Nha Trang Air Base
Nha Trang Air Base was a French Air Force, Republic of Vietnam Air Force, United States Air Force and Vietnam People's Air Force military airfield used during the Vietnam War. It is located on the southern edge of Nha Trang in Khánh Hòa Province; the French Air Force opened an air training center for the fledgling RVNAF in 1951 and in March 1952 began training pilots and maintenance personnel at the base. On 4 January 1953 maintenance personnel from the USAF 24th Air Depot Wing at Clark Air Base were sent on temporary duty to Nha Trang to provide maintenance support for C-47s provided to the French Air Force, they would be replaced by French crews on 14 August 1953. In May 1953 USAF crews delivered 6 C-119s to Nha Trang, these were flown by Civil Air Transport crews to Cat Bi Air Base. On 7 July 1955 the RVNAF took over the Nha Trang Training Center and formed the 1st and 2nd Liaison Squadrons equipped with L-19s. In December 1961 the RVNAF 2nd Fighter Squadron equipped. In late 1961 4 USAF T-28 pilots from Operation Farm Gate were sent to Nha Trang to train RVNAF crews.
The 2nd Fighter Squadron became operation in mid-1962. It was renamed the 516th Fighter Squadron in January 1963. In September 1962 the RVNAF 12th Air Base Squadron was formed at the base. In September 1963 the USAF opened a training center at the base equipped with L-19s. RVNAF flight crews would undergo 1 month of preflight training followed by 3 months of primary flight training with a total of 80 flying hours. In February 1964 the 516th Fighter Squadron moved to Da Nang Air Base. In June 1964 the 116th Liaison Squadron equipped. In January 1965 the RVNAF 62nd Tactical Wing and 516th Fighter Squadron, equipped with A-1H Skyraiders deployed to Nha Trang from Pleiku Air Base while a new runway was built at Pleiku. In August 1965 the 524th Fighter Squadron equipped. On 30 June 1969 all AC-47 Spooky gunships of D Flight, 3rd Special Operations Squadron were transferred to the RVNAF at the base; the USAF Detachment 12, Thirteenth Air Force had been supporting RVNAF operations at Nha Trang since February 1962 and in May 1962 they were designated the 6223rd Air Base Squadron and on 7 June it was assigned to the 2nd Advanced Echelon.
In September 1962 the 23rd Special Air Warfare Detachment equipped with 6 OV-1 Mohawk reconnaissance aircraft deployed to Nha Trang and began flying visual and photo-reconnaissance in support of RVNAF and Army of the Republic of Vietnam units. In December 1963 Detachment 4, 8th Aerial Port Squadron was formed at the base. In July 1963 the 37th Air Base Squadron replaced the 6223rd Air Base Squadron. On 23 September 1963 3 Viet Cong sappers penetrated the base and destroyed 2 C-47s with satchel charges. From February 1964 3 C-123Bs and 3 air commando C-47s were kept at Nha Trang to support operations of the 5th Special Forces Group which had its headquarters at Nha Trang; these aircraft supported remote Special Forces bases. In December 1964 half of the 310th Troop Carrier Squadron equipped with 7 C-123s were sent to Nha Trang to replace the C-47s. In addition 3 U. S. Army and one Royal Australian Air Force CV-2 Caribous were sent to support the Special Forces. In late November 1965 the 5th Air Commando Squadron equipped with 4 C-47s and 17 U-10 Super Couriers was formed at the base and dispersed to forward operating bases throughout central South Vietnam.
In January 1966 the A-1 equipped 602nd Air Commando Squadron moved to Nha Trang from Bien Hoa Air Base. The RVNAF 2nd Air Division took over the base from the USAF in mid-1970; the 14th Air Commando Wing was activated at Nha Trang on 8 March 1966 and it would be the host unit at the base until 15 October 1969 when it moved to Phan Rang Air Base. The airfield was managed by the 14th Combat Support Group. On its establishment the 14th Wing assumed control of all USAF squadrons at Nha Trang and the 1st Air Commando Squadron and it assumed control of the 20th Helicopter Squadron. In April 1966 the 361st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron equipped with EC-47s was formed at the base. From July-December USAF RED HORSE units carried out 22 major construction/reconstruction projects of maintenance and storages areas, parking ramps, accommodation and drainage took place at the base to accommodate the expanded activity there. Housing on the base was in short supply and the USAF billets were adjacent to an ARVN ammunition dump, relocated north to Nha Trang, many of the new arrivals were forced to live in tents until proper accommodation could be built.
In January 1967 Flight C from the 4th Air Commando Squadron equipped with AC-47 Spooky gunships began operating from the base. On 21 September 1967 the first AC-130A Project Gunship II prototype arrived at Nha Trang for combat evaluation, the evaluation program concluded on 8 December 1967. On 25 October 1967 the 14th Air Commando Squadron was activated at Nha Trang, with 3 AC-47s of A Flight-based there. In late December 1968 the 71st Special Operations Squadron equipped with AC-119G Shadow gunships arrived from Lockbourne Air Force Base and began operations from the base. On 1 June 1969 the 17th Special Operations Squadron equipped with AC-119G gunships was activated at Nha Trang and it replaced the 71st Special Operations Squadron which returned to Bakalar Air Force Base for inactivation. In mid-1969, as part of the process of Vietnamization, USAF units at Nha Trang began to relocate or deactivate and by October 1969 all USAF units had left the base and only 800 USAF personnel remained there to support operations until the hando
Cat Bi International Airport
Cat Bi International Airport is an international airport located in Hai Phong, Vietnam. During the war Cat Bi Air Base was used by French Air Force, units based there included: Group de Chasse 2/22 Languedoc equipped with the F8F Bearcat Bomber Squadron 1/19 Gascogne equipped with the B-26 Invader Bomber Squadron 1/25 Tunisie equipped with the B-26The base was used by French Naval Aviation, units based there included: Flotille 28F equipped with the PB4Y-2 Privateer the air groups of the carriers Arromanches and Bois BelleauOn the night of 6/7 March 1954 the Viet Minh attacked the base destroying 1 B-26 and 6 Morane-Saulnier MS.500 Criquets. During the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the base was used by the CIA-backed Civil Air Transport to fly cargo missions to the besieged French base. Cat Bi-based CAT aircraft flew a total of 682 missions to Điện Biên Phủ between 13 March and 6 May 1954. During the war the base was used by the Vietnam People's Air Force. On 9 January and 10 February 1968 United States jets attacked the base.
In early 1973 US C-130 aircraft flew into Cat Bi to deliver minesweeping equipment as part of Operation End Sweep. Vietnam has announced a new master plan to upgrade the airport with a 3,050-meter second runway, a new terminal, a new apron by 2015; the existing runway will be upgraded. After the expansion, the airport will be capable of serving up to 4–5 million passengers a year; the first phase of the project was completed in May 2016, enabling this airport a capacity of 2 million passengers per year. The new terminal and new runway were opened on 12 May 2016, the airport can serve the Boeing 767, Airbus A350 XWB and similar aircraft. List of airports in Vietnam Cat Bi International Airport became international airport from 00:01 of 11 May 2016. Ready for new international flight to Guangzhou,China at the end of Apr Airport information for VVCI at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. French military images of Cat Bi supporting the Battle of Dien Bien Phu
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use
Boryspil International Airport
Boryspil International Airport is an international airport in Boryspil, 29 km east of Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine. It is the country's largest airport, serving 65% of its passenger air traffic, including all its intercontinental flights and a majority of international flights, it is one of two passenger airports. Boryspil International Airport is a member of Airports Council International. On 22 June 1959, the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR ordered the establishment of regular civil air traffic to the military airfield near Boryspil. On 7 July 1959, the new airport received its first scheduled flight, it was Aeroflot's Tupolev Tu-104 en route from Moscow, carrying 100 passengers and about 1,600 kg of cargo. The first routes served were Moscow -- Leningrad -- Kyiv -- Leningrad. In November 1960, the first permanent air group, consisting of Tu-104 and Antonov An-10 planes, was assigned to the airport; until it had been served only by aircraft based in Moscow and other cities of the Soviet Union.
A new passenger terminal was opened in 1965. That year, an automatic landing assistance system was installed. In 1963, the Ukrainian Territorial Administration of Civil Aviation formed its Boryspil subdivision consisting of the airport and its air group; the air group grew in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1974 it consisted of four fleets of turbojet aircraft, turbofan aircraft and two fleets of turboprop aircraft. Toward the final decades of the Cold War, the Soviet Air Force maintained a presence at Boryspil Airport with 1 VTAP flying Ilyushin Il-76 cargo jets. By the 1980s, Boryspil had begun receiving limited international flights. Additional passenger services and customs/border control groups were established for that purpose. However, ordinary Soviet citizens were not allowed to depart abroad from Kyiv, being restricted to fly only from Moscow airports. In 1993, the Ministry of Transportation of the newly independent Ukraine reorganized the airport into the Boryspil State International Airport and created a local subdivision of Air Ukraine to serve it.
The airport was opened for any flights. The number of air and passenger traffic has been growing since. Early in the 2000s, Boryspil became a hub airport serving destined and transit flights of foreign airlines, its development strategy stresses the hub role since domestic passenger demand is growing insufficiently compared to the possible transit traffic. In 2001, a new runway was completed, the airport carried 1.5 million passengers. It is certified for Category III A ILS approaches. In 2002 Boryspil airport was certified under the ISO 9001 quality management system, it is one of Eastern Europe's largest airports with over 6 million passengers traveling in 2008. It accounted for between 60% and 70% of Ukraine’s air travel demand and, despite a drop of 13% in 2009, it handled 5.8 million passengers, more than it handled in 2007. The airport survived the 2012 European cold wave without major flight cancellations. According to the media and industry experts, in 2013 once underdog in-city Zhulyany Airport has grown into a major, more efficient, competitor to the still-leading Boryspil Airport.
Boryspil International Airport handles most of Ukraine's international traffic. Terminal B, with only eleven gates, two of which were air bridges, was not enough to handle all international flights; this was the reason for the expansion of that terminal, which started in 2005. The first-stage expansion of Terminal B was opened on 27 January 2006. In 2008, passport control within Terminal B Departures was moved further east. There are plans to expand the airport further by building several new terminals; the government has been having meetings with the owners of nearby land, trying to buy more land for expansion. The construction of Terminal D was approved on 28 July 2008 and was completed in 2012 at a cost of UAH 1.661 billion. The terminal will cover an area of 44.9 hectares. Platform M, connected to Terminal B and requires redevelopment, was to be reconstructed in 2009-2010; the reason for the delay in its reconstruction was the fact that Terminal B needs to be operational first. Now that Terminal D has opened, platform M can be reconstructed without having a major impact on traffic.
The construction of Terminal D was completed in 2012, with the terminal opening to passengers on 28 May 2012, increasing passenger handling facilities significantly. As of June, 24th 2016, Terminal A, B, F are out of operation. By 2020, if all plans proceed, the airport should have a capacity of 18 million passengers per year. Boryspil International Airport has one operational passenger terminals, one cargo terminal and a VIP terminal; the overcrowded former domestic Terminal A was closed on 15 September 2011, in favor of transferring all domestic operations to nearby Terminal B. In 2013, all domestic and international operations were transferred from Terminal B to Terminal D. Terminal B, the original Soviet-constructed building, used to serve domestic and international flights, it has undergone an long-term reconstruction. The terminal hosted shops, travel agencies and banks, as well as offices of airlines and a business center; the ground floor features luggage storage, waiting-area, check-in desks, whilst security and passport control, the main departure loun
Cam Ranh is a city in southern Khánh Hòa Province, in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam. It is the second-largest city in the province, after Nha Trang, it is located on Cam Ranh Bay. As of 2009 the city had a population of 121,050. and covers an area of 316 km². Cam Ranh becomes the second city of Khanh Hoa province from December 23, 2010. Cam Ranh International Airport Ba Ngoi Port Du lịch Cam Ranh
The kilometre, or kilometer is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres. It is now the measurement unit used for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world. K is used in some English-speaking countries as an alternative for the word kilometre in colloquial writing and speech. A slang term for the kilometre in the US and UK military is klick. There are two common pronunciations for the word; the former follows a pattern in English whereby metric units are pronounced with the stress on the first syllable and the pronunciation of the actual base unit does not change irrespective of the prefix. It is preferred by the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Many scientists and other users in countries where the metric system is not used, use the pronunciation with stress on the second syllable; the latter pronunciation follows the stress pattern used for the names of measuring instruments. The problem with this reasoning, however, is that the word meter in those usages refers to a measuring device, not a unit of length.
The contrast is more obvious in countries using the British rather than American spelling of the word metre. When Australia introduced the metric system in 1975, the first pronunciation was declared official by the government's Metric Conversion Board. However, the Australian prime minister at the time, Gough Whitlam, insisted that the second pronunciation was the correct one because of the Greek origins of the two parts of the word. By the 8 May 1790 decree, the Constituent assembly ordered the French Academy of Sciences to develop a new measurement system. In August 1793, the French National Convention decreed the metre as the sole length measurement system in the French Republic; the first name of the kilometre was "Millaire". Although the metre was formally defined in 1799, the myriametre was preferred to the "kilometre" for everyday use; the term "myriamètre" appeared a number of times in the text of Develey's book Physique d'Emile: ou, Principes de la science de la nature, while the term kilometre only appeared in an appendix.
French maps published in 1835 had scales showing myriametres and "lieues de Poste". The Dutch gave it the local name of the mijl, it was only in 1867 that the term "kilometer" became the only official unit of measure in the Netherlands to represent 1000 metres. Two German textbooks dated 1842 and 1848 give a snapshot of the use of the kilometre across Europe - the kilometre was in use in the Netherlands and in Italy and the myriametre was in use in France. In 1935, the International Committee for Weights and Measures abolished the prefix "myria-" and with it the "myriametre", leaving the kilometre as the recognised unit of length for measurements of that magnitude. In the United Kingdom, road signs show distances in miles and location marker posts that are used for reference purposes by road engineers and emergency services show distance references in unspecified units which are kilometre-based; the advent of the mobile phone has been instrumental in the British Department for Transport authorising the use of driver location signs to convey the distance reference information of location marker posts to road users should they need to contact the emergency services.
In the US, the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 prohibits the use of federal-aid highway funds to convert existing signs or purchase new signs with metric units. The Executive Director of the US Federal Highway Administration, Jeffrey Paniati, wrote in a 2008 memo: "Section 205 of the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 prohibited us from requiring any State DOT to use the metric system during project development activities. Although the State DOT's had the option of using metric measurements or dual units, all of them abandoned metric measurements and reverted to sole use of inch-pound values." The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices since 2000 is published in both metric and American Customary Units. Some sporting disciplines feature 1000 m races in major events, but in other disciplines though world records are catalogued, the one kilometre event remains a minority event; the world records for various sporting disciplines are: Conversion of units, for comparison with other units of length Cubic metre Metric prefix Mileage Odometer Orders of magnitude Square kilometre Media related to Distance indicators at Wikimedia Commons
AirAsia Berhad is a Malaysian low-cost airline headquartered near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is the largest airline in Malaysia by fleet size and destinations. AirAsia Group operates scheduled domestic and international flights to more than 165 destinations spanning 25 countries, its main hub is klia2, the low-cost carrier terminal at Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Sepang, Malaysia. Its affiliate airlines Thai AirAsia, Indonesia AirAsia, Philippines AirAsia, AirAsia India have hubs in Don Mueang International Airport, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Kempegowda International Airport while its sister airline, AirAsia X, focuses on long-haul routes. AirAsia's registered office is in Petaling Jaya, Selangor while its head office is at Kuala Lumpur International Airport. AirAsia operates with the world's lowest unit cost of US$0.023 per available seat kilometre and a passenger breakeven load factor of 52%. In 2007, The New York Times described the airline as a "pioneer" of low-cost travel in Asia.
AirAsia is the sponsor of Malaysia national football team, Singapore national football team, Jamshedpur FC and Queens Park Rangers. AirAsia is a former sponsor of Manchester United and Asia Red Tour. AirAsia has been named as the world's best low-cost carrier for 10 years in a row in international travel and airline awards, including the latest award for 2018. AirAsia was established in 1993 and began operations on 18 November 1996, it was founded by a government-owned conglomerate, DRB-HICOM. On 2 December 2001, the indebted airline was bought by former Time Warner executive Tony Fernandes' company Tune Air Sdn Bhd for the token sum of one ringgit with US$11 million worth of debts. Fernandes turned the company around, producing a profit in 2002 and launching new routes from its hub in Kuala Lumpur, undercutting former monopoly operator Malaysia Airlines with promotional fares as low as MYR 1. In 2003, AirAsia opened a second hub at Senai International Airport in Johor Bahru near Singapore and launched its first international flight to Bangkok.
AirAsia subsequently started its Thai AirAsia affiliate, began flights to Singapore and Indonesia. Flights to Macau started in June 2004, flights to mainland China and the Philippines in April 2005. Flights to Vietnam and Cambodia followed in 2005 and to Brunei and Myanmar in 2006, the latter by Thai AirAsia. In August 2006, AirAsia took over Malaysia Airlines's Rural Air Service routes in Sabah and Sarawak, operating under the FlyAsianXpress brand; the routes were returned to MASwings a year citing commercial reasons. At the end of 2006, Fernandes unveiled a five-year plan to further enhance AirAsia's presence in Asia. Under the plan, AirAsia proposed enhancing its route network by connecting all of its existing destinations throughout the region and expanding further into Vietnam, Southern China and India. Through its sister companies, Thai AirAsia and Indonesia AirAsia, the plan called for a focus on developing its hub in Bangkok and Jakarta. With increased frequency and the addition of new routes, AirAsia increased passenger volume to 13.9 million in its 2007 fiscal year.
During 2007, passengers from "The Barrier-Free Environment and Accessible Transport Group" protested against the airline over its refusal to fly passengers who were immobile. They claimed. On 27 September 2008, the company announced 106 new routes to be added to its list of 60; the number of old routes discontinued has not been disclosed. In August 2011, AirAsia agreed to form an alliance with Malaysia Airlines by means of a share swap; the alliance was struck down by the Malaysian government, in effect voiding the agreement of both airlines. By early 2013, AirAsia's profits increased by 168% on a year-over-year basis compared to the same period in 2012. For the quarter ending 31 December 2012, the airline's net profit stood at 350.65 million ringgit. Despite a 1% rise in the average fuel price, the airline recorded profits of 1.88 billion ringgit for its full 2012 fiscal year. In February 2013, AirAsia submitted an application to the Indian Foreign Investment Promotion Board, through its investment arm, AirAsia Investment Limited, to seek approval for commencing its operations in India.
AirAsia asked to take a 49% stake in the Indian sister airline, the maximum allowed by the Indian government at that time. AirAsia committed to invest up to US$50 million in the new airline. Operations would begin in Chennai, expanding its network throughout South India, where AirAsia operates flights from Malaysia and Thailand; the head office is the Red Quarters at Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Selangor. The registered office is on level 13 of the Menara Prima Tower B in Petaling Jaya; the airline has moved its head office to a new 613,383 square feet, RM140mil facility constructed at klia2 on 7 November 2016. Until the new head office opened, the airline's head office has remained at LCCT; the new klia2 head office has been scheduled to open in the end of 2015. It is scheduled to hold about 2,000 AirAsia X employees. Aireen Omar, the AirAsia Country CEO of Malaysia, stated that the headquarters needed to be redesigned because in the klia2 plans the location of the control tower had been changed.
Construction on the facility was scheduled to begin in July 2014. Malaysia Airports Holdings is leasing the land. An AirAsia X flight attendant gave the building t