Severodvinsk in July 2007, "The problem now is not lack of money, but how to optimize production so that the navy can get new ships three, not five, years after laying them down."The Russian Navy suffered since the dissolution of the Soviet Union due to insufficient maintenance, lack of funding and subsequent effects on the training of personnel and timely replacement of equipment. Another setback is attributed to Russia's domestic shipbuilding industry, reported to have been in decline as to their capabilities of constructing contemporary hardware efficiently.
Some analysts say that because of this Russia's naval capabilities have been facing a slow but certain "irreversible collapse". Some analysts say that the recent rise in gas and oil prices has enabled a sort of renaissance of the Russian Navy due to increased available funds, which may allow Russia to begin "developing the capacity to modernize". In August 2014, Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu said that Russian naval capabilities would be bolstered with new weapons and equipment within the next six years in response to NATO deployments in eastern Europe and recent developments in Ukraine; the origins of the Russian navy may be traced to the period between the 6th century. The first Slavic flotillas consisted of small sailing ships and rowboats, seaworthy and able to navigate in riverbeds. During the 9th through 12th centuries, there were flotillas in the Kievan Rus' consisting of hundreds of vessels with one, two, or three masts. Riverine vessels in 9th century Kievan Rus guarded trade routes to Constantinople.
The citizens of Novgorod are known to have conducted military campaigns in the Baltic Sea —although contemporary Scandinavian sources state that the fleet was from Karelia or Estonia. Lad'ya was a typical boat used by the army of Novgorod. There were smaller sailboats and rowboats, such as ushkuys for sailing in rivers and skerries, nosads, used for cargo transportation. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Cossacks conducted military campaigns against the Crimean Khanate and Ottoman Empire, using sailboats and rowboats; the Don Cossacks called. These boats were capable of transporting up to 80 men; the Cossack flotillas numbered 80 to 100 boats. The centralized Russian state had been fighting for its own access to the Baltic Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Azov since the 17th Century. By the end of that century, the Russians had accumulated some valuable experience in using riverboats together with land forces. Under Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich, the construction of the first three-masted ship to be built within Russia was finished in 1636.
She was built in Balakhna by Danish shipbuilders from Holstein with a European design. She was christened the Frederick. In 1667–69, the Russians tried to build naval ships in a village of Dedinovo on the shores of the Oka River for the purpose of defending the trade routes along the Volga River, which led to the Caspian Sea. In 1668, they built a 26-gun ship, the Oryol, a yacht, a boat with a mast and bowsprit, a few rowboats. During much of the seventeenth century Russian merchants and Cossacks, using koch boats, sailed across the White Sea, explored the rivers Lena and Indigirka, founded settlements in the region of the upper Amur. Unquestionably the most celebrated Russian explorer was Semyon Dezhnev, who, in 1648, sailed the entire length of present-day Russia along the Arctic coast. Rounding the Chukotsk Peninsula, Dezhnev passed through the Bering Sea and sailed into the
Pacific Air Forces
Pacific Air Forces is a Major Command of the United States Air Force and is the air component command of the United States Indo-Pacific Command. PACAF is headquartered at Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam, is one of two USAF MAJCOMs assigned outside the Continental United States, the other being the United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa. Over the past sixty-five plus years, PACAF has been engaged in combat during the Korean and Vietnam Wars and Operations Desert Storm, Southern Watch, Northern Watch, Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom; the mission of Pacific Air Forces is to provide ready air and space power to promote U. S. interests in the Asia-Pacific region during peacetime, through crisis, in war. PACAF organizes and equips the 45,000 Total Force personnel of the Regular Air Force, the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard with the tools necessary to support the Commander of United States Indo-Pacific Command. PACAF comprises nine main bases and nearly 375 aircraft.
The command's area of responsibility extends from the west coast of the United States to the east coast of Asia and from the Arctic to the Antarctic, more than 100,000,000 square miles. The area is home to nearly two billion people. Not to be confused with Far East Air Force, the military aviation organization of the United States Army in the Philippine Islands from 1941 to 1942; the beginnings of PACAF can be traced back to June 1944, when Major General St. Clair Streett's Thirteenth Air Force was added to Allied Air Forces, South West Pacific Area. At the same time, Lieutenant General George Kenney created the Far East Air Forces from his Fifth Air Force headquarters, while the Advanced Echelon became the Fifth Air Force under Major General Ennis Whitehead, Sr; the RAAF formed the Australian First Tactical Air Force under Air Commodore Harry Cobby in October 1944, when General Douglas MacArthur became commander of all Army forces in the Pacific, the Seventh Air Force was added as well. Far East Air Forces was activated on 3 August 1944, at Brisbane, Australia.
FEAF had been created on 15 June 1944, Fifth Air Force assigned to it. FEAF was subordinate to the U. S. Army served as the headquarters of Allied Air Forces Southwest Pacific Area; the creation of FEAF consolidated the command and control authority over United States Army Air Forces units deployed throughout the southwest Pacific in World War II. On 15 June 1945, Fifth Air Force, Clark Field, Philippines. With the end of World War II in September 1945, the USAAF found its units deployed throughout the Pacific, from Hawaii to India, from Japan to Australia, based on a hundred island airstrips, along with bases in China and Burma. A realignment of these forces was needed by the USAAF to better organize its forces in the Pacific for peacetime. On 6 December 1945, Far East Air Forces was redesignated Pacific Air Command, United States Army, its Air Forces were redeployed as follows: Fifth Air Force: Assigned to Tokyo, JapanPrimary mission performing allied occupational assistance on the Japanese Home Islands and the Korean peninsula.
Seventh Air Force: Assigned to Hickam Field, HawaiiReturning to its prewar mission for the defense of the Hawaiian Islands, including Midway Island. In November 1945, the 509th Composite Group left North Field on the island of Tinian and was reassigned to Roswell Army Air Field, New Mexico, taking the atomic bomb delivery capability of PACUSA to the United States. Shortly afterwards, Eighth Air Force was reassigned to the newly established Strategic Air Command on 7 June 1946 and its strategic units reassigned to the 1st Bombardment Division; the major mission of PACUSA in the postwar years was occupation duty in Japan and the demilitarization of the Japanese society in conjunction with the United States Army. In addition, PACUSA helped to support atomic bomb testing in the Pacific Proving Grounds beginning with the Operation Crossroads test on Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands in 1946. With the impending establishment of the United States Air Force as an independent service that year, PACUSA was redesignated Far East Air Forces on 1 January 1947.
On that same date, Seventh Air Force in Hawaii was inactivated with its organization absorbed by HQ, FEAF. Coinciding with the establishment of the United States Air Force as an independent service in September 1947, PACUSA/FEAF deployments to Korea prior to the 1948 partition of the country helped in the establishment of the Republic of Korea, along with the transfer of surplus military equipment and other aid to French Indochina as well as aid to the Nationalist Chinese during the Chinese Civil War which resumed after the end of World War II. On 25 June 19
557th Flying Training Squadron
The 557th Flying Training Squadron is part of the 306th Flying Training Group based at United States Air Force Academy, where it has conducted flight training for Academy cadets since 1974. The first predecessor of the squadron was the 557th Bombardment Squadron, a Martin B-26 Marauder unit, which flew combat in the European Theater of Operations, earning a Distinguished Unit Citation in December 1944, it was inactivated after the end of World War II. The squadron's second predecessor is the 557th Tactical Fighter Squadron, organized in 1962, flew in combat in the Vietnam War from 1965 to 1970, earning five Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards with Combat "V" Device; the two squadrons were consolidated into a single unit in September 1985. It conducts powered flight training for Air Force Academy cadets; the squadron was activated as a Martin B-26 Marauder medium bombardment squadron in late 1942. It trained under the Third Air Force and deployed to European Theater of Operations in July 1943 being stationed in England and assigned to the IX Bomber Command.
It engaged in tactical bombardment of enemy targets in Occupied Europe from stations in England after D-Day it was moved to Advanced Landing Grounds in France and Belgium, advancing eastward as Allied ground forces advanced. It supported Eighth Air Force strategic bombardment missions over Nazi Germany and Occupied Europe, striking enemy airfields to obtain maximum interference in Luftwaffe daytime interceptor attacks against heavy bomber formations returning to England; the squadron participated in the Western Allied Invasion of Germany in March–April 1945, until the German surrender in May 1945. The squadron became part of the United States Air Forces in Europe and demobilized personnel in 1945, it was reassigned to the United States as a paper unit, inactivated in November 1945. It was reactivated in 1962 as one of the initial McDonnell F-4C Phantom II fighter squadrons when the aircraft was made operational by the Air Force. F-4Cs were not yet in production at that time. In order to get the squadron operational, second-line Republic F-84F Thunderstreaks were transferred from the Air National Guard.
The squadron received Navy F4Hs for training and F-4Cs in January 1964. It was deployed to South Vietnam during the Vietnam War and flew combat missions, primary over North Vietnam until Cam Ranh Air Base was closed in November 1970; the squadron was reactivated at the United States Air Force Academy on 31 July 1974 as the 557th Flying Training Squadron to provide basic flight training for Air Force Academy cadets. The squadron was equipped with the Cessna T-41 Mescalero. Although the Mescalero, a military version of the Cessna 172, had served since 1968 as a screening aircraft for pilot training candidates, the high altitude of the Academy required models equipped with a more powerful 210 hp Continental engine. Although it was supplanted in this mission in 1995 by the Slingsby T-3 Firefly, the T-41Ds remained for flying team support and as a laboratory for aerodynamics and military sciences courses; the four remaining T41Ds support flying team operations and are used as an aerodynamics course laboratory.
In addition to providing cadets with some initial flight instruction, the 557th FTS is home to the USAFA Flying Team, the Air Force Academy's flying team, composed of 27 cadets selected for the team. The squadron began flying its current cadet trainer, the Cirrus T-53 in 2011, in September of the following year, the first cadet soloed in the T-53. 557th Bombardment SquadronConstituted as the 557th Bombardment Squadron on 25 November 1942Activated on 1 December 1942 Redesignated 557th Bombardment Squadron, Medium on 9 October 1944 Inactivated on 12 Nov 1945 Consolidated with the 557th Flying Training Squadron as the 557th Flying Training Squadron on 19 September 1985557th Flying Training SquadronConstituted as the 557 Tactical Fighter Squadron and activated on 17 April 1962 Organized on 25 April 1962 Inactivated on 31 March 1970Redesignated 557th Flying Training Squadron on 18 June 1974Activated on 31 July 1974 Consolidated with the 557th Tactical Fighter Squadron on 19 September 1985 387th Bombardment Group, 1 December 1942 – 12 November 1945 Tactical Air Command, 17 April 1962 12th Tactical Fighter Wing, 25 April 1962 – 31 March 1970 (attached to 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, 9 March–9 June 1965.
Anderson, Capt. Barry. Army Air Forces Stations: A Guide to the Stations Where U. S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United Kingdom During World War II. Maxwell AFB, AL yes: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. Archived from the original on January 23, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2017. Johnson, 1st Lt. David C.. U. S. Army Air Forces Continental Airfields D-Day to V-E Day. Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. Archived from the original on September 29, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2017. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Washington, DC: Office of A
535th Airlift Squadron
The 535th Airlift Squadron is part of the 15th Wing at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii. It operates C-17 Globemaster III aircraft providing airlift in the Pacific theater; the squadron was first established during World War II as the 535th Fighter Squadron. It served as a Replacement Training Unit for Republic P-47 Thunderbolt pilots until it was disbanded in a major reorganization of the Army Air Forces in 1944 designed to streamline training organizations. In 1949, the squadron was reactivated in the Air Force Reserve and served as a corollary unit of the active duty 27th Fighter Group and as the 535th Fighter-Escort Squadron of the 12th Fighter-Escort Group until it was ordered to active service in 1951, its personnel were used to man active duty units and the squadron was inactivated. The squadron was redesignated in 1952 as the 535th Troop Carrier Squadron, activated at Atterbury Air Force Base to replace elements of the 923d Reserve Training Wing; the following year the squadron was inactivated and replaced at Atterbury by the 71st Troop Carrier Squadron.
The unit was activated again in Viet Nam as a C-7 Caribou squadron assigned to the 483d Tactical Airlift Wing and the squadron was awarded three Presidential Unit Citations for its actions during the war. The unit was designated the 535th Airlift Squadron and activated in its current role in 2005; the 535th operates eight Boeing C-17 Globemaster III aircraft. The squadron executes airlift and airdrop missions to support United States Pacific Command and United States Transportation Command; the 204th Airlift Squadron of the Hawaii Air National Guard is an associate unit of the 535th, flying the same planes. The squadron was first established as the 535th Fighter Squadron and was activated in November 1943 at Richmond Army Air Base, Virginia; as one of the four original squadrons of the 87th Fighter Group. The squadron began operations with Republic P-47 Thunderbolts as a Replacement Training Unit. RTUs were oversized units which trained aircrews prior to their deployment to combat theaters and assignment to an operational group.
In January 1944, group headquarters and the squadron moved to Camp Springs Army Air Field and the group's remaining squadrons transferred to Millville Army Air Field, New Jersey. However, the Army Air Forces found that standard military units, based on inflexible tables of organization were proving less well adapted to the training mission. Accordingly, a more functional system was adopted in which each base was organized into a separate numbered unit. While the groups and squadrons acting as RTUs were disbanded or inactivated; this resulted in the squadron being disbanded in the spring of 1944 and being replaced by the 112th AAF Base Unit, which assumed its mission and equipment. The squadron was reactivated in 1949 in the Air Force Reserve at Bergstrom Air Force Base as a corollary unit to Strategic Air Command's 27th Fighter Group. With no aircraft assigned, reservists of the unit flew the North American F-82 Twin Mustangs, the Republic F-84 Thunderjets of the 27th; when most of the 27th group deployed to Korea for the Korean War, the group became affiliated with the 12th Fighter-Escort Group.
The group was called to active service in May 1951. After its personnel were used to man other units, the group was inactivated in June. In 1952 the squadron was redesignated as the 535th Troop Carrier Squadron, became part of the newly constituted 87th Troop Carrier Wing under the wing base organization system, was activated at Atterbury Air Force Base; the 87th wing replaced the 923d Reserve Training Wing at Atterbury when reserve flying operations resumed there. The squadron operated Curtiss C-46 Commandos to train reservists. In February 1953 the 434th Troop Carrier Group was released from active duty and activated in the reserves, its 71st Troop Carrier Squadron assumed the mission and equipment of the 535th; the squadron was activated in 1967, took over the DeHavilland Canada C-7A Caribou aircraft operated by the 57th Aviation Company and its tactical airlift mission in South Vietnam. It operated from several locations in addition to its primary base at Vung Tau Airfield; the 535th airlifted routine cargo and passengers, provided support for Army special forces and radio relay for ground units, airdropped troops and cargo, performed emergency resupply and medical evacuation, flew other combat airlift missions.
It earned a Navy Presidential Unit Citation, as well as an Air Force Presidential Unit Citation for airlift support of Khe Sanh and other forward bases from January to May 1968. It earned a second Air Force Presidential Unit Citation for action between April and June 1970 when it participated in the aerial resupply of Dak Seang Special Forces Camp, evacuation of over 2000 refugees from Cambodia, transportation of the Presidential Southeast Asia Investigation Team to various remote locations in South Vietnam; the squadron flew its last combat mission the day. The squadron was reactivated in 2005 as the 535th Airlift Squadron at Hickam Air Force Base to provide strategic and tactical airlift in the Pacific, it became the first unit located outside the Continental United States to fly the C-17 conducting strategic and tactical airlift. It conducts night vision goggle, low-level, air refueling and austere-airfield operations from within the world's largest area of responsibility; the squadron has provided support for and operated in Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation New Dawn.
Additionally, the squadron has provided emergency humanitarian relief to Haiti, Samoa, Kwajalein and Japan. Constituted as the 535th Fighter Squadron on 24 September 1943Activated on 1 November 1943Disbanded on 1
William Childs Westmoreland was a United States Army general, most notably commander of United States forces during the Vietnam War from 1964 to 1968. He served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1968 to 1972. Westmoreland adopted a strategy of attrition against the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army, attempting to drain them of manpower and supplies, he made use of the United States' edge in artillery and air power, both in tactical confrontations and in relentless strategic bombing of North Vietnam. Many of the battles in Vietnam were technically United States victories, with the United States Army in control of the field afterward. Public support for the war diminished after the Battle of Khe Sanh and the Tet Offensive in 1968. By the time he was re-assigned as Army Chief of Staff, United States military forces in Vietnam had reached a peak of 535,000 personnel. Westmoreland's strategy was politically unsuccessful. Growing United States casualties and the draft undermined United States support for the war while large-scale casualties among non-combatants weakened South Vietnamese support.
This failed to weaken North Vietnam's will to fight, the Government of South Vietnam—a factor out of Westmoreland's control—never succeeded in establishing enough legitimacy to quell defections to the Viet Cong. William Childs Westmoreland was born in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, on March 26, 1914 to Eugenia Talley Childs and James Ripley Westmoreland, his upper middle class family was involved in textile industries. At the age of 15, William became an Eagle Scout at Troop 1 Boy Scouts, was recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award and Silver Buffalo from the Boy Scouts of America as a young adult. After spending a year at The Citadel in 1932, he was appointed to attend the United States Military Academy on the nomination of Senator James F. Byrnes, a family friend, his motive for entering West Point was "to see the world". He was a member of a distinguished West Point class that included Creighton Abrams and Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Westmoreland graduated as first captain—the highest cadet rank—and received the Pershing Sword, "presented to cadet with highest level of military proficiency".
Westmoreland served as the superintendent of the Protestant Sunday School Teachers. Following graduation from West Point in 1936, Westmoreland became an artillery officer and served in several assignments with the 18th Field Artillery at Fort Sill. In 1939, he was promoted to first lieutenant, after which he was a battery commander and battalion staff officer with the 8th Field Artillery at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. In World War II, Westmoreland saw combat with the 34th Field Artillery Battalion, 9th Infantry Division, in Tunisia, Sicily and Germany, he reached the temporary wartime rank of colonel, on October 13, 1944, was appointed the chief of staff of the 9th Infantry Division. After the war, Westmoreland completed Airborne training at the Infantry School in 1946, he commanded the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82d Airborne Division. From 1947 to 1950, he served as chief of staff for the 82d Airborne Division, he was an instructor at the Army Command and General Staff College from 1950 to 1951.
He completed the Army War College as a student in 1951, stayed as an instructor from 1951 to 1952. Westmoreland was promoted to Brigadier General in November 1952 at the age of 38, making him one of the youngest U. S. Army generals in the post-World War II era, he commanded the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team in operations in Korea from 1952 to 1953. After returning to the United States, Westmoreland was deputy assistant chief of staff, G–1, for manpower control on the Army staff from 1953 to 1955. In 1954, he completed a three-month management program at Harvard Business School; as Stanley Karnow noted, "Westy was a corporation executive in uniform."After the war, Westmoreland was the United States Army's Secretary of the General Staff from 1955 to 1958. He commanded the 101st Airborne Division from 1958 to 1960, he was Superintendent of the United States Military Academy from 1960 to 1963. In 1962, Westmoreland was admitted as an honorary member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati.
He was promoted to lieutenant general in July 1963 and was Commanding General of the XVIII Airborne Corps from 1963 to 1964. Background and overviewMaster philosopher of war Karl von Clausewitz emphasized a century and a half earlier that because war is controlled by its political object, the value of this object must determine the sacrifices to be made for it both in magnitude and in duration, he went on to say, Once the expenditure of effort exceeds the value of the political object, the object must be renounced. The attempted French re-colonization of Vietnam following World War II culminated in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu; the Geneva Conference discussed the possibility of restoring peace in Indochina, temporarily separated Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone to be governed by the Việt Minh, a southern zone to be governed by the State of Vietnam headed by former emperor Bảo Đại. A Conference Final Declaration, issued by the British chairman of the conference, provided that a general election be held by July 1956 to create a unified Vietnamese state.
Although presented as a consensus view, this document was not accepted by the delegates of either the State of Vietnam or the United States. In addition, the Soviet Union and other communist nations recognized the North while the United States and other non-communist sta
RMK-BRJ was an American construction consortium of four of the largest American companies, put together by the United States Navy during the Vietnam War to build critically needed infrastructure in South Vietnam so that the Americans could escalate the introduction of American combat troops and materiel into Vietnam. This construction contract, amounting to $1.9 billion, completed a construction program deemed to be the largest in history up to that time, and. Over the ten-year life of the contract, RMK-BRJ trained 200,000 Vietnamese workers in construction and administrative trades; the use of a civilian contractor and construction force in an active theater of combat operations was authorized for the first time in U. S. history and. In the 1950s, the United States Department of Defense assigned responsibility for contract construction in support of military assistance and military construction in regions around the world to the three major branches of defense: the Army, the Navy, the Air Force.
The Navy was assigned as the Department of Defense contract construction agent in Southeast Asia, among other regions and. In late 1961, the U. S. Navy's Bureau of Yards and Docks, known after 1966 as the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, entered into a contract with some of the largest American construction companies to build infrastructure in Vietnam in support of the Republic of Vietnam. Based upon their experience with dams, ports and roads, Raymond International, Inc. was selected in partnership with Morrison-Knudsen International, Inc. known for heavy international construction. Raymond had extensive experience driving piles around the world, including Mexico and Tokyo, as well as The Pentagon in WWII, they had both been part of a consortium to build Naval bases in the Pacific in WWII with a $1.5 billion contract. Morrison-Knudsen was designated as the managing partner for the new contract; this consortium was known as RMK. By August 1965, it had become clear that the construction program was growing much larger than expected, so the Navy broadened the construction consortium by adding Brown & Root, Inc. and J.
A. Jones Construction Co. Inc.. The consortium became known as RMK-BRJ; the consortium was known informally as "The Vietnam Builders". The original letter contract with a fixed price was signed on 8 December 1961, but as the security condition in Vietnam deteriorated and new construction requirements arose, the contract was changed to a cost-plus contract with a fixed percentage management fee. RMK-BRJ could be directed to begin projects before design was started or completed, at remote sites, with uncertainty of the local labor forces, reduced freedom of action due to the security situation. In 1966 as the value of the contract approached $1 billion, the contract was renegotiated to lower the management fee commensurate with the increased scope and award the fee percentage based upon the contractor's performance, a cost-plus-award-fee contract. Under this contract, the Navy provided all materials, equipment and transportation. Construction work under the contract was completed in June 1972, the contractor facilities In Saigon were turned over to the Vietnamese government on 3 July 1972.
The final closeout report was presented in October 1972. The final contract value was $1.865 billion, which does not include the value of government-furnished materials, equipment and transportation. The Contracting Officer for the Navy was the Officer in Charge of Construction, Republic of Vietnam, with its main office in downtown Saigon; the OICC directed the contractor's work program as well as observing the construction and evaluating the contractor's performance. In February 1967, OICC staff was 1,050, including 90 Navy Civil Engineer Corps officers, at 47 sites and 782 separate projects. In 1960, the government of South Vietnam requested the U. S. Military Assistance Advisory Group to develop plans for new military airfields at Bien Hoa north of Saigon, at the central highlands town of Pleiku, as well as improvements to the French-built airfields in Saigon and Da Nang. One of the first projects for RMK-BRJ was construction of a new airfield at Pleiku; the MAAG made this their priority in January 1962, wanted the completed airfield by July 1962.
Design for the facility had not been started yet. But RMK-BRJ completed it on time and it was opened in July. Air control radar stations at Tan Son Nhut Air Base in Saigon and Monkey Mountain Facility in Da Nang were constructed at the same time. After the Tonkin Gulf incident in August 1964, the deteriorating political situation of the southern government after the assassination of President Ngô Đình Diệm, an increase in Viet Cong large unit actions, the U. S. government decided to introduce American ground combat troops into Vietnam. On 8 March 1965, 3,500 U. S. Marines of the 3rd Marine Division landed over the beach at Da Nang to protect the airfield at Da Nang, now operated by the U. S. Air Force and. In the first five months of 1965, U. S. troop levels increase to 55,000. By the end of 1965, 200,000 troops had been introduced into Vietnam and. Additional escalation of U. S. troop levels to 543,000 continued through 1969. But a build-up of logistics facili